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  • 1.
    Bay, Bjorn
    et al.
    Institute of Odontology, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Weidner, Christian
    Department of Physiology 1, University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
    Sandborgh-Englund, Gunilla
    Institute of Odontology, Karolinska Institutet, P.O. Box 4064, SE-141 04 Huddinge, Sweden.
    Response of human oral mucosa and skin to histamine provocation: laser Doppler perfusion imaging discloses differences in the nociceptive nervous system2009In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 99-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To investigate the existence of histamine-excitable nerve fibers in the oral mucosa and to compare the response to histamine provocation in healthy volunteers with that in a small group of patients with chronic oral pain. Material and methods. Thirteen healthy volunteers and six patients suffering from chronic oral pain took part in the study. Blood perfusion was monitored in the hard palate, the tongue, and the skin of the cheek using laser Doppler perfusion imaging (Perimed; Sweden). Baseline scannings were performed, followed by 15 scannings after iontophoresis of histamine (1%). A free description of the sensations was then obtained from the participants after finishing the measurements. Results. Compared to pre-histamine scanning, histamine application resulted in a considerable increase in blood perfusion in all regions (p0.001) that was significantly higher in skin than in oral mucosa (p0.001). There were no significant differences between the healthy volunteers and the patients regarding baseline blood flow, increased blood perfusion, or flare size after histamine provocation. The sensory impression was reported to be more persistent and intense in the skin than in the oral mucosa. No effect on mucosa could be detected by visual inspection. Conclusions. Intra-oral flare could be induced by activating histamine-excitable nerve fibers. Both duration and intensity of the flare were considerably less pronounced than in the control skin site. Histamine application was not clearly associated with itch.

  • 2.
    Blomgren, Bo
    et al.
    Safety Assessment, Bgn. 681 Gärtuna, AstraZeneca R and D Södertälje, Sodertalje SE 151 85, Sweden; Institution of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Ulrika
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Karolinska Institutet Danderyds Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bohm-Starke, Nina
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Karolinska Institutet Danderyds Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Falconer, Christian
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Karolinska Institutet Danderyds Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    A computerised, unbiased method for epithelial measurement2004In: Micron, ISSN 0968-4328, E-ISSN 1878-4291, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 319-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To develop and evaluate a standardised method for unbiased measurements of epithelial thickness taking the variability of the dermal papillae in consideration.

    Methods

    A computer-assisted measurement program suitable for haematoxylin and eosin routine stained specimens has been developed.

    Results

    The developed program was designed to measure four different distance parameters, taking the number, height and width of dermal papillae into account. The measurement program gave very accurate results compared with manual measurements. The measurement results can be presented as tables or star graphs, and the results can be further processed by multivariate analysis.

    Conclusion

    The computer-assisted measurement program is considered to be a valuable and reliable tool for measurements of epithelial thickness, irrespectively of the variability of the epithelial morphology. Since length, size and number of the papillae may change with certain pathological conditions, age and also under hormonal influence, this method can be a helpful diagnostic tool.

  • 3.
    Bohm-Starke, Nina
    et al.
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Karolinska Institutet Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Ulrika
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Rylander, Eva
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm.
    Torebjörk, Erik
    Dept. of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Uppsala.
    Decreased mechanical pain threshold in the vestibular mucosa of women using oral contraceptives: a contributing factor in vulvar vestibulitis?2004In: Journal of reproductive medicine, ISSN 0024-7758, E-ISSN 1943-3565, Vol. 49, no 11, p. 888-892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:

    To analyze possible differences in somatosensory perception in the vestibular mucosa in healthy women associated with the use of oral contraceptives.

    Study design:

    Quantitative sensory tests were performed on the vestibular mucosa in 39 healthy women. Twenty women were using oral contraceptives containing 30-40 µg ethinyl estradiol combined with various progestins; 19 women with regular menstrual periods not using oral contraceptives served as controls. The testing included mechanical and heat pain thresholds and detection thresholds of warmth and cold in the anterior and posterior part of the vestibule.

    Results:

    Significant lower mechanical pain thresholds were observed in both areas tested in women using oral contraceptives. The most sensitive area was the posterior vestibule in the group using oral contraceptives with a mechanical pain threshold of 72±10 (±SEM) mN as compared to 161±3 mN (p<0.01), in the controls. The result of the thermotest showed no significant differences between the groups.

    Conclusion:

    Oral contraceptives may induce increased sensitivity in the vestibular mucosa in healthy women and might be one contributing factor in the development of vulvar vestibulitis.

  • 4.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Sollerman, Christer
    R & D centre Spenshult Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Nilsdotter, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    6 weeks of hand exercise significantly improved the hand-strength and -function in Rheumatoid Arthritis patients2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Sollerman, Christer
    Department of Hand Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg.
    Nilsdotter, Anna
    R & D Center, Spenshults Hospital of Rheumatic Diseases .
    A six-week hand exercise programme improves strength and hand function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis2009In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 338-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    To evaluate the effects of hand exercise in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and to compare the results with healthy controls.

    METHODS:

    Forty women (20 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 20 healthy controls) performed a hand exercise programme. The results were evaluated after 6 and 12 weeks with hand force measurements (with a finger extension force measurement device (EX-it) and finger flexion force measurement with Grippit). Hand function was evaluated with the Grip Ability Test (GAT) and with patient relevant questionnaires (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) and Short Form-36). Ultrasound measurements were performed on m. extensor digitorum communis for analysis of the muscle response to the exercise programme.

    RESULTS:

    The extension and flexion force improved in both groups after 6 weeks (p < 0.01). Hand function (GAT) also improved in both groups (p < 0.01). The rheumatoid arthritis group showed improvement in the results of the DASH questionnaire (p < 0.05). The cross-sectional area of the extensor digitorum communis increased significantly in both groups measured with ultrasound.

    CONCLUSION:

    A significant improvement in hand force and hand function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis was seen after 6 weeks of hand training; the improvement was even more pronounced after 12 weeks. Hand exercise is thus an effective intervention for rheumatoid arthritis patients, leading to better strength and function.

  • 6.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Nilsdotter, Anna
    R & D centre Spenshult Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Sollerman, Christer
    R & D centre Spenshult Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Oskarström, Sweden & Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Aurell, Ylva
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Halmstad Central Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Ultrasound evaluation in combination with finger extension force measurements of the forearm musculus extensor digitorum communis in healthy subjects2008In: BMC Medical Imaging, ISSN 1471-2342, E-ISSN 1471-2342, Vol. 8, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of an ultrasound-based method of examining extensor muscle architecture, especially the parameters important for force development. This paper presents the combination of two non-invasive methods for studying the extensor muscle architecture using ultrasound simultaneously with finger extension force measurements.

    Methods:

    M. extensor digitorum communis (EDC) was examined in 40 healthy subjects, 20 women and 20 men, aged 35-73 years. Ultrasound measurements were made in a relaxed position of the hand as well as in full contraction. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), pennation angle and contraction patterns were measured with ultrasound, and muscle volume and fascicle length were also estimated. Finger extension force was measured using a newly developed finger force measurement device.

    Results:

    The following muscle parameters were determined: CSA, circumference, thickness, pennation angles and changes in shape of the muscle CSA. The mean EDC volume in men was 28.3 cm3 and in women 16.6 cm3. The mean CSA was 2.54 cm2 for men and 1.84 cm2 for women. The mean pennation angle for men was 6.5° and for women 5.5°. The mean muscle thickness for men was 1.2 cm and for women 0.76 cm. The mean fascicle length for men was 7.3 cm and for women 5.0 cm. Significant differences were found between men and women regarding EDC volume (p < 0.001), CSA (p < 0.001), pennation angle (p < 0.05), muscle thickness (p < 0.001), fascicle length (p < 0.001) and finger force (p < 0.001). Changes in the shape of muscle architecture during contraction were more pronounced in men than women (p < 0.01). The mean finger extension force for men was 96.7 N and for women 39.6 N. Muscle parameters related to the extension force differed between men and women. For men the muscle volume and muscle CSA were related to extension force, while for women muscle thickness was related to the extension force.

    Conclusion:

    Ultrasound is a useful tool for studying muscle architectures in EDC. Muscle parameters of importance for force development were identified. Knowledge concerning the correlation between muscle dynamics and force is of importance for the development of new hand training programmes and rehabilitation after surgery.

    © 2008 Brorsson et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  • 7.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Nilsdotter, Anna
    R & D Center, Spenshult Hospital of Rheumatic Diseases, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Sollerman, Christer
    Department of Hand Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Baerveldt, Albert-Jan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    A new force measurement device for evaluating finger extension function in the healthy and rheumatoid arthritis hand2008In: Technology and Health Care, ISSN 0928-7329, E-ISSN 1878-7401, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 283-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although often neglected, finger extension force is of great importance for developing grip strength. This paper describes the design and evaluation of a new finger extension force measurement device (EX-it) based on the biomechanics of the hand. Measurement accuracy and test-retest reliability were analysed. The device allows measurements on single fingers as well as all the fingers (excluding the thumb) of both healthy and deformed hands. The coefficient of variation in the device was 1.8% of the applied load, and the test-retest reliability showed a coefficient of variation no more than 7.1% for healthy subjects. This study also provides reference values for finger extension force in healthy subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Significant differences were found in extension strength between healthy subject and RA patients (men, p < 0.05 and women, p < 0.001). EX-it provides objective and reliable data on the extension force capacity of normal and dysfunctional hands and can be used to evaluate the outcome of therapeutic interventions after hand trauma or disease

  • 8.
    Johannesson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm.
    Blomgren, Bo
    AstraZeneca, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Rylander, Eva
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm.
    Bohm-Starke, Nina
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm.
    The vulval vestibular mucosa - morphological effects of oral contraceptives and menstrual cycle2007In: British Journal of Dermatology, ISSN 0007-0963, E-ISSN 1365-2133, Vol. 157, no 3, p. 487-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    An erythematous and hypersensitive vestibular mucosa has been observed during the use of combined oral contraceptives (COC). Hormonal effects on the vestibular morphology have not been studied.

    Objectives

    Our aim was to evaluate the morphology of the vulval vestibular mucosa during the influence of COC and during the menstrual cycle.

    Methods

    Forty-five healthy women (20 using COC and 25 not using COC) were included. A 6-mm punch biopsy was obtained from the right posterior vestibule on days 7-11 of the menstrual cycle. A corresponding biopsy was taken 2 weeks later in 16 women without COC. The epithelial morphology was estimated by measuring interdermal papilla distance, dermal papilla to surface, from basal layer to surface and width of dermal papillae. A histopathological assessment was made.

    Results

    The vulval vestibular mucosa of women using COC displayed a larger distance between the dermal papillae (P = 0·04) and a larger space from the dermal papillae to the epithelial surface (P = 0·03) compared with controls in the follicular phase. Women without COC displayed a larger interdermal papilla distance in the luteal phase compared with the follicular phase, P = 0·02. Histopathology showed more superficial blood vessels in the COC users (P < 0·01).

    Conclusions

    The vulval vestibular mucosa of women with COC display an altered morphological pattern with shallow and sparse dermal papillae compared with the follicular phase. Similar findings are seen in women without COC during the luteal phase which indicate a gestagenic effect on the mucosa. Associations between the morphological pattern and changes in mucosal mechanical sensitivity require further studies.

  • 9.
    Johannesson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm.
    Sahlin, Lena
    Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Masironi, Britt
    Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Blomgren, Bo
    AstraZeneca Safety Assessment, Södertälje.
    Rylander, Eva
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm.
    Bohm-Starke, Nina
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm.
    Steroid receptor expression and morphology in provoked vestibulodynia2008In: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0002-9378, E-ISSN 1097-6868, Vol. 198, no 3, p. 311.e1-311.e6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study was undertaken to survey the steroid receptor expression and morphology in the vulvar vestibular mucosa in women with provoked vestibulodynia.

    Study Design: Fourteen patients and 25 controls without oral contraceptives were included. Vestibular biopsy specimens were obtained and analyzed by using immunohistochemistry, followed by computerized image analysis of estrogen receptors greek small letter alpha and β, progesterone receptors A and B, glucocorticoid receptor, androgen receptor, and the proliferation marker Ki67. The morphology was estimated by measuring 4 parameters in the epithelium.

    Results: There was a significantly higher expression of estrogen receptor greek small letter alpha in both the epithelium (P = .04) and the stroma (P = .02) in the patient specimens compared with the controls. There were no significant differences in the other analyses performed.

    Conclusion: There is an increased expression of estrogen receptor greek small letter alpha in the vestibular mucosa but the epithelial morphology seems unaffected in women with provoked vestibulodynia. Further studies regarding plausible associations to neurogenic inflammation are needed.

  • 10.
    Lundgren, Lina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS). Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sport performance and perceived musculoskeletal stress, pain and discomfort in kitesurfing2011In: International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, ISSN 1474-8185, E-ISSN 1474-8185, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 142-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to obtain an overview of the specific movement patterns in kitesurfing, and the participants' perceptions of musculoskeletal stress, pain and discomfort. Task analysis and survey studies were used to provide an overview of the sport, and to identify problematic issues associated with the performance of the tasks. Three different methods were complimentary used for data collection: observations (n=8), a web questionnaire (n=206) and interviews (n=17). Participants were contacted through kitesurfing events and online forums. Their ages ranged from 16-62 years. The results showed that participants experienced high musculoskeletal stress for short times during a session (jumps, tricks and strong winds), and lower, static musculoskeletal stress over a longer time (crossing). High stress was most frequently perceived in abdominal muscles. Knees and feet were the sites most frequently experienced as painful, followed by the shoulders and elbows. This study provides additional information on the performance of kitesurfing and perceived musculoskeletal stress, pain and discomfort. The results can be used as input data to develop training methods and equipment for safe and comfortable performance. © 2017, Routledge. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Lundgren, Lina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Olandersson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), PRODEA: Centrum för produktframtagning inom hälsoteknik.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), PRODEA: Centrum för produktframtagning inom hälsoteknik.
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Department of Product- and Production Development, Division of Design Chalmers University of Technology.
    Biomechanics of extreme sports - a kite surfing scenario2007In: NES2007 Abstracts / [ed] Cecilia Berlin & Lars-Ola Bligård, Nordic Ergonomics Society , 2007, p. s.169-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do extreme sports contribute to higher biomechanical stress compared to other sports? Kite surfing is one of the upcoming popular extreme sports,where very few have studied the mechanical forces that act on the body. There are several factors that contribute to mechanical stress. For preventing injuries, it is of high interest to investigate how these forces affect the body and how the equipment can be further developed to prepare the athletes for making the sport as safe as possible. This project will study injury prevalence, motion analysis and mapping of forces and pressure during kite surfing. The outcome will be a better understanding of biomechanics of kite surfing and a construction for testing and training as well as ergonomic design ideas for the equipment.

  • 12.
    Namer, Barbara
    et al.
    University of Erlangen, Nürnberg, Germany.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Ørstavik, Kristin
    Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Schmidt, Roland
    University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Weidner, Christian
    University of Erlangen, Nürnberg, Germany.
    Torebjörk, Erik
    University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Handwerker, Hermann
    University of Erlangen, Nürnberg, Germany.
    Schmelz, Martin
    University Heidelberg, Germany.
    Endothelin1 activates and sensitizes human C-nociceptors2007In: Pain, ISSN 0304-3959, E-ISSN 1872-6623, Vol. 137, no 1, p. 41-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microneurography was used to record action potentials from afferent C-fibers in cutaneous fascicles of the peroneal nerve in healthy volunteers. Afferent fibers were classified according to their mechanical responsiveness to von Frey stimulation (75 g) into mechano-responsive and mechano-insensitive nociceptors. Various concentrations of Endothelin1 (ET1) and Histamine were injected into the receptive fields of C-fibers. Activation and heat sensitization were monitored. Axon reflex flare and psychophysical ratings were assessed after injection of ET1 and codeine into the forearms after pre-treatment with an H1 blocker or sodium chloride. 65% of mechanosensitive nociceptors were activated by ET1. One-third showed long lasting responses (>15 min). In contrast, none of thirteen mechano-insensitive fibers were activated. Sensitization to heat was observed in 62% of mechanosensitive and in 46% of mechano-insensitive fibers. Injection of ET1 produced a widespread axon reflex flare, which was suppressed by pre-treatment with an H1 receptor blocker. In addition, pain sensations were induced more often than itching by ET1 in contrast to codeine. No wheal was observed after injection of ET1. Both itching and pain were decreased after H1 blocker treatment. In summary: (1) In humans ET1 activates mechanosensitive, but not mechano-insensitive, nociceptors. (2) Histamine released from mast cells is not responsible for all effects of ET1 on C-nociceptors. (3) ET1 could have a differential role in pain compared to other chemical algogens which activate additionally or even predominantly mechano-insensitive fibers.

  • 13.
    Olandersson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Lundqvist, Helene
    Bengtsson, Martin
    Lundahl, Magnus
    Baerveldt, Albert-Jan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Finger-force measurement-device for hand rehabilitation2005In: 2005 IEEE 9th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: Chicago, IL, 28 June - 1 July 2005, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2005, p. 135-138Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to develop an extension finger-force measurement device, and investigate the intra-individual repeatability. The design of the measuring device allows single finger force and whole hand measurements, and the repeatability error on extension finger forces was measured, both on the whole hand, as well as on individual fingers. The tests showed that a repeatability error of less then 15 % can be achieved for single finger measurements and less then 21 % for whole hand measurements.

  • 14.
    Sand, Lars
    et al.
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Dept. of Basic Oral Sciences Unit, Odontology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, P.A.
    Department of Surgery, Angelholm Hospital, Sweden.
    Wallström, M.
    Dept. of Oral/Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Odontology, Goteborg University, Sweden.
    Hirsch, J.M.
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden.
    Effects of long-term administration of cancer-promoting substances on oral subepithelial mast cells in the rat2002In: Anticancer Research, ISSN 0250-7005, E-ISSN 1791-7530, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 2623-2627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of oral subepithelial mast cells in the defence against tumours is a matter of controversy. The effect of established and suggested carcinogens, such as the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO) and Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), in combination with oral snuff on lower lip subepithelial mast cells (MC) was studied in rats. The rats were exposed to prolonged use of oral snuff. The test substances were administered in a surgically created canal in the lower lip of the rats. There were 15 rats in each test group and 10 rats in the control group. The amount of countable subepithelial mast cells decreased significantly when the rat oral mucosa was exposed to the oral carcinogen 4-NQO but the effect of oral snuff and HSV-1 infection was weak. Our findings suggest that mast cells play a role in immunological cell defence against chemical carcinogens. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms.

  • 15.
    Schmelz, M.
    et al.
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Medicine Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Physiology and Experimental Pathophysiology, University of Erlangen, Germany.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Department of Basic Oral Sciences , Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schmidt, R.
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ørstavik, K.
    Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Rikshospitalet, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Vahlquist, C.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Uppsala, Sweden.
    Weidner, C.
    Department of Physiology and Experimental Pathophysiology, University of Erlangen, Germany.
    Handwerker, Hermann Otto
    Department of Physiology and Experimental Pathophysiology, University of Erlangen, Germany.
    Torebjörk, H. E.
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Uppsala, Sweden.
    Active "itch fibers" in chronic pruritus2003In: Neurology, ISSN 0028-3878, E-ISSN 1526-632X, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 564-566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An itch-specific neuronal pathway was recently discovered in healthy humans and animals. Here the authors report that activity in this specific pathway coincides with itch under pathophysiologic conditions in a patient with chronic pruritus. Microneurographic recordings from the symptomatic area revealed spontaneous activity in six single C-fiber afferents that had the characteristic features of "itch fibers." Itch may be caused by activity in a specific subpopulation of C-fiber afferents.

  • 16.
    Schmelz, M.
    et al.
    Department of Physiology and Experimental Pathophysiology, University of Erlangen/Nuremberg, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany; Department of Anesthesiology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, 61087 Mannheim, Germany.
    Schmidt, R.
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Uppsala, S-75185 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Weidner, C.
    Department of Physiology and Experimental Pathophysiology, University of Erlangen/Nuremberg, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Department of Basic Oral Sciences, Karolinska Institute, S-14104 Huddinge, Sweden.
    Torebjörk, H. E.
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Uppsala, S-75185 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Handwerker, Hermann Otto
    Department of Physiology and Experimental Pathophysiology, University of Erlangen/Nuremberg, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany.
    Chemical response pattern of different classes of C-nociceptors to pruritogens and algogens2003In: Journal of Neurophysiology, ISSN 0022-3077, E-ISSN 1522-1598, Vol. 89, no 5, p. 2441-2448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vasoneuroactive substances were applied through intradermal microdialysis membranes and characterized as itch- or pain-inducing in psychophysical experiments. Histamine always provoked itching and rarely pain, capsaicin always pain but never itching. Prostaglandin E[2] (PGE[2]) led preferentially to moderate itching. Serotonin, acetylcholine, and bradykinin induced pain more often than itching. Subsequently the same substances were used in microneurography experiments to characterize the sensitivity profile of human cutaneous C-nociceptors. The responses of 89 mechanoresponsive (CMH, polymodal nociceptors), 52 mechanoinsensitive, histamine-negative (CMi[H][i][s][-]), and 24 mechanoinsensitive, histamine-positive (CMi[H][i][s][+]) units were compared. CMi[H][i][s][+] units were most responsive to histamine and to PGE[2] and less to serotonin, ACh, bradykinin, and capsaicin. CMH units (polymodal nociceptors) and CMi[H][i][s] units showed significantly weaker responses to histamine, PGE[2], and acetylcholine. Capsaicin and bradykinin responses were not significantly different in the two classes of mechano-insensitive units. We conclude that CMi[H][i][s][+]units are "selective," but not "specific" for pruritogenic substances and that the pruritic potency of a mediator increases with its ability to activate CMi[H][i][s][+] units but decreases with activation of CMH and CMi[H][i][s] units.

  • 17.
    Weidner, Christian
    et al.
    Department of Physiology and Experimental Pathophysiology, University of Erlangen/Nu ̈ rnberg, 91054 Erlangen, Germany.
    Schmelz, Martin
    Department of Physiology and Experimental Pathophysiology, University of Erlangen/Nu ̈ rnberg, 91054 Erlangen, Germany.
    Schmidt, Roland
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Uppsala, 75185 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Uppsala, 75185 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ørstavik, Kristin
    Department of Neurology, Ullevål Hospital, 0407 Oslo, Norway.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Department of Basic Oral Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, 14104 Huddinge, Sweden.
    Torebjörk, H. Erik
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Uppsala, 75185 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Handwerker, Herman O.
    Department of Physiology and Experimental Pathophysiology, University of Erlangen/Nu ̈ rnberg, 91054 Erlangen, Germany.
    Neural Signal Processing: The Underestimated Contribution of Peripheral Human C-Fibers2002In: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 22, no 15, p. 6704-6712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The microneurography technique was used to analyze use-dependent frequency modulation of action potential (AP) trains in human nociceptive peripheral nerves. Fifty-one single C-afferent units (31 mechano-responsive, 20 mechano-insensitive) were recorded from cutaneous fascicles of the peroneal nerve in awake human subjects. Trains of two and four suprathreshold electrical stimuli at interstimulus intervals of 20 and 50 msec were applied to the receptive fields of single identified nociceptive units at varying repetition rates. The output frequency (interspike interval) recorded at knee level was compared with the input frequency (interstimulus interval) at different levels of accumulated neural accommodation.

    At low levels of use-dependent accommodation (measured as conduction velocity slowing of the first action potential in a train), intervals between spikes increased during conduction along the nerve. At increasing levels of neural accommodation, intervals decreased because of a relative supernormal period (SNP) and asymptotically approached the minimum "entrainment" interval of the nerve fiber (11 ± 1.4 msec) corresponding to a maximum instantaneous discharge frequency (up to 190 Hz).

    For neural coding, this pattern of frequency decrease at low activity levels and frequency increase at high levels serves as a mechanism of peripheral contrast enhancement. The entrainment interval is a good minimum estimate for the duration of the refractory period of human C-fibers.

    At a given degree of neural accommodation, all afferent C-units exhibit a uniform pattern of aftereffects, independent of fiber class. The receptive class of a fiber only determines its susceptibility to accommodate. Thus, the time course of aftereffects and existence or absence of an SNP is fully explained by the amount of preexisting accommodation.

  • 18.
    Ørstavik, Kristin
    et al.
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo.
    Namer, Barbara
    Department of Physiology and Experimental Pathophysiology, University of Erlangen/Nürnberg.
    Schmidt, Roland
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schmelz, Martin
    Department of Anesthesiology Mannheim, University Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany,.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Weidner, Christian
    Department of Physiology and Experimental Pathophysiology, University of Erlangen/Nürnberg.
    Carr, Richard W.
    Department of Physiology and Experimental Pathophysiology, University of Erlangen/Nürnberg.
    Handwerker, Hermann
    Department of Physiology and Experimental Pathophysiology, University of Erlangen/Nürnberg.
    Jørum, Ellen
    Laboratory of Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Neurology, Rikshospitalet-Radiumhospitalet Medical Center, Oslo, Norway.
    Torebjörk, H. Erik
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Abnormal Function of C-Fibers in Patients with Diabetic Neuropathy2006In: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 26, no 44, p. 11287-11294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanisms underlying the development of painful and nonpainful neuropathy associated with diabetes mellitus are unclear. We have obtained microneurographic recordings from unmyelinated fibers in eight patients with diabetes mellitus, five with painful neuropathy, and three with neuropathy without pain. All eight patients had large-fiber neuropathy, and seven patients had pathological thermal thresholds in their feet, indicating the involvement of small-caliber nerve fibers. A total of 163 C-fibers were recorded at knee level from the common peroneal nerve in the patients (36–67 years old), and these were compared with 77 C-fibers from healthy controls (41–64 years old). The ratio of mechano-responsive to mechano-insensitive nociceptors was ~2:1 in the healthy controls, whereas in the patients, it was 1:2. In patients, a fairly large percentage of characterized fibers (12.5% in nonpainful and 18.9% in painful neuropathy) resembled mechano-responsive nociceptors that had lost their mechanical and heat responsiveness. Such fibers were rarely encountered in age-matched controls (3.2%). Afferent fibers with spontaneous activity or mechanical sensitization were found in both patient groups. We conclude that small-fiber neuropathy in diabetes affects receptive properties of nociceptors that leads to an impairment of mechano-responsive nociceptors. Copyright © 2006 Society for Neuroscience

  • 19.
    Ørstavik, Kristin
    et al.
    Department of Neurology, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Weidner, Christian
    Department of Physiology, University of Erlangen/Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany; Universitat Erlangen/Nurnberg, Inst. Physiol./Exp. Pathophysiol., Erlangen, Germany.
    Schmidt, Roland
    Dept. of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schmelz, Martin
    Department of Physiology, University of Erlangen/Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
    Hilliges, Marita
    Department of Basic Oral Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Jørum, Ellen
    Department of Neurology, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Handwerker, Herman
    Department of Physiology, University of Erlangen/Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
    Torebjörk, Erik
    Dept. of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pathological C-fibres in patients with a chronic painful condition2003In: Brain, ISSN 0006-8950, E-ISSN 1460-2156, Vol. 126, no 3, p. 567-578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the contribution of C-afferent fibres to chronic painful conditions in humans. We sought to investigate the role of C-fibres in the pathophysiology of pain and hyperalgesia in erythromelalgia as a model disease for chronic pain. Erythromelalgia is a condition characterized by painful, red and hot extremities, and patients often report tenderness on walking. We made microneurographic recordings from single C-fibres in cutaneous fascicles of the peroneal nerve in patients suffering from this disease. All patients had had a pain attack recently and psychophysical signs of allodynia and punctate hyperalgesia were found. We obtained recordings from a total of 103 C-fibres and found significantly lower conduction velocities and increased activity-dependent slowing of the conduction velocity of afferent C-fibres in the patients compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, several units with biophysical properties of mechano-insensitive fibres were pathological, being spontaneously active or sensitized to mechanical stimuli. Since these fibres also mediate the axon reflex flare, their hyperexcitability might account not only for ongoing pain and tenderness but also for redness and warming in this pain syndrome. The changes in conductive properties found in the C-fibres of these patients could be the first signs of a small-fibre neuropathy. This is the first systematic study of single C-fibres in patients and it shows an active contribution of mechano-insensitive fibres to chronic pain.

1 - 19 of 19
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