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  • 1.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Linde, Arne
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nordström, Tomas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Telecommunications Research Center Vienna (FTW), Vienna, Austria.
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Taveniku, Mikael
    XCube Communication, Inc., Westford, MA, United States.
    The REMAP Reconfigurable Architecture: a Retrospective2006In: FPGA Implementations of Neural Networks, New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2006, p. 325-360Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of the REMAP project was to gain new knowledge about the design and use of massively parallel computer architectures in embedded real-time systems. In order to support adaptive and learning behavior in such systems, the efficient execution of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithms on regular processor arrays was in focus. The REMAP-β parallel computer built in the project was designed with ANN computations as the main target application area. This chapter gives an overview of the computational requirements found in ANN algorithms in general and motivates the use of regular processor arrays for the efficient execution of such algorithms. REMAP-β was implemented using the FPGA circuits that were available around 1990. The architecture, following the SIMD principle (Single Instruction stream, Multiple Data streams), is described, as well as the mapping of some important and representative ANN algorithms. Implemented in FPGA, the system served as an architecture laboratory. Variations of the architecture are discussed, as well as scalability of fully synchronous SIMD architectures. The design principles of a VLSI-implemented successor of REMAP-β are described, and the paper is concluded with a discussion of how the more powerful FPGA circuits of today could be used in a similar architecture. © 2006 Springer.

  • 2.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Nilsson, Kenneth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Department of Computer Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    A processor array module for distributed, massively parallel, embedded computing1993In: Microprocessing and Microprogramming, ISSN 0165-6074, Vol. 38, no 1-5, p. 529-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increased degree of miniaturization resulting from the use of modem VLSI technology and the high communication bandwidth available through optical connections, it is now possible to build massively parallel computers based on distributed modules which can be embedded in advanced industrial products. Examples of such future possibilities are ''action-oriented systems'', in which a network of highly parallel modules perform a multitude of tasks related to perception, cognition, and action. The paper discusses questions of architecture on the level of modules and inter-module communication and gives concrete architectural solutions which meet the demands of typical, advanced industrial real-time applications. The interface between the processors arrays and the all-optical communication network is described in some detail. Implementation issues specifically related to the demand for miniaturization are discussed.

  • 3.
    Lund, S.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Synchronizing a high-speed SIMD processor array2001In: Euromicro symposium on digital systems design: architectures, methods and tools, Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, 2001, p. 376-381, article id 952338Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A synchronization method for a high speed scalable SIMD (Single Instruction stream Multiple Data stream) processor array is presented The method is developed for an architecture using distributed clocking and hierarchical SIMD control. In such an architecture, scalability is radically enhanced by an array-size independent (local) clock skew. This paper focuses on the instruction start synchronization problem inherent in a processor array when using the SIMD mode of control and distributed clocking. It is shown how this can be solved in hardware, and bounds on the tolerable skew using this method are presented. © 2001 IEEE.

  • 4.
    Nilsson, Björn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bilstrup, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Towards an Energy Efficient Protocol for Active RFID2006In: International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, 2006. IES '06, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2006, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of radio frequency identification systems (RFID) is growing rapidly. Today, mostly "passive" RFID systems are used because no onboard energy source is needed on the transponders. However, "active " RFID with onboard power source gives a new range of opportunities not possible with passive systems. To obtain energy efficiency in an active RFID system a protocol should be designed that is optimized with energy in mind. This paper describes the on-going work of defining and evaluating such a protocol. The protocol's performance in terms of energy efficiency, aggregated throughput, delay, and number of air collisions is evaluated and compared to that of the medium-access layer in 802.15.4 Zigbee, and also to a commercially available protocol from Free2move.

  • 5.
    Nilsson, Björn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    A snoozing frequency binary tree protocol2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe and evaluate anenhanced version of an active RFID wake-up and tag IDextraction radio communication protocol. The enhancedprotocol further reduces the transponders’ power consumption(prolonging their battery lifetime). The protocol uses afrequency binary tree method for extracting the identificationnumber of each transponder. This protocol is enhanced byextending it with a framed slotted medium access controlmethod which decreases the number of activations of eachtransponder during tag ID extractions. Using this medium accessmethod, the average number of transponder activations isdecreased with a factor of 2.5 compared to the original protocol.The resulting increase in ID read-out delay is 0.9%, on average.

  • 6.
    Nilsson, Björn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    An application dependent medium access protocol for active RFID using dynamic tuning of the back-off algorithm2009In: Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE International Conference on RFID (RFID 2009), Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2009, p. 72-79Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Active Radio Frequency Identification (A-RFID) is a technology where the tags (transponders) carry an on-board energy source for powering the radio, processor circuits, and sensors. Besides offering longer working distance between RFID reader and tag than passive RFID, this also enables the tags to do sensor measurements, calculations and storage even when no RFID-reader is in the vicinity of the tags. In this paper we introduce a medium access data communication protocol which dynamically adjusts its back-off algorithm to best suit the actual active RFID application at hand. Based on a simulation study of the effect on tag energy cost, readout delay, and message throughput incurred by some typical back-off algorithms in a CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Avoidance) A-RFID protocol, we conclude that, by dynamic tuning of the initial contention window size and back-off interval coefficient, tag energy consumption and read-out delay can be significantly lowered. We also present specific guidelines on how parameters should be selected under various application constraints (viz. maximum readout delay; and the number of tags passing).

  • 7.
    Nilsson, Björn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    An Energy and Application Scenario Aware Active RFID Protocol2010In: EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, ISSN 1687-1472, E-ISSN 1687-1499, Vol. 2010, no Article ID 432938, p. 15-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The communication protocol used is a key issue in order to make the most of the advantages of active RFID technologies. In this paper we introduce a carrier sense medium access data communication protocol that dynamically adjusts its back-off algorithm to best suit the actual application at hand. Based on a simulation study of the effect on tag energy cost, read-out delay, and message throughput incurred by some typical back-off algorithms in a CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) active RFID protocol, we conclude that by dynamic tuning of the initial contention window size and back-off interval coefficient, tag energy consumption and read-out delay can be significantly lowered. We show that it is possible to decrease the energy consumption per tag payload delivery with more than 10 times, resulting in a 50% increase in tag battery lifetime. We also discuss the advantage of being able to predict the number of tags present at the RFID-reader as well as ways of doing it.

  • 8.
    Nilsson, Björn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Selecting back off algorithm in active RFID CSMA/CA based medium-access protocols2008In: International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, 2008. SIES 2008, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2008, p. 265-270Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Active radio frequency identification (A-RFID) is a technology where the tags (transponders) carry an on board energy source for powering the radio, processor circuits, and sensors. Besides offering longer working distance between RFID-reader and tag than passive RFID, this also enables the tags to do sensor measurements, calculations and storage even when no RFID-reader is in the vicinity of the tags. In this paper we study the effect on tag energy cost and read out delay incurred by some typical back-off algorithms (constant, linear, and exponential) used in a contention based CSMA/CA (carrier sense multiple access/collision avoidance) protocol for A-RFID communication.

  • 9.
    Nilsson, Björn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bengtsson, Lars
    CERES, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bilstrup, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    An active backscatter wake-up and tag identification extraction protocol for low cost and low power active RFID2010In: Proceedings of 2010 IEEE International Conference on RFID-Technology and Applications, RFID-TA 2010, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2010, p. 86-91Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) protocol used to wake up and extract the ID of every tag (or a subset thereof) within reach of a reader in an active backscatter RFID system. We also study the effect on tag energy cost and read-out delay incurred when using the protocol, which is based on a frequency binary tree. Simulations show that, when using the 2.45 GHz ISM band, more than 1500 tags can be read per second.With a population of 1000 tags, the average read-out delay is 319 ms, and the expected lifetime of the RFID tags is estimated to be more than 2.5 years, even in a scenario when they are read out very often.

  • 10.
    Nilsson, Björn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Protocols for active RFID - the energy consumption aspect2007In: 2007 Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems Proceedings, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2007, p. 41-48Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Radio Frequency Identification systems (RFID) is growing rapidly. Today, mostly “passive” RFID systems are used because no onboard energy source is needed on the transponders. However, “active” RFID technology, with onboard power sources in the transponders, gives a range of opportunities not possible with passive systems. To obtain energy efficiency in an Active RFID system the protocol to be used should be carefully designed with energy optimization in mind. This paper describes how energy consumption can be calculated, to be used in protocol definition, and how evaluation of protocol in this respect can be made. The performance of such a new protocol, in terms of energy efficiency, aggregated throughput, delay, and number of air collisions is evaluated and compared to an existing, commercially available protocol for Active RFID, as well as to the IEEE standard 802.15.4 (used e.g. in the Zigbee mediumaccess layer).

  • 11.
    Nilsson, Björn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Selecting back-off algorithm in active RFID Csma/ Ca based medium-access protocols2007Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Nilsson, Björn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Free2Move, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Chalmers university of technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS). Free2Move, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    The Effect of Introducing Carrier Sense in an Active RFID Protocol2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Active Radio Frequency Identification (A-RFID) extends the functionality from the predecessor passive RFID trough adding a power source to the transponder device (device used on a product to identify it). This power source enables more advanced functions in the radio interface such as listening (doing a carrier sense) to the radio channel (carrier of data information) finding out if it is unengaged, and free to use. In this paper we study the carrier sense functionality and its effects in lowering the tag energy consumption. Simulation results show that the life time of a tag, in an A-RFID system, using carrier sense is more than doubled compared to one not using carrier sense. The increased lifetime of the tag is due to the lowered energy consumption caused by the improved throughput and the decreased payload delay, which in turn is thanks to using carrier sense and naturally then give a better utilization of the radio channel.

  • 13.
    Nilsson, Emil
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Nilsson, Björn
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Wiberg, Per-Arne
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bilstrup, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    A low power-long range active RFID-system consisting of active RFID backscatter transponders2010In: 2010 IEEE International Conference on RFID-Technology and Applications (RFID-TA), Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2010, p. 26-30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a novel active radio frequency identification system consisting of transponders with low complexity, low power consumption, and long system reading range. The transponder’s low complexity and small circuit integration area indicate that the production cost is comparable to the one of a passive tag. The hardware keystone is the transponder’s radio wake-up transceiver, which is a single oscillator with very low power consumption. The communication protocol, based on frequency signalling binary tree, contributes to the low complexity of the tag architecture. More than 1500 tags can be read per second. The average transponder ID read-out delay is 319 ms when there are 1000 transponders within reach of the interrogator. The calculated expected life time for a transponder is estimated to be almost three years.

  • 14.
    Persson, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Computer Engineering Division, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Computer Engineering Division, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Reverse conversion architectures for signed-digit residue number systems2006In: Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems 2006, New York: IEEE Press, 2006, p. 2701-2704Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents circuits for conversion from radix-2 signed-digit residue numbers to binary form. Four reverse converters for combined RNS/SD number systems based on different moduli sets are presented. Implementations are compared with respect to timing, area and area-delay products. Finite impulse response (FIR) filters are used as reference designs in order to evaluate the performance of RNS/SD processing in a typical DSP block using the suggested moduli sets.

  • 15.
    Persson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Forward and Reverse Converters and Moduli Set Selection in Signed-Digit Residue Number Systems2009In: Journal of Signal Processing Systems, ISSN 1939-8018, E-ISSN 1939-8115, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an investigation into using a combination of two alternative digital number representations; the residue number system (RNS) and the signed-digit (SD) number representation in digital arithmetic circuits. The combined number system is called RNS/SD for short. Since the performance of RNS/SD arithmetic circuits depends on the choice of the moduli set (a set of pairwise prime numbers), the purpose of this work is to compare RNS/SD number systems based on different sets. Five specific moduli sets of different lengths are selected. Moduli-set-specific forward and reverse RNS/SD converters are introduced for each of these sets. A generic conversion technique for moduli sets consisting of any number of elements is also presented. Finite impulse response (FIR) filters are used as reference designs in order to evaluate the performance of RNS/SD processing. The designs are evaluated with respect to delay and circuit area in a commercial 0.13 μm CMOS process. For the case of FIR filters it is shown that generic moduli sets with five or six moduli results in designs with the best area × delay products.

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