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  • 1.
    Afifi, Mustafa
    et al.
    Department of Non-Communicable Diseases Control, Ministry of Health (HQ), Muscat, Oman.
    von Bothmer, Margareta
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS), Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Egyptian women's attitudes and beliefs about female genital cutting and its association with childhood maltreatment2007Inngår i: Nursing and Health Sciences, ISSN 1441-0745, E-ISSN 1442-2018, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 270-276Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to establish Egyptian women's attitudes and beliefs about female genital cutting (FGC) or mutilation by applying a questionnaire module about violence to a subsample of 5249 married women from a total of 19 474 women who participated in the 2005 Egypt Demographic Health Survey. Women were interviewed to determine if they had been exposed to marital violence in the year prior to the survey, their attitudes and beliefs about FGC, and if they physically abused their children. The association of beliefs about FGC with maternal physical abuse was examined, adjusting for exposure to marital violence and other socio-demographic variables. Of the women surveyed 16.4% and 3.4% had been exposed to physical and sexual violence, respectively, during the year prior to the survey. Around 76% of the women surveyed intended to continue the FGC practice, and 69.8% had slapped or hit their children during the year prior to the survey. Holding positive beliefs about the practice of FGC or intending to continue it was associated with maternal physical abuse and this has significant implications for health and welfare workers in Egypt and for society in general.

  • 2.
    Bothmer, Margareta von
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Studenters hälsovanor – hur ser de ut? Är studenter motiverade att leva hälsosamt?2004Inngår i: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 81, nr 4, s. 319-333Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tvärsnittsstudie av studenters självskattade hälsa i relation till hälsovanor, motivation och personlighetsvariabler.

  • 3.
    Von Bothmer, Margareta
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS).
    Promoting a tobacco-free generation: who is responsible for what?2001Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 10, nr 6, s. 784-792Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate how adolescents, parents and school staff look upon different agents' responsibilities in relation to the goal 'a tobacco-free generation'. This study was part of a larger study and used a descriptive, cross-sectional three-group design with questionnaires as the means of data collection. The sample comprised 216 pupils in grade five (11 years old) and 225 pupils in grade eight (14 years old) in a south-western county in Sweden, 293 of their parents and 119 school staff (headteachers, teachers, school nurses). All respondents agreed that adults should take a clear stand against adolescent tobacco use. The adolescents ranked their parents as the number one source of tobacco information, while pupils, parents, teachers and headmasters ranked school nurses at the bottom rank, The teaching at school focused on risks from tobacco use. The non-smoking norm at school was viewed differently by pupils, parents and school staff. The actions of family, school and society reflect the norms and these do influence adolescent smoking. The conclusion was that the responsibility to promote a tobacco-free generation was viewed differently by the categories involved in this study. The adolescents put the responsibility mainly on parents, while parents put it on the school, and the school staff on special health educators. Both parents and school staff need to recognize their importance in creating a non-smoking culture. To contribute to the creation of a non-smoking generation, school nurses should abandon their passive role in health promotion, as shown in this study, and instead engage in encouraging pupils, parents and teachers to remain or become tobacco-free.

  • 4.
    von Bothmer, Margareta
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI). Department of Primary Health Care, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI). Department of Primary Health Care, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Promoting a tobacco-free generation: Who is responsible for what?2001Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 10, nr 6, s. 784-792Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate how adolescents, parents and school staff look upon different agents' responsibilities in relation to the goal 'a tobacco-free generation'. 

    This study was part of a larger study and used a descriptive, cross-sectional three-group design with questionnaires as the means of data collection. The sample comprised 216 pupils in grade five (11 years old) and 225 pupils in grade eight (14 years old) in a south-western county in Sweden, 293 of their parents and 119 school staff (headteachers, teachers, school nurses). 

    All respondents agreed that adults should take a clear stand against adolescent tobacco use. The adolescents ranked their parents as the number one source of tobacco information, while pupils, parents, teachers and headmasters ranked school nurses at the bottom rank, The teaching at school focused on risks from tobacco use. The non-smoking norm at school was viewed differently by pupils, parents and school staff. The actions of family, school and society reflect the norms and these do influence adolescent smoking. 

    The conclusion was that the responsibility to promote a tobacco-free generation was viewed differently by the categories involved in this study. The adolescents put the responsibility mainly on parents, while parents put it on the school, and the school staff on special health educators. Both parents and school staff need to recognize their importance in creating a non-smoking culture. To contribute to the creation of a non-smoking generation, school nurses should abandon their passive role in health promotion, as shown in this study, and instead engage in encouraging pupils, parents and teachers to remain or become tobacco-free. © 2001 Blackwell Science Ltd.

  • 5.
    von Bothmer, Margareta I. K.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS), Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS), Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Gender differences in health habits and in motivation for a healthy lifestyle among Swedish university students2005Inngår i: Nursing and Health Sciences, ISSN 1441-0745, E-ISSN 1442-2018, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 107-118Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate gender differences in students’ health habits and motivation for a healthy lifestyle. The sample of students comprised a probability systematic stratified sample from each department at a small university in the south-west of Sweden (n = 479). A questionnaire created for this study was used for data collection. Self-rated health was measured by number of health complaints, where good health was defined as having less than three health complaints during the last month. A healthy lifestyle index was computed on habits related to smoking, alcohol consumption, food habits, physical activity and stress. Female students had healthier habits related to alcohol consumption and nutrition but were more stressed. Male students showed a high level of overweight and obesity and were less interested in nutrition advice and health enhancing activities. The gender differences are discussed in relation to the impact of stress on female students’ health, and the risk for male students in having unhealthy nutritional habits in combination with being physically inactive and drinking too much alcohol.

  • 6.
    von Bothmer, Margareta I. K.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI). Department of Primary Health Care, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden & Department of Nursing Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS). Department of Primary Health Care, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden & Department of Nursing Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Self-rated health among university students in relation to sense of coherence and other personality traits2003Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 347-357Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to determine students' self-rated health in relation to sense of coherence and other personality traits. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used with questionnaires as the means of data collection. The study population comprised a randomized stratified sample of students from a small university in southern Sweden. Ethical approval was obtained from the vice chancellor, and the issues of informed consent, confidentiality, privacy and self-determination were respected. Two instruments were used for data collection; the 29-item Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale, and an instrument created for this Study, named Personality and Health Instrument, containing 52 questions. Self-rated health was estimated by inverse number of health complaints. A factor analysis identified seven factors related to personality traits; the three most important were hardiness, positive affect/optimism and Type A personality. The personality trait variables were tested for correlation with each other as well as with self-rated health. The mean score for SOC was similar for female and male students, but a positive association between SOC and self-rated health was found only among women. Optimism was associated with less health complaints among female students. Type A personality was associated with poorer health both among women and men. The personality traits SOC, positive affect/optimism, hardiness and alienation showed high internal correlations. The SOC scale is discussed in relation to gender specificity and in relation to methodological and conceptual confounding. Further research is needed to explore the relation between SOC, optimism, hardiness, hostility and health. The significance of the study is that it raises questions about the validity and specificity of the SOC instrument and provides ideas for future research to develop the sense of coherence concept and instrument.

  • 7.
    von Bothmer, Margareta I. K.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Mattsson, B.
    Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS).
    Influences on adolescent smoking behaviour: siblings' smoking and norms in the social environment do matter2002Inngår i: Health & Social Care in the Community, ISSN 0966-0410, E-ISSN 1365-2524, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 213-220Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of smoking among adolescents has stopped declining in spite of all preventative efforts. There is a need for further knowledge and understanding of why adolescents initiate and continue tobacco use. The aim of the present study was to investigate important facets of adolescents' tobacco use, such as their reasons for smoking, and their smoking patterns in relation to smoking habits in the family and the social environment. This study was part of a larger one that used a descriptive, cross-sectional design with questionnaires to 216 pupils in grade 5 (11 years of age) and 225 pupils in grade 8 (14 years of age) in a south-western county in Sweden. Thirteen per cent of the pupils in grade 8 were regular tobacco users. Smoking habits by relatives, especially siblings, influenced tobacco use by adolescents. An association was found between smoking by adolescents and mother's employment, and between the smoking status of girls and family status. The pupils valued their parents opinions, and wanted parents and other adults to take a clear stand against tobacco. The present study reinforces the importance of norm setting by parents and siblings for adolescents tobacco use. Preventive measures may be more appropriately directed towards those with the highest risks, i.e. pupils with smoking siblings and smoking peers.

  • 8.
    von Bothmer, Margareta
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Rudebeck, Carl-Edvard
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Understanding the meaning of smoking behaviour through the philosophy of Merleau-Ponty2003Inngår i: Theoria : journal of nursing theory, ISSN 1400-8033, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 5-12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to explore the meaning of smoking behaviour by applying the philosophy of Merleau-Ponty. Behaviour is a result of body-mind reacting on its world and is always intentional. The meaning of smoking behaviour is discussed in relation to body and space, formation of body image and identity, and learning of a habit. A habit is entrenched at the bodily level and in order to change the habit, the person has to re-identify herself at the bodily level as well as at the cognitive and emotional levels. It is suggested that the philosophy of Merleau-Ponty could be used in practice and research to improve smoking prevention and cessation strategies.

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