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  • 1.
    Johansson, Gunvi
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Department of Behavioral and Community Dentistry Institute of Odontology Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    On Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in Swedish Young Adults2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Young adults in Sweden have grown up with dental care free of charge until the age of twenty. Their self-perceived oral health has been reported as being good, but rapid changes in society have led to a weaker economic situation for many young adults, which may influence their dental attendance and priorities concerning oral health and oral health care. The overall aim of this thesis was to explore the views of young adults on dental care, oral health and Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL).

    The thesis is based on four scientific papers which all apply a qualitative approach. In Paper I, the views of young adults on dental care were explored. Paper II investigated the views of young adults on their oral health and OHRQoL. In Paper III, measures of OHRQoL were described and analysed from a public health perspective, and in Paper IV, the views of young adults on the relevance of three measures of OHRQoL were explored. In Paper I, II, and IV, data collection was performed through qualitative interviews. The selection of informants was strategic with reference to age (21-29 years), sex and education. For Paper III, a literature search for OHRQoL measures was made in the PubMed database. The data in Paper I was analysed in accordance with the constant comparative method (inspired by Grounded Theory), and in Papers II, III and IV, qualitative content analysis was used.

    The results showed that young adults were satisfied with the dental care that they had received but reported specific views and demands on dental care (Paper I). They perceived their oral health as good, but an array of oral health problems was described (Paper II). The young adults’ perceived control of their OHRQoL depended on their future prospects of oral health, in relation to their perceptions of their past and present oral health. In Paper III, the search for measures of OHRQoL in the PubMed database generated 22 measures. The measures were analysed with regard to their theoretical framework and in relation to four principles of health promotion. Some elements of public health principles were found in all the measures, but most of them originated in disease-oriented theories. The occurrence of oral problems was reflected in young adults’ views on the measures of OHRQoL (Paper IV). The analysed measures were deemed to have both advantages and disadvantages but to be fairly equal.

    The conclusions are that young adults’ OHRQoL was dependent on their earlier experiences of dental care and their former and present oral health, as well as their future prospects regarding oral health. Elements of public health principles were present to a varying degree in all the measures of OHRQoL. Young adults regarded the frequently used measures of OHRQoL as being equal. The measures were mainly disease-oriented and no specific measures had been developed for young adults.

  • 2.
    Johansson, Gunvi
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Oral health-related quality of life and young adults2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims were to describe and analyse measures for oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) from a Public Health perspective and to determine young adults' views on dental care. The methods used included one literature review (Paper I) and one empirical study with qualitative design (Paper II). In Paper I, twenty-two measures for oral healthrelated quality of life (OHRQOL) were analysed from a public health perspective as to the mirroring of the health promotion principles empowerment, participation, holism and equity. In Paper II, regular dental attenders in Sweden aged 21-30 were interviewed about their views on dental care. Data from eleven interviews were analysed in accordance with the constant comparative method. The results in Paper I showed, that elements of the public health principles were found in the OHRQOL measures. There were measures developed for different ages but no measures were specifically adapted to young adults. In Paper II, two principal views in young adults’ views on dental care were discerned: patients’ attitudes to dental care costs and attitudes to given functions within dental care. Dental care costs, as well as the patients’ views on the treatment, however not expressed to the dental staff, were deemed important. Young adults were found to have specific views and demands on received dental care that was not mirrored in the instruments. An urgent task would therefore be to explore young adults’needs and expectations regarding their OHRQOL and dental care.

  • 3.
    Johansson, Gunvi
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Young adults' views on dental care: a qualitative analysis1996In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 197-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to determine young adults' views on dental care. The gathered data were gleaned from interviews and analysed in accordance with comparative method. It was possible to discern the views from two perspectives: the patients' opinions regarding costs in relation to given functions within dental care, and the attitudes to given functions in dental care per se. Costs for information and service were deemed questionable, whereas the costs for examination and treatment were accepted. The patients' stance was active with respect to information and treatment, whereas a greater degree of passivity prevailed within the areas of examination and service. According to this report, maintaining cheap dental care rates was deemed important. The patients questioned having to pay for information perceived as irrelevant to dental care. They expressed a hidden wish to assume an active role while being given more information, and to exercise greater influence with reference to own dental care, but were not in the habit of stating their views to dental staff. Thus, continuous patient satisfaction studies are vital in order to meet this group's needs. One suggestion for further research is to study how young adults regard dental care based on the theory presented.

  • 4.
    Johansson, Gunvi
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Department of Oral Public Health, Centre for Oral Health Sciences, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Wärnberg Gerdin, Elisabeth
    Centre for Public Health Sciences, Östergötland County Council, Linköping, Sweden.
    Halling, Arne
    Department of Health Sciences, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Axtelius, Björn
    Department of Oral Public Health, Centre for Oral Health Sciences, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Ostberg, Anna-Lena
    Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, University of Karlstad, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Measuring oral health from a public health perspective2008In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 125-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aims to analyse measures of oral health-related quality of life (OHQOL) from a Public Health perspective. Twenty-two measures were analysed conceptually as to their mirroring of the Public Health principles: empowerment, participation, holism and equity. Elements of empowerment were found in connection with application of the measures. Participation was found in using lay opinions during development in 12 measures. All measures analysed had elements of a holistic approach so far that they were not wholly biological. Two measures captured positive health effects. Measures were available for all ages, various languages and populations, an element of equity. No measure was wholly compatible with Public Health. They were based on a utilitarian theory not in full accordance with modern health promotion. There is a need to develop measures that more obviously capture the positive aspects of health and health as a process, as well as the personal perspective of oral health.

  • 5.
    Johansson, Gunvi
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity. Department of Periodontology and Oral Public Health, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Department of Periodontology and Oral Public Health, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Östberg, Anna-Lena
    Deparment of Behavioural and Community Dentistry, Institution of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Public Dental Service, Region Västra Götaland, Borås, Sweden.
    Young adults' views on the relevance of three measures for oral health-related quality of life2015In: International Journal of Dental Hygiene, ISSN 1601-5029, E-ISSN 1601-5037, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 184-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The aim of this study was to explore the views of young adults on the relevance of three measures of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL).

    Methods

    Sixteen young adults aged 21–29 years were interviewed. The selection was strategic with reference to age (21–25 years.; 26–30 years), sex and education (university degree; upper secondary school). The interview guide covered areas on the content and construction of the measures: The Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP), the Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (OIDP) and the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life UK (OHRQoL-UK). The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results

    A theme expressing the latent content was formulated during the data analysis: ‘young adults' own experiences were reflected in their views on the OHRQoL measures’; that is, the experiences of young adults of own oral problems and aspects that were found to be especially important for their age group influenced their view on the measures. The self-reported ability to understand and answer the questions varied and the perceived advantages and disadvantages were almost equally distributed among the three measures.

    Conclusions

    The OHIP, OIDP and OHRQoL-UK were evaluated as being equal by the young adults in this study, with regard both to their pros and cons. The clarity of the measures was regarded as the most important factor, while the length and assessment period were less significant.

    © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  • 6.
    Johansson, Gunvi
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Odontologiska fakulteten, Malmö högskola, Sverige.
    Östberg, Anna-Lena
    Göteborgs universitet, Sverige.
    Young Swedish adults' views on measures of oral health related quality of life2011In: Abstract book: European Association of Dental Public Health, 16th annual meeting, Rome, 22-24 September 2011 / [ed] Andrea Salvati, Roma: CIC Edizioni internazionali , 2011, Vol. 2, p. 33-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe Swedish young adults’ views on three measures of OHRQOL.

    Background: Many measures have been developed to estimate the impact of oral health on quality of life (OHRQOL). However no measure has been especially developed för young adults. This study describes how young adults consider the appropriateness of three available validated and translated measures of OHRQOL.

    Methods: The study had a qualitative approach. Sixteen informants (eight woman and eight men) aged 21-29 years were interviewed during 2010-2011 about their views on the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP), the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life-UK (OHRQoL-UK) and the Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (OIDP). The sampling of informants was strategic with reference to age (21-25 yrs, 26-29 yrs), education (compulsory school vs more). Two of the measures were sent to the informants two weeks before the day for the interview, and they were asked to fill in and bring them to the interview. The third measure (OIDP) was presented and the informants answered it orally in connection with the interview. Data was collected by thematic, open-ended interviews. The data analysis was performed by manifest and latent content analysis. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Lund University, Lund, Sweden (Dnr 209/124).

    Results: The informants considered the measures to contain relevant and important aspects concerning the oral health related quality of life in young adults. The questionnaires were not to time-consuming to fill in. Furthermore, the young adults were most concerned about their oral health and especially the aesthetics.

    Conclusions: The content in the analysed measures was deemed relevant to the informants but highlighting aspects important to the agegroup would be useful for research and in clinical praxis.

    Acknowledgements: The study was supported by Malmö University, Malmö and Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.

  • 7.
    Johansson, Gunvi
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity. Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Östberg, Anna-Lena
    Public Dental Service, Region Västra Götaland, Borås, Sweden.
    Oral health-related quality of life in Swedish young adults2015In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 10, article id 27125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The living conditions of young adults in Sweden have changed during the last decades due to the economic and employment situation in society. Although oral health is mainly considered to be good in this age group, their use of dental care has decreased and their priorities and opportunities regarding oral health are little known. The purpose of this study was to describe the views of Swedish young adults on their oral health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). The design of the study was qualitative, using content analysis. Sixteen young adults, aged 21-29 years, were interviewed. The findings from the interviews were summarized under the theme "Young adults reflected on their OHRQoL in a time perspective" consisting of three categories: "Past experiences, Present situation, and Future prospects." The OHRQoL of young adults is dependent not only on their own experiences of oral health during childhood and their received dental care but also on their present self-perceived oral health, oral health habits, and social life; together with their expectations of future oral health. The findings in this study indicate that the oral health awareness and needs of young adults, as well as their expectations of oral care, merit further follow-up. © 2015 G. Johansson & A.-L. Östberg.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Gunvi
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity. Department of Behavioural and Community Dentistry, Institution of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Östberg, Anna-Lena
    Department of Behavioural and Community Dentistry, Institution of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Public Dental Service, Region Västra Götaland, Borås, Sweden.
    Oral health-related quality of life in Swedish young adultsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The living conditions of young adults in Sweden have changed during the last decades, due to the economic and employment situation in society. Although oral health is mainly considered to be good in this age group, their use of dental care has decreased and their priorities and opportunities regarding oral health are little known. The purpose of this study was to describe and explore the views of Swedish young adults on their oral health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). The design of the study was qualitative, using content analysis. Sixteen young adults, aged 21 to 29 years, were interviewed. The findings from the interviews were summarized under the theme “The perceived control of OHRQOL of young adults is dependent on their future prospects of oral health, in relation to their perceptions of past and present own oral health,” consisting of three categories: Past experience, Present situation and Future prospects. The OHRQoL of young adults is dependent on their experiences of own oral health during childhood and their received dental care, but also on their present self-perceived oral health, oral health habits and social life together with their expectations of future oral health. The findings in the study indicate that the oral health awareness and needs of young adults, as well as their expectations of oral care, merit further follow-up.

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