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  • 1.
    Danilovic, Mike
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2). Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Halila, Fawzi
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Lihua Liu, Jasmine
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2). Shanghai Dianji University, School of Business, Shanghai, China.
    Business Model Innovation for the Internationalization of Chinese Wind Power Industry2014In: Global Business Model Innovation: An International Conference, Shanghai: Shanghai Dianji University , 2014, p. 48-73Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy consumption, pollutions and sustainable approaches to energy is one of the most important issues today. The transformation of energy from old to renewable has been in focus for many years and wind power energy production is one important source of energy that is renewable. With the rise of emerging economy (EEs) as main engine of global growth, the intensified competition in the wind energy industry and internationalization to EEs, enterprises need to rethink and innovate their business models in order to succeed in innovative technologies and commercializing their innovative technologies to customers. The overall purpose of this article is to explore the drivers of business model innovation (BMI) in emerging-country multinational enterprises (EMNEs) in the context of an EE markets particularly Chinese wind energy industry and with special focus on inclusive business activities in Africa. For this purpose a single case study of Goldwind (China), one of the most important actors in the wind power industry, was applied. The results of this research show that to gain a competitive advantage in EEs requires capabilities to deal with the specific EEs related drivers of change: 1) fast growth and high demand combined with high uncertainty; 2) lower level of market-oriented socioeconomic development; 3) stronger governmental influence on the market; and 4) the need for simple, cheap and easy to maintain technologies. Therefore, it is important that managers position their enterprises in the EEs first as local players and only then as multinationals. Our research identifies a symbiotic business model in which industry and political actors on national, province and city level collaborate intensively for mutual benefits and for commercializing wind power technology. Our study indicates that future research should focus on the main elements and the drivers of change that would shape BMI by adding new variables, specifically related to EE.

  • 2.
    Danilovic, Mike
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2). Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Lind, Carl
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Liu, Lihua
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Business Model Innovation for Internationalization: The Case of the Chinese Wind Turbine Manufacturer Envision2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Envision Energy is an emerging energy solution provider from China which entered the wind power market in 2007. Envision became the 3th biggest turbine manufacturer in China and the 9th largest in the world in 2015. Thus, the purpose of our research is to explore the underlying factors to Envision’s successful business model for internationalization. This qualitative research is based on interviews with key personnel at Envision. Our analysis has identified four major elements of their business model for internationalization that are crucial in the success of Envision. Those four are grouped on two major clusters:Upfront elements representing the face of the Envision to market and customers:

    1. Market positioning by the clear positioning of Envision on the market areas left open by the lack of understanding of the market logic by competitors.

    2. Customer orientation by clear focus on identified customer needs and desire for quality products also here left aside by competitors.

    Backend elements representing the value creation and value deliverance elements:

    3. Human resources as the key element through interaction with customers, creating bond and relations with customers and delivering promised values to customers and delivering.

    4. Supply chain by the capacity of Envision to utilize the entire supply chain to create and deliver high quality products synchronized with Envision’s offerings to customers and customer’s expectations.

    Our research shows that Envision represents a new kind of high-tech Chinese company which works systematically to develop new business models that can enable high growth and high level of internationalization that goes beyond the capacity of technology, products as tradition goes.

  • 3.
    Danilovic, Mike
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Lind, Carl
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Liu, Lihua
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Business Model Innovation for Internationalization: The Case Of The Chinese Wind Turbine Manufacturer Envision2016In: Asia Pacific Journal of Advanced Business and Social Studies, ISSN 2205-6033, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 57-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Envision Energy is an emerging energy solution provider from China which entered the wind power market in 2007. Envision became the 3th biggest turbine manufacturer in China and the 9th largest in the world in 2015. Thus, the purpose of our research is to explore the underlying factors to Envision’s successful business model for internationalization. This qualitative research is based on interviews with key personnel at Envision. Our analysis has identified four major elements of their business model for internationalization that are crucial in the success of Envision. Those four are grouped on two major clusters:Upfront elements representing the face of the Envision to market and customers:

    1. Market positioning by the clear positioning of Envision on the market areas left open by the lack of understanding of the market logic by competitors.

    2. Customer orientation by clear focus on identified customer needs and desire for quality products also here left aside by competitors.Backend elements representing the value creation and value deliverance elements:

    3. Human resources as the key element through interaction with customers, creating bond and relations with customers and delivering promised values to customers and delivering.

    4. Supply chain by the capacity of Envision to utilize the entire supply chain to create and deliver high quality products synchronized with Envision’sofferings to customers and customer’s expectations.

    Our research shows that Envision represents a new kind of high-tech Chinese company which works systematically to develop new business models that can enable high growth and high level of internationalization that goes beyond the capacity of technology, products as tradition goes.

  • 4.
    Liu, Lihua
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI). Business School, Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Ride The Wind: Symbiotic Business Model Innovation for the Chinese Wind Power Industry2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    China has become one of the world’s leading countries in renewable energy, particularly in wind power. Goldwind Science and Technology has become not only the largest wind turbine manufacturer in China, but also one of the largest in the world. Goldwind has installed more than 31,000 wind turbines and in total more than 50 GW of wind power energy worldwide.The aims of this dissertation are to explore, in order to understand, how the business model approach has been developed over time to support the establishment and success of Goldwind, the role of the Chinese government, and how the business model can be designed, redesigned, reorganised and managed, providing Goldwind with opportunities to offer new service and maintenance solutions that fit customers’ strategic expectations and needs as well as stake holders’ expectations in a life-cycle perspective.I have chosen an action research approach, influenced by grounded theory and participatory approach, to develop a new “Open and Seamless Complementary Collaborative Business Model” focusing on service and maintenance for Goldwind. This model emphasises that service and maintenance operations should be seamlessly shared between Goldwind, its customers and third-party service providers in a way that considers customers’ strategic desires, capabilities and the best way to complement the capabilities of customers in the life cycle of wind turbine operations, from designing wind farms to repowering and recycling old systems.My research case is the organisational field that is centered by Goldwind, including political, institutional and regulatory actors. By an extensive analysis of the dynamics of business model innovation of Goldwind in the institutional system that Goldwind is embedded in from its inception to today, I have reached following conclusions:Chinese political, institutional and business actors co-created and co-shaped China’s wind power industry and the largest wind turbine manufacturer through mutual understanding and actions based on continual dialogue that is still going on.There is a specific “Symbiotic Business Model” in China in general and in the Chinese wind power context.- Symbiotic relationships exist in two dimensions: horizontal and vertical. The horizontal symbiotic relationship refers to the seamless complementary collaboration along the industry value chain. The vertical symbiotic relationship refers to political, institutional and business actors co-create, co-develop and co-achieve social, political and economic targets.- The symbiotic relationship is achieved via ongoing dialogue between political and business actors by using regulatory tools with the support of institutional actors.- Specific informal social network-based trust-building mechanism plays a complementary role that supports the smooth functioning of the symbiotic business model for the co-development of the Chinese wind power industry.- There are plural logics in the symbiotic business model, and multiple logics are absorbed in the symbiotic business model through the senior managers’ cognitive model and carried out in the strategic choices of the enterprise in the business model design and implementation.My observation is that by 2019, almost 85% of the new business model is being implemented in Goldwind’s practice.

  • 5.
    Liu, Lihua
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Halila, Fawzi
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Swedish Maintenance and Services Market in Wind Power Industry Lessons Learned and Opportunities for Chinese Service Providors2013In: Advances in Social Science, Humanities, and Management: 2013 International Conference on Advances in Social Science, Humanities, and Management (ASSHM 2013), Paris: Atlantis Press, 2013, p. 133-138Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents results from an investigation of maintenance and service market of Swedish wind power industry. Although the average number of disruptions per wind turbine only increased slightly from 2007 to 2009 in Sweden, the average downtime, the average electricity production loss and accordingly economic loss to the wind power operators increased 3 times during the same period. Equipped with strong production power, technology skills and expertize, Chinese wind turbine manufacturers have opportunity to enter the Swedish wind power maintenance and service market, and bring benefit to Swedish wind power industry and to themselves‟ internationalization process and sustainable development. 

  • 6.
    Lysek, Michal
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI). HMS Industrial Networks AB, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI). Shanghai Dianji University, School of Business, Shanghai, China.
    Liu, Jasmine Lihua
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI). Shanghai Dianji University, School of Business, Shanghai, China.
    Do You Know Your Customers? Do You Love Them? Reevaluating Value Creation for Customers through Business Model Innovation2019In: Proceedings of The IIER International Conference, The IIER International Conference , 2019, p. 6-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What customers want is one thing, but what they actually need and what they desire is something else. In this paper we define existing customer needs as something that customers know and are aware of, can express, and new customer needs as something that customers do not yet know and are not yet fully aware of. Just like in a Johari window. Companies usually go for the former because the latter is more difficult. Particularly when the customer desire is more psychological in character. Business models are valuable innovation tools because they can turn even an old and less novel technology into a successful innovation, but as stated by Chesbrough, at the heart, a business model performs two important functions: value creation and value capture. However, how can you create value when customers don’t know what they actually need? When they cannot express what they actually desire? Maybe a deeper interaction is required, interpreting the customer’s needs, reading between the lines, inferring what is going on underneath the surface, and collaborative prototyping. This study was based on an exploratory, inductive research approach influenced by grounded theory, studying three Swedish technological companies: Axis, HMS and Sectra. Using grounded theory coding techniques, a typology of seller and buyer needs was created based on four categories: unconstrained needs, undoubtful needs, unconventional needs, and uncertain needs. The results show that depending on which category the company resides, the typology can help managers decide when it is appropriate to listen closely to customers, and when it is not. When they want to fulfill existing customer needs and when they want to fulfill new customer needs. However, discovering new customer needs requires close interaction with customers. Especially when you want to discover not just what customers know that they want, but also what they do not yet know that they actually need. Intimacy is needed when you really want to come close to customers and really want to explore and understand their deep desires.

  • 7.
    Lysek, Michal
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI). HMS Industrial Networks AB, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Liu, Jasmine Lihua
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    In Search of Innovation: Exploring the Dynamics of Innovation2016In: International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering, ISSN 1307-6892, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 215-229, article id 280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    HMS Industrial Networks AB has been recognized as one of the most innovative companies in the industrial communication industry worldwide. The creation of their Anybus innovation during the 1990s contributed considerably to the company’s success. From inception, HMS’ employees were innovating for the purpose of creating new business (the creation phase). After the Anybus innovation, they began the process of internationalization (the commercialization phase), which in turn led them to concentrate on cost reduction, product quality, delivery precision, operational efficiency, and increasing growth (the growth phase). As a result of this transformation, performing new radical innovations have become more complicated.

    The purpose of our research was to explore the dynamics of innovation at HMS from the aspect of key actors, activities, and events, over the three phases, in order to understand what led to the creation of their Anybus innovation, and why it has become increasingly challenging for HMS to create new radical innovations for the future.

    Our research methodology was based on a longitudinal, retrospective study from the inception of HMS in 1988 to 2014, a single case study inspired by the grounded theory approach. We conducted 47 interviews and collected 1 024 historical documents for our research.

    Our analysis has revealed that HMS’ success in creating the Anybus, and developing a successful business around the innovation, was based on three main capabilities – cultivating customer relations on different managerial and organizational levels, inspiring business relations, and balancing complementary human assets for the purpose of business creation.

    The success of HMS has turned the management’s attention away from past activities of key actors, of their behavior, and how they influenced and stimulated the creation of radical innovations. Nowadays, they are rhetorically focusing on creativity and innovation. All the while, their real actions put emphasis on growth, cost reduction, product quality, delivery precision, operational efficiency, and moneymaking. In the process of becoming an international company, HMS gradually refocused. In so doing they became profitable and successful, but they also forgot what made them innovative in the first place. Fortunately, HMS’ management has come to realize that this is the case and they are now in search of recapturing innovation once again.

    Our analysis indicates that HMS’ management is facing several barriers to innovation related path dependency and other lock-in phenomena. HMS’ management has been captured, trapped in their mindset and actions, by the success of the past. But now their future has to be secured, and they have come to realize that moneymaking is not everything. In recent years, HMS’ management have begun to search for innovation once more, in order to recapture their past capabilities for creating radical innovations. In order to unlock their managerial perceptions of customer needs and their counterinnovation driven activities and events, to utilize the full potential of their employees and capture the innovation opportunity for the future.

  • 8.
    Pataci, Hilal
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Liu, Lihua
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI). Shanghai Dianji University, School of Business, Shanghai, China.
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Halila, Fawzi
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Exploring the Dynamics of the Wind Energy Industry2015In: International Association for Management of Technology: IAMOT 2015 Conference Proceedings / [ed] Pretorius, Leon, Cape Town: International Association for Management of Technology (IAMOT) , 2015, p. 631-654Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the end of 1990s the growth of new energy and renewable energy production has been strong and increasing. Wind power energy has become one important source of energy almost all over the world. Europe, USA and Asia has become the leading markets in the development of wind energy. The total volume of global wind energy production has increased from 13,600 MW in 1999 to 318,137 MW in 2013. Since 2006 the wind energy industry is showing very rapid growth as well as dynamics among major industry actors. Some companies has left the industry due to heavy competion, some has used the growth as an opportunity to expand and the inceasing demand and the growth in the wind energy sector has opened opportunities for new actors to enter the industry. China has very fast become the largest country in the world in terms of installed wind energy capacity (28,7% share of total installed capacity and 45,4 % share of installed capacity in 2013). China is followed by Germany, UK and India. USA is now on the 6th place regarding the share of new installed capacity in 2013 with 3,1%. Sweden is on the 9th global place, shared with Romania, with 2.0 % installed capacity in 2013.The study focuses on the industry dynamics among major wind turbine producers during the period of 2006 and 2013. The study explores how the seven top wind energy companies, with the greatest market share of wind turbine manufacturing, used business model innovation to create competitive advantage, how they act to sustain competitive, and how they act business wise globaly in the wind energy industry. Our analysis identifies three major industry clusters based on their mix of business model components. We have labeled those three as “Born in Wind – Stay In Wind”, “Born In Wind – Expand In Others” and “Born In Others – Expand In Wind” due to the patterns of actors from their origin, growth and expansion strategies to diffusion in different markets. The majority of manufacturers have their origin outside wind energy industry, and they create success through new combinations of resources and new value creation for customers. Only one global actors is born in the wind energy and is still remaning in the wind energy industry. All actors have over the years reshaped their business model components, value propositions and value creation to customers in order to sustain competitive on the market. There are new comers in the wind turbine industry that in short of time has achieved high growth and high market shares. Our analysis shows that the business model innovation can be seen as one important perspective to understand the dynamics of wind power industry. Based on our analysis and findings we suggest that companies in the future even more should focus on the design and innovation of their business models, and that those should have the focus on the value creation for customers from a customer perspective and make differentiation from their competitors in the global wind power industry. Copyright © 2015 by Halmstad University & Shanghai Dianji University.

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