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  • 1.
    Archer, Trevor
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Torbjörn
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effects of physical exercise on depressive symptoms and biomarkers in depression2014In: CNS & Neurological Disorders: Drug Targets, ISSN 1871-5273, E-ISSN 1996-3181, Vol. 13, no 10, p. 1640-1653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regular physical exercise/activity has been shown repeatedly to promote positive benefits in cognitive, emotional and motor domains concomitant with reductions in distress and negative affect. It exerts a preventative role in anxiety and depressive states and facilitates psychological well-being in both adolescents and adults. Not least, several meta-analyses attest to improvements brought about by exercise. In the present treatise, the beneficial effects of exercise upon cognitive, executive function and working memory, emotional, self-esteem and depressed mood, motivational, anhedonia and psychomotor retardation, and somatic/physical, sleep disturbances and chronic aches and pains, categories of depression are discussed. Concurrently, the amelioration of several biomarkers associated with depressive states: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis homeostasis, anti-neurodegenerative effects, monoamine metabolism regulation and neuroimmune functioning. The notion that physical exercise may function as "scaffolding" that buttresses available network circuits, anti-inflammatory defences and neuroreparative processes, e.g. brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), holds a certain appeal. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.

  • 2.
    Fröberg, Andreas
    et al.
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Linus
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berg, Christina
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Korp, Peter
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Raustorp, Anders
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Department of Sport Science, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Larsson, Christel
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effects of an Empowerment-Based Health-Promotion School Intervention on Physical Activity and Sedentary Time among Adolescents in a Multicultural Area2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 11, article id 2542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity (PA) decreases with age, and interventions are needed to promote PA during adolescence, especially, among those in low-socioeconomic status (SES) areas. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a two-year, empowerment-based health-promotion school intervention had any effects on changes in (a) moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), (b) sedentary time (SED), (c) exercise training (ET) frequency, and (d) ET duration, among adolescents. Participants (aged 12⁻13 years at baseline) from one intervention school and two control schools, were recruited from a multicultural area of Sweden, characterized by low-SES. During the course of the two-year intervention, a total of 135 participants (43% boys) were included in the study. The intervention was developed and implemented as a result of cooperation and shared decision-making among the researchers and the participants. MVPA and SED were measured with accelerometers, and ET frequency and duration was self-reported at the beginning of the seventh, eighth, and ninth grade, respectively. There were no significant effects of the two-year, empowerment-based health-promotion school intervention on changes in the accelerometer-measured MVPA and SED, or the self-reported ET frequency and duration, among the adolescents. Overall, the intervention was unsuccessful at promoting PA and reducing SED. Several possible explanations for the intervention's lack of effects are discussed.

  • 3.
    Hagger, M. S.
    et al.
    Risk Analysis, Social Processes, and Health Group, School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Asci, F. H.
    F.H. Aşçi, Sport Sciences Department, Başkent University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Hein, V.
    Faculty of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Institute of Sport Pedagogy and Coaching Sciences, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Mulazimoglu-Balli, O.
    School of Sport Sciences and Technology, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey.
    Tarrant, M.
    School of Psychology, Keele University, Keele, United Kingdom.
    Ruiz, Y. Pastor
    Department of Health Psychology, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Elche, Spain.
    Sell, V.
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Cross-cultural validity and measurement invariance of the social physique anxiety scale in five European nations2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 703-719Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cross-cultural generalizability of the social physique anxiety scale (SPAS) was evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in five European nations: Britain, Estonia, Spain, Sweden, and Turkey. Motl and Conroy's (2000) methods were used to develop modified versions of the scale within each sample based on the original 12-item version. Pending the satisfactory fit of the CFAs of the modified models within each sample, it was expected that the measurement parameters and mean values of these models would be equivalent across samples in multisample CFAs. An eight-item version of the SPAS exhibited a good fit with data from the British, Estonian, and Swedish samples, and a seven-item version fitted the data well in the Spanish and Turkish samples. The eliminated items were also influenced by a method effect associated with the item wording. Multisample analyses revealed that factor loadings were equivalent across samples. Tests of latent means revealed that British and Spanish participants reported the highest levels of SPA, with Estonian participants reporting the lowest. Results indicate that the SPAS is generalizable across these cultures, although subtle variations existed in the Spanish and Turkish samples. Researchers are advised to follow these procedures to develop a valid version of the SPAS appropriate for their sample.

  • 4.
    Hagger, Martin S.
    et al.
    University of Essex Wivenhoe Park, Colchester United Kingdom.
    Hülya Asçi, F.
    Department of Physical Education and Sport Middle East Technical University Ankara, Turkey.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    A Cross-Cultural Evaluation of a Multidimensional and Hierarchical Model of Physical Self-Perceptions in Three National Samples2004In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 1075-1107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multidimensional and hierarchical model of self-perceptions in the physical domain was evaluated in samples from 3 nations: Great Britain, Sweden, and Turkey. The Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP; Fox & Corbin, 1989), was translated and tested for factorial and construct validity in each national sample. A first-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) hypothesizing 4 latent factors representing the subdomains of sports competence, body attractiveness, physical condition, and physical strength was found to describe the PSPP data adequately for each national sample. A second-order CFA model that hypothesized a general latent factor of physical self-worth also exhibited good fit with the data from each sample, supporting the validity of the instrument in the national groups. Multi-sample analyses provided support for both models across samples, although selected items exhibited disparate meanings. The subdomain mean scores were significantly higher in the British sample compared with the Swedish and Turkish samples, with the exception of the physical condition subscale, which was higher in the Swedish and Turkish samples. Overall, these findings support the factor structure of the hierarchical, multidimensional model of physical self-perceptions across the national samples.

  • 5.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Andersen, Mark B.
    School of Sport and Exercise Science and the Institute of Sport, Exercise and Active Living, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport(s) Science, University of Gothenburg, Sweden;Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    To Adjust or Not Adjust: Nonparametric Effect Sizes, Confidence Intervals, and Real-World Meaning2013In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 97-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The main objectives of this article are to: (a) investigate if there are any meaningful differences between adjusted and unadjusted effect sizes (b) compare the outcomes from parametric and non-parametric effect sizes to determine if the potential differences might influence the interpretation of results, (c) discuss the importance of reporting confidence intervals in research, and discuss how to interpret effect sizes in terms of practical real-world meaning.

    Design: Review.

    Method: A review of how to estimate and interpret various effect sizes was conducted. Hypothetical examples were then used to exemplify the issues stated in the objectives.

    Results: The results from the hypothetical research designs showed that: (a) there is a substantial difference between adjusted and non-adjusted effect sizes especially in studies with small sample sizes, and (b) there are differences in outcomes between the parametric and non-parametric effect size formulas that may affect interpretations of results.

    Conclusions: The different hypothetical examples in this article clearly demonstrate the importance of treating data in ways that minimize potential biases and the central issues of how to discuss the meaningfulness of effect sizes in research. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 6.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity. Department of Psychology, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Andersen, Mark B.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science & Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Things We Still Haven’t Learned (So Far)2015In: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 449-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is like an immortal horse that some researchers have been trying to beat to death for over 50 years, but without any success. In this article we discuss the flaws in NHST, the historical background in relation to both Fisher’s and Neyman-Pearson’s statistical ideas, the common misunderstandings of what p < .05 actually means, and the APA Manual’s (2010) clear, but most often ignored, instructions to report effect sizes and interpret what they all mean in the real world. Also, we discuss how Bayesian statistics can be used to overcome some of the problems with NHST. We then analyze quantitative articles in two of the highest impact factor journals in sport and exercise psychology in the last three years (2012–2014) to determine if we have learned what we should have learned decades ago about the use and meaningful interpretations of the statistics we use. © 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.

  • 7.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Andersen, Mark B.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Psychosocial Factors and Sport Injuries: Meta-analyses for Prediction and Prevention2017In: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 353-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several studies have suggested that psy- chosocial variables can increase the risk of becoming injured during sport participation.

    Objectives: The main objectives of these meta-analyses were to examine (i) the effect sizes of relationships between the psychosocial variables (suggested as injury predictors in the model of stress and athletic injury) and injury rates, and (ii) the effects of psychological interven- tions aimed at reducing injury occurrence (prevention).

    Methods: Electronic databases as well as specific sport and exercise psychology journals were searched. The literature review resulted in 48 published studies containing 161 effect sizes for injury prediction and seven effect sizes for injury prevention.

    Results: The results showed that stress responses (r = 0.27, 80 % CI [0.20, 0.33]) and history of stressors (r = 0.13, 80 % CI [0.11, 0.15]) had the strongest associations with injury rates. Also, the results from the path analysis showed that the stress response mediated the relationship between history of stressors and injury rates. For injury prevention studies, all studies included (N = 7) showed decreased injury rates in the treatment groups compared to control groups.

    Conclusion: The results support the model’s suggestion that psychosocial variables, as well as psychologically, based interventions, can influence injury risk among athletes. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 

  • 8.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Could level and change in psychosocial stress during a 7 week period predict sport injuries in a population of professional soccer players?2012In: Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Science and Soccer, 2012, p. 163-163Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Itroduction: Involvement in competitive soccer is connected with a high injury rate (Hägglund, 2007). Previous research has suggested that a psychosocial stress (both major and minor stressors) have a great impact on injury risk (Rogers & Landers, 2005; Fawkner et al., 1999).

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate if individual level and change in psychosocial stress (daily hassle) during a 7 week period could predict injuries among Swedish Premiere League soccer players.

    Method: The participants were 56 (38 males and 18 females) Swedish Premiere League soccer players. Participants ranged in age from 16 – 36 years (M = 25, 05, SD = 5, 46). Participants completed the Hassle and Uplift Scale once a week for a 7-week period. During the research period, the physiotherapists for each team were asked to record any injuries occurring during the study period. Latent grpwth curve models were used to examine whether the level and change in psychological stress could predict the frequency of injury over the 7 week period.

    Result: The results showed that both high initial levels of daily hassle and negative changes in it were associated with more injuries. Moreover, intra-class correlation showed that 23,4 % of the variance in hassle over the 7 repeated observations could be explained by the within-person variance, whereas the majority of variance (76,6%) could be attributed to between-person variance.

    Discussion: The findings highlight the importance of focusing on state variables using prospective designs and appropriate change analysis in order to detect complex and dynamic associations across time in injury prediction research. It is also important to acknowledging and investigating individual differeces in order to understand how psychosocial stressors influence different athletes. Recommendations for players, coaches and physiotherapies are to be observant of the influence from daily hassles in order to be able to help the athlete to decrease injury risk by for example adjusting his/her training load due to psychological status.

  • 9.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science & Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Karlstad University & Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre, Mid-Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Altemyr, Mats
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Fatigue as a Predictor of Sport Injuries: A Latent Class Analysis2013In: Abstracts of the ISSP 13th World Congress of Sport Psychology: July 21-26, 2013, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, China, Beijing, 2013, p. 99-100Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has showed that psychosocial factors such as fatigue, could increase risk of injury (Borotikar et al., 2008; Johnson, 2011). Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the potential risk of different developmental trajectory profiles in fatigue, over three weeks, for injury among Swedish junior elite soccer players. Participants were 91 junior elite soccer players at the soccer high schools (64 male and 33 female) aged between 15-18 years (M =16.57, SD = .75). All players were asked, at a weekly basis during the first three weeks of pre-season, to complete the fatigue sub-scale from Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes-Sport (Kellman & Kallus, 2001). Two months after, the athletic trainers of the participants were asked to record any injury that occurred in the last two months. Latent class analysis was performed to analyze the data. Sample adjusted BIC was used to evaluate the goodness-of-fit and to help select the best fitted model (Yang, 1998). Relative risk ratios were calculated to compare the injury risk between participants in various latent classes identified from the latent class analysis. The model with best fit (BIC = 832, entropy .77) contained four different latent classes (i.e., low stable, moderate stable, high increasing, high decreasing). Members of the low stable class characterized by low levels of fatigue over the three-week period (Intercept = 2.5, slope = -.16) were selected as the reference class when calculating relative risk rations. Members of the high increasing class, experiencing high and increasing level of fatigue over the three-week period (Intercept = 4.94, slope = .29), were exposed to the highest risk of injury (RR = 2.53), compared with the reference class, and with other classes. Results from the participants included in the two other classes as (1) the moderate stable, characterized by a stable moderate level of fatigue during the course of assessment (Intercept = 3.78, slope = .14), and (2) the high decreasing, with high but decreasing level of fatigue during the three-week period (Intercept= 5.97, slope = -1.14), were both exposed to a 1.63 greater risk of injury than the reference class. The result indicates that high levels of fatigue might increase the risks of injury among soccer players. In other words, players’ risk in sport might potentially be reduced by proper recovery protocols. It is therefore highly recommended that coaches and medical staff should work actively and continuously with athletes to aid their physical and psychological recovery.

  • 10.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science & Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre, Mid-Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Altemyr, Mats
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Psychosocial stress as a predictor of injury in elite junior soccer: A latent growth curve analysis2014In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 366-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate by use of a latent growth curve analysis framework whether athletes' individual levels and changes in hassle and uplift levels over a 10-week period could predict injury outcome in an elite junior soccer population.

    DESIGN: A prospective design with repeated measurement points.

    METHODS: Participants were 101 Swedish elite junior soccer players (67 males and 34 females). Ten sets of measures were taken on a weekly basis during which participants completed the Hassles and Uplifts Scale (HUS). Latent growth curve models were used to examine whether the level and change in psychological stress could predict the frequency of injury over the 10-week period.

    RESULTS: The results show that injury occurrence was significantly associated with both the initial level of daily hassle and the change in daily hassle. High initial daily hassle levels and a smaller decrease in daily hassles were associated with injury occurrence. Moreover, injury occurrence was significantly associated with a greater decrease in daily uplift.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight the importance of focusing on state variables using prospective designs and appropriate analysis of within-person change to detect complex and dynamic associations across time in injury-prediction research.

    Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Johnson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Bridging theory and practice in sport and exercise psychology – A dynamic reserach-practitioner perspective2000In: Sport Psychology Conference in the New Millennium -A dynamic research-practice perspective, Proceedings / [ed] Björn A. Carlsson, Urban Johnsson, Fredrik Wetterstrand, Halmstad, 2000, p. 11-18Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Johnson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Carlsson, Björn
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Prediction of sport injuries by Profile of Mood State: A case study of one rower and one handball player at national team level in Sweden2001In: 10th World Congress of Sport Psychology: In the Dawn of the New Millennium, May 28-June 2, 2001, Skiathos, Hellas: Programme and proceedings / [ed] Athanasios Papaioannou, Marios Goudas & Yannis Theodorakis, Thessaloniki: Christodoulidis , 2001, p. 81-83Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Jonsson, Linus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Departement of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Departement of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Weman-Josefsson, Karin Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Departement of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rationale and development of individual counseling based on self-determination theory and motivational interviewing2014In: ISBNPA 2014 Abstract Book: 21-24 May: San Diego, California, 2014, p. 282-282Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In a recent published article series in International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity a marriage between Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and Motivational Interviewing (MI) was proposed. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the rationale and development of individual counseling, based on the tenets of SDT and techniques drawn from MI, used to promote exercise adherence.

    Methods: A review of the literature relevant to the marriage of SDT and MI was conducted, and a counseling approach based on SDT and MI progressed. Guidelines for how to support individuals basic needs in individual counseling and scripts for individual counselling sessions to promote exercise adherence was developed.

    Results: To support the individuals need for autonomy, competence and relatedness different techniques and approaches was proposed. The counseling technique is now being tested in a randomized control intervention (intervention group  (n=50), control group (n=50)) to promote regular exercise among healthy, inactive adults.

    Conclusions: This paper outlines the rationale and development of individual counseling based on SDT and MI. Although a ‘complete marriage’ between SDT and MI may not be possible, an initial step towards a ‘new’ counseling approach has been made.

  • 14.
    Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Motivation till motion och fysisk aktivitet2010In: Hälsa och Livsstil: forskning och praktiska tillämpningar / [ed] Lillemor Hallberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, 1, p. 207-225Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Josefsson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Faculty of Health, Science, and Technology, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Tornberg, Rasmus
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Böröy, Jan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Effects of Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) on Sport-Specific Dispositional Mindfulness, Emotion Regulation, and Self-Rated Athletic Performance in a Multiple-Sport Population: an RCT Study2019In: Mindfulness, ISSN 1868-8527, E-ISSN 1868-8535, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 1518-1529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The aim of the study was to examine mediating effects of emotion regulation and sport-specific dispositional mindfulness on self-rated athletic training performance, following the Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) intervention, compared to a Psychological Skills Training (PST) control group.

    Methods

    Sixty-nine competitive elite athletes who did not have any prior experience with mindfulness- and acceptance-based exercises, were recruited and randomly assigned into either a MAC group or a traditional PST group. Latent growth curve analyses were performed to examine longitudinal relationships among the study variables. Mediation analyses were conducted to test if the growth trajectory of each of the proposed mediators mediated the relationship between the intervention and perceived performance (measured at T3).

    Results

    Findings showed that the MAC intervention had an indirect effect on self-rated athletic training performance through changes in dispositional mindfulness and emotion regulation respectively. Further, the MAC-group obtained greater post-test improvements in athletic mindfulness, emotion regulation abilities, and perceived performance compared to the PST group.

    Conclusions

    Overall, findings suggest that dispositional athletic mindfulness and emotion regulation may function as important mechanisms in MAC, and that the MAC approach is a more effective intervention compared to the PST condition in reducing emotion regulation difficulties, as well as enhancing sport-relevant mindfulness skills and perceived athletic training performance in elite sport.

  • 16.
    Josefsson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Böröy, Jan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Mattsson, Emil
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Carnebratt, Jakob
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sevholt, Simon
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Falkevik, Emil
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Mindfulness Mechanisms in Sports: Mediating Effects of Rumination and Emotion Regulation on Sport-Specific Coping2017In: Mindfulness, ISSN 1868-8527, E-ISSN 1868-8535, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 1354-1363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of the project was to examine a proposed theoretical model of mindfulness mechanisms in sports. We conducted two studies (the first study using a cross-sectional design and the second a longitudinal design) to investigate if rumination and emotion regulation mediate the relation between dispositional mindfulness and sport-specific coping. Two hundred and forty-two young elite athletes, drawn from various sports, were recruited for the cross-sectional study. For the longitudinal study, 65 elite athletes were recruited. All analyses were performed using Bayesian statistics. The path analyses showed credible indirect effects of dispositional mindfulness on coping via rumination and emotion regulation in both the cross-sectional study and the longitudinal study. Additionally, the results in both studies showed credible direct effects of dispositional mindfulness on rumination and emotion regulation. Further, credible direct effects of emotion regulation as well as rumination on coping were also found in both studies. Our findings support the theoretical model, indicating that rumination and emotion regulation function as essential mechanisms in the relation between dispositional mindfulness and sport-specific coping skills. Increased dispositional mindfulness in competitive athletes (i.e. by practicing mindfulness) may lead to reductions in rumination, as well as an improved capacity to regulate negative emotions. By doing so, athletes may improve their sport-related coping skills, and thereby enhance athletic performance. © The Author(s) 2017.

  • 17.
    Josefsson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Archer, Trevor
    y of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden .
    Physical exercise intervention in depressive disorders: Meta-analysis and systematic review2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 259-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous meta-analyses investigating the effect of exercise on depression have included trials where the control condition has been categorized as placebo despite the fact that this particular placebo intervention (e.g., meditation, relaxation) has been recognized as having an antidepressant effect. Because meditation and mindfulness-based interventions are associated with depression reduction, it is impossible to separate the effect of the physical exercise from the meditation-related parts. The present study determined the efficacy of exercise in reducing symptoms of depression compared with no treatment, placebo conditions or usual care among clinically defined depressed adults. Of 89 retrieved studies, 15 passed the inclusion criteria of which 13 studies presented sufficient information for calculating effect sizes. The main result showed a significant large overall effect favoring exercise intervention. The effect size was even larger when only trials that had used no treatment or placebo conditions were analyzed. Nevertheless, effect size was reduced to a moderate level when only studies with high methodological quality were included in the analysis. Exercise may be recommended for people with mild and moderate depression who are willing, motivated, and physically healthy enough to engage in such a program.

  • 18.
    Josefsson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Broberg, Anders G.
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The Effects of a Short-term Mindfulness Based Intervention on Self-reported Mindfulness, Decentering, Executive Attention, Psychological Health, and Coping Style: Examining Unique Mindfulness Effects and Mediators2014In: Mindfulness, ISSN 1868-8527, E-ISSN 1868-8535, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 18-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of mindfulness intervention studies do not include active control groups. To examine potential unique effects of mindfulness practice and to study the mechanism responsible for beneficial mental health effects associated with mindfulness-based interventions, the present study compared mindfulness meditation with an active control group in a randomised controlled trial. A short-term mindfulness-based intervention (n = 46) was compared with both an active control group—relaxation training (n = 40)—and an inactive wait-list group (n = 40) on self-reported mindfulness and decentering, executive attention, psychological well-being, anxiety, depression, and coping style, in an adult working population with no prior meditation experience. Analyses of covariance showed that the mindfulness group scored higher than the wait-list group on self-reported mindfulness and psychological well-being. However, no differences were found on decentering, anxiety, depression, executive attention, or coping style. Moreover, the study failed to distinguish any unique mindfulness effects since there were no differences between mindfulness and relaxation on any of the variables. Simple mediation analyses, using a bootstrap approach, revealed that decentering acted as a mediator between self-reported mindfulness and psychological well-being. The length of the intervention, the similarities between body scan exercises in MBI and relaxation, and the absence of decentering effects may partly explain the lack of distinct MBI effects, suggesting that MBIs aimed at increasing well-being and problem-focused coping whilst reducing psychological symptoms in a working population should be longer than merely 4 weeks and include more than seven sessions. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  • 19.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Att åldras med liv genom rörelse: fysisk aktivitet som hälsoelixir2004In: SIPF Svensk idrottspsykologisk förening: Årsbok 2004 / [ed] P. Hassmén, N. Hassmén, Örebro: Svensk idrottspsykologisk förening (SIPF) , 2004, p. 85-102Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Examining the Validity of a Swedish Version of the Self-Presentation in Exercise Questionnaire2005In: Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, ISSN 1091-367X, E-ISSN 1532-7841, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 113-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the factorial validity, factorial invariance across gender, and construct validity of a Swedish version of the Self-Presentation in Exercise Questionnaire (SPEQ; Conroy, Motl, & Hall, 2000). The a priori two-factor 14-item, 11-item, and 9-item models fail to reach acceptable levels of fit in a calibration sample. A modified 8-item model demonstrates acceptable fit and loose and partial cross-validity on a second independent sample. The factorial structure is invariant across gender. Men depict higher latent mean scores on both SPEQ factors of Impression Motivation and Impression Construction. Different patterns for men and women in the relation between SPEQ factors and exercise identity, social physique anxiety, and exercise participation are detected. Psychometric weaknesses in reliability and content validity from a cultural equivalence perspective are discussed.

  • 21.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Exercising the self: on the role of exercise, gender and culture in physical self-perceptions2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In modern society, individuals constantly pass judgments on their own body and physical competence as well as that of other people. All too often, the verdict is less favourable. For the person, these physical self-perceptions (PSP) may negatively affect global self-esteem, identity, and general mental well being. The overall aim of this thesis is to examine primarily the role that exercise, but also the roles that gender and culture, play in the formation of PSP. In Study I, using confirmatory factor analyses, strong support for the validity of a first-order, and a second-order hierarchical and multidimensional model of the Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP: Fox & Corbin, 1989) was found across three national samples (Great Britain, Sweden and Turkey) of university students. Cross-cultural differences were detected, with the British sample demonstrating higher latent means on all PSPP subdomains except for the physical condition subdomain (Condition), than the Swedish and Turkish samples. In Study II, a higher self-reported exercise frequency was associated with more positive PSP (in particular for Condition) and more importance attributed to PSP in Swedish university students. Males demonstrated higher overall PSPP-scores than females. In Study III, a true-experimental design with randomisation into an intervention and a control group was adopted. Strong support for the effects of an empowerment-based exercise intervention programme on PSP and social physique anxiety (SPA) over six months for adolescent girls was found. The relations of exercise, gender and culture with PSP, SPA and self-esteem are discussed from the standpoints of a variety of theoretical models (the EXSEM-model), and frameworks (self-presentation and objectification theory). The two theories of self-enhancement and skill-development are examined with regard to the direction of the exercise-physical self relationship and motivation for exercise. Arguments for the relevance of exercise and PSP for practitioners in promoting general mental well-being and preventing modern-day diseases are outlined.

  • 22.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Factorial Structure and Invariance Across Gender of the Swedish Self-Consciousness Scale2004In: Journal of Personality Assessment, ISSN 0022-3891, E-ISSN 1532-7752, Vol. 82, no 2, p. 233-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, I tested different factor models and the factorial invariance across gender for the Self-Consciousness Scale (Fenigstein, Scheier, & Buss (1975) using confirmatory factor analyses. University students (251 women and 259 men) completed the Swedish version of the scale. A respecified (Item 15 loading on the factor Internal State Awareness [ISA] instead of on the factor Self-Reflection [SR]) 17-item, 4-factor model of Burnkrant and Page (1984) including the factors SR, ISA, Public Self-Consciousness, and Social Anxiety demonstrated the best fit for both men and women. Factor intercorrelations were overall stronger for women. The respecified model demonstrated factorial invariance across gender. I discuss the strengthening of scale reliability through the expansion of subscale items and invariance testing across groups.

  • 23.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Dept. of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Factorial validity and invariance testing of the Swedish social physique anxiety scale: arguments for gender-specific scales2004In: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 492-499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the factorial validity and factorial invariance across gender of the 9-item and two 7-item previously supported unidimensional factor models of the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS; Hart, Leary, & Rejeski, 1989) in two samples of Swedish male and female university students. Results demonstrated that the Motl and Conroy (2000) 7-item model made the closest fit to data in both the male and female samples. None of the two 7-item models demonstrated invariant factor variances or item uniqueness across gender. Moreover, the factor loadings were not invariant in the Motl and Conroy models. Gender differences in SPAS factor structure, linked to cultural variations in measurement equivalence and future development of gender specific scales, are discussed.

  • 24.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The role of exercise and gender for physical self-perceptions and importance ratings in Swedish university students2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 373-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how scores on the Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP), including scores on the Perceived Importance Profile (PIP), were related to self-reported exercise frequency, duration, and gender in sample of Swedish university students. A total of 164 participants completed the PSPP, PIP, and a questionnaire focusing on frequency and duration of exercise. Exercise frequency, duration, and gender predicted best the PSPP sub-domains of Sport Competence and Physical Conditioning. Exercising more frequently, and for a longer time on each occasion was associated with higher PSPP and PIP scores. Women generally displayed lower PSPP scores than men. These results suggest that exercise professionals need to master a range of appropriate exercise strategies, since doubts concerning self-presentation may work against establishing a regular exercise routine.

  • 25.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Weman Josefsson, Karin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Jonsson, Linus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ntoumanis, Nikos
    Curtin University, Bentley, Western Australia, Australia.
    Patrick, Heather
    Envolve PeopleCare, Farmington, USA.
    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie
    Curtin University, Bentley, Western Australia, Australia.
    Markland, David
    Bangor University, Bangor, United Kingdom.
    Teixeira, Pedro
    Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Stirring the motivational soup: within-person latent profiles of motivation in exercise2017In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 14, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The purpose of the present study was to use a person-oriented analytical approach to identify latent motivational profiles, based on the different behavioural regulations for exercise, and to examine differences in satisfaction of basic psychological needs (competence, autonomy and relatedness) and exercise behaviour across these motivational profiles.

    Methods

    Two samples, consisting of 1084 and 511 adults respectively, completed exercise-related measures of behavioural regulation and psychological need satisfaction as well as exercise behaviour. Latent profile analyses were used to identify motivational profiles.

    Results

    Six profiles, representing different combinations of regulations for exercise, were found to best represent data in both samples. Some profiles were found in both samples (e.g., low motivation profile, self-determined motivation profile and self-determined with high introjected regulation profile), whereas others were unique to each sample. In line with the Self-Determination Theory, individuals belonging to more self-determined profiles demonstrated higher scores on need satisfaction.

    Conclusions

    The results support the notions of motivation being a multidimensional construct and that people have different, sometimes competing, reasons for engaging in exercise. The benefits of using person-oriented analyses to examine within-person interactions of motivation and different regulations are discussed.

  • 26.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Fysisk aktivitet och psykologisk hälsa2010In: Hälsa & Livsstil: forskning och praktisk tillämpning / [ed] Hallberg, Lillemor, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, 1, p. 173-189Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    När julgranen blir måttet på skogen: Mental träning, vetenskap och psykologi utifrån ett tillämpat forskningsperspektiv2005In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 49-51Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stefan Söderfjälls artikel i Svensk Idrottsforskning nr 1/ 2005 lyfter många intressanta och relevanta frågor kopplat till den tillämpade delen av idrottspsykologin, t ex mental träning och rådgivning. Söderfjells kritiska analys av tekniker inom mental träning, deras effektivitet, använd- ning och användare utgör ett sunt och välkommet bidrag till den tillämpade idrottspsykologins utveckling. Dock, om den relevanta bild som målas upp breddas och nyanseras ytterligare tror vi att resonemanget kan tillföra ännu mer i form av kunskap till fältet. Syftet med denna artikel är alltså att komplettera Söderfjells artikel med ett perspektiv som baseras i bryggan mellan teori och praktik.

  • 28.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Personality variables as predictors of injured and non-injured exercisers2003In: New approaches to exercise and sport psychology: Theories, methods and applications / [ed] Reinhard Stelter, Köpenhamn: University of Copenhagen , 2003, p. 100-100Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    The effects of a 6-month exercise intervention programme on physical self-perceptions and social physique anxiety in non-physically active adolescent Swedish girls2005In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 6, no 6, p. 643-658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:

    To examine the effects of a 6-month exercise intervention programme (EIP) on physical self-perceptions (PSP) and social physique anxiety (SPA) of non-physically active adolescent Swedish girls.

    Methods:

    A true experimental design with randomization into an intervention or control group was used. The empowerment based EIP, offered to the intervention group twice a week for 6 months, consisted of 45-min exercise sessions followed by 15 min of discussions regarding a healthy lifestyle. A variety of exercise activities, chosen by the participants themselves, were used. Twenty-seven participants in the intervention group and 35 in the control group completed the Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP) and the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS) at pre- and posttest and, in addition, physical fitness, weight and height were measured.

    Results and conclusions:

    The intent to treat analysis showed no significant improvements in PSPP subdomains, but lower SPAS scores for the intervention group, compared to the control group. However, when using a less conservative analysis, including only those who completed assessments both pre- and post-intervention, the intervention significantly reduced both PSPP subdomain and SPAS scores. The changes in PSPP and SPAS scores were not linked to changes in physiological variables. The results are put in the context of previous longitudinal and review studies, theoretical frameworks and models. The direction of effects, possible mechanisms and limitations of the study are discussed along with practical applications linked to exercise and modern diseases.

  • 30.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Att mäta äpplen och tolka päron: ett kritiskt förhållningssätt till mätning och psykometri inom idrottsforskning2004In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 52-55Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Martin Ginis, Kathleen A.
    Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Canada.
    Moving towards a favorable image: The self-presentational benefits of exercise and physical activity2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 209-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the exercise stereotype phenomenon and the moderating effects of exerciser impression motivation and construction on this stereotype in a sample of 176 female and 96 male Swedish university students. The participants read a description of one of the following female targets: a typical exerciser, an active living target, an excessive exerciser, a non-exerciser, or a control target, and then rated these targets on 12 personality (e.g., lazy–hard worker, dependent–independent) and 8 physical (e.g., scrawny–muscular, sick–healthy) dimensions. They also completed the Self Presentation in Exercise Questionnaire, measuring motivation to self-present as an exerciser and the propensity to construct the image of an exerciser. MANCOVAs revealed a significant main effect for both personality and physical attributes (p < 0.05). In general, the typical exerciser and active living targets received the most favorable ratings, especially on the physical attributes, whereas the excessive exerciser obtained the least positive ratings. Exerciser impression motivation moderated the exercise status/rating relationship for the physical attributes only. Differences between Swedish and North American students’ impressions of exercisers and non-exercisers are discussed.

  • 32.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Palmeira, Antonio
    Study Center in Exercise and Health, Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Factorial validity and invariance testing of the exercise dependence scale-revised in Swedish and Portuguese exercisers2009In: Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, ISSN 1091-367X, E-ISSN 1532-7841, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 166-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the factorial validity and factorial invariance of the 21-item Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised using 162 Swedish and 269 Portuguese exercisers. In addition, the prevalence of exercise dependence symptoms and links to exercise behavior, gender, and age in the two samples was also studied. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that the hypothesized 7-factor model made a good fit to data in both samples. Multi-sample analyses supported partial measurement invariance across the samples; only factor loadings involving items 3 and 19 were noninvariant. The "Reduction in Other Activities" and "Lack of Control" factors were the most problematic scales in terms of average variance explained and reliability measures of weighted omega and Cronbach’s alpha. In total, 9.2% of the Swedish sample and 5.2% of the Portuguese sample were classified as at risk for exercise dependence. Overall, the results support the factorial validity of the translated Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised in samples outside North-America, although more research is needed. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  • 33.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Rennemark, Mikael
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Berggren, Tomas
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Movement in mind: The relationship of exercise with cognitive status for older adults in the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care (SNAC)2008In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 212-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of light and strenuous exercise, and self-reported change in exercise status, with different components of cognitive function, and gender differences in this relation, in a large, representative sample included in the Swedish National study on Aging and Care (SNAC). Eight-hundred-and-thirteen participants in age-cohorts from 60-96 years completed a wide range of cognitive function tests, the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE) and survey questions concerning exercise behaviour and exercise change with light or strenuous intensity. ANCOVA, controlling for age, education, depression, functional status and co-morbidity, demonstrated a main effect for light exercise, but not for strenuous exercise, on five of the six cognitive tests and the MMSE, for men but nor for women. A negative change in exercise status was associated with lower MMSE scores for men but not for women. Individuals exercising with light intensity several times a week had the highest cognitive test and MMSE scores and the inactive group had the lowest scores. The results of the study may contribute to increased knowledge in the exercise-mental health relationship for elderly and spawn new research specifically on gender differences in this relation.

  • 34.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Rennemark, Mikael
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Halling, Anders
    Blekinge Institute for Research and Development, Sweden.
    Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge Institute for Research and Development, Sweden.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Dept. of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Depression and exercise in elderly men and women: findings from the Swedish national study on aging and care2007In: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, ISSN 1063-8652, E-ISSN 1543-267X, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 41-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the relationship between light and strenuous exercise and depression, as well as gender differences in this relationship, in a representative sample of 860 elderly Swedish suburb-dwelling men and women in age cohorts from 60 to 96 years, drawn from among participants in the Swedish National Aging and Care study. The relationship between depression and self-reported changes in exercise status over time was also examined. Exercise activities were measured with four survey questions, and depression, with the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale. The inactive elderly had higher depression scores than more active individuals, both in terms of light and strenuous exercise. The continuously active group had lower depression scores than both continuously inactive individuals and individuals reporting a shift from activity to inactivity during the preceding year. Light exercise had a somewhat stronger effect on depression for women.

  • 35.
    Martin Ginis, Kathleen A.
    et al.
    Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Prapavessis, Harry
    School of Kinesiology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
    Who cares what other people think?: Self-presentation in exercise and sport2007In: Handbook of sport psychology / [ed] Gershon Tenenbaum, Robert C. Eklund, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2007, 3, p. 136-157Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Rennemark, Mikael
    et al.
    School of Social Science, Växjö University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Halling, Anders
    County Counsil of Blekinge, Blekinge Institute for Research and Development, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Berglund, Johan
    School of Health and Sciences, Bleking Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Relationships between physical activity and perceived qualities of life in old age. Results of the SNAC study2009In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships of different types of quality of life to strenuous and light physical activity in old age.

    Methods:

    The Swedish SNAC-Blekinge baseline database, consisting of data on 585 men and 817 women 60-96 years of age, was utilized. The independent variables were light and strenuous physical activity. Four dependent variables concerned with various quality of life components were employed (well-being, engagement, emotional support and social anchorage). Age, gender, functional ability and co-morbidity were included as possible confounders. Non-parametric bivariate and multivariate statistical tests were performed.

    Results:

    Correlations suggested there to generally be a positive relationship between physical activity and quality of life. Multivariate logistic regression analyses controlling for possible confounders showed light physical activity to increase the odds of experiencing well-being, engagement and social anchorage, whereas strenuous physical activity increased the odds of experiencing engagement and emotional support. Thus, light physical activity and strenuous physical activity differed in their relation to quality of life generally.

    Conclusions:

    The results indicate that physical activity has a salutogenic effect by enhancing the quality of life, and it can be assumed to be connected to quality of life by generating pleasure and relaxation.

  • 37.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Hur kunde du Ludmila?: en idrottspsykologisk analys2002In: Svensk Idrottspsykologi : medlemsblad för Svensk idrottspsykologisk förening (SIPF), Vol. 2, no 1, p. 2-5Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Staveborg Kerkelä, Ellen
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Linus
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Strand, Jennifer
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Individual experiences following a 6-month exercise intervention: A qualitative study2015In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 10, article id 26376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Dropout is a common problem in various exercise interventions. The individual’s experience is believed to greatly impact dropout, yet little is known about the individual experiences of taking part in exercise interventions. The aim of this study was to examine individuals’ experiences following a self-determination theory based exercise intervention in order to gain understanding of how standardized interventions can be adjusted to fit individuals’ specific needs, capacities, and circumstances.

    Methods: A qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews was conducted with eight informants (three male and five female) aged between 26 and 47 years, whom all had participated in a 6-month exercise intervention with individual coaching based on self-determination theory and motivational interviewing. The interviews were analyzed thematically with an inductive approach.

    Results: Aspects that influenced the informants’ motivation and participation in the exercise intervention were linked to three themes: the frames of the intervention, measurable changes, and the individual’s context. The themes present information about the process and to what extent the informants felt that the intervention was adapted to fit their lives and needs.

    Conclusions: This study emphasizes the importance of individualizing exercise interventions to support individuals’ diverse capacities and psychological needs.

  • 39.
    Staveborg Kerkelä, Ellen
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Jonsson, Linus
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Strand, Jennifer
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Individual experiences following a six month exercise intervention: a qualitative study2015In: Edinburgh 2015: ISBNPA: International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity: Advancing Behavior Change Science: 3rd – 6th June 2015: Abstract Book, 2015, p. 399-399Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:

    Dropout is a common problem invarious exercise interventions. The individual ́s experience is believed to greatly impact dropout, yet little is known about the individual experiences of taking part in exercise interventions. The aim of this study was to gain understanding of participants’ personal experiences in relation to participating in an exercise intervention.

    Methods:

    A qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews was conducted with eight informants (malen= 3; femalen: 5) aged between 26 to 47 years, whom all had participated in a six month exercise intervention with individual coaching based on Self-Determination Theory and Motivational Interviewing. The interviews were analyzed thematically with an inductive approach.

    Results/findings:

    Aspects that influenced the informants’ participation, motivation and adherence to the exercise intervention could be linked to three themes: For the greater good, Self-awareness: knowing, and The individual’s context. In relation to the themes, it was discussed to what extent the informants felt that the intervention was adapted to fit their specific needs.

    Conclusions:

    This study highlights the importance of tailoring exercise interventions to better support the individuals’ specific needs.

  • 40.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Hassmén, Peter
    School of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour, Australia.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Psychology & Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Longitudinal associations between athletes’ controlled motivation, ill-being, and perceptions of controlling coach behaviors: A Bayesian latent growth curve approach2017In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 30, p. 205-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although many scholars have argued that leadership is a dynamic process jointly produced by leaders and followers, leadership in sports is most often researched as a unidirectional process from coaches to athletes. Within self-determination theory (SDT), individual characteristics are suggested to influence how people perceive external events such as coaches' behaviors. In the present study, we examined this jointly produced leadership process by investigating longitudinal associations between athletes' controlled motivation, ill-being, and perceptions of coaches' controlling behaviors at the between- and within-person levels. The participants were 247 young elite skiers enrolled at Swedish sport high schools who responded to self-report questionnaires at three time points over the course of an athletic season. At the between-person level, increases in perceptions of coaches' controlling behaviors over the season positively predicted controlled motivation at the end of the season, and controlled motivation at the beginning of the season positively predicted ill-being at the end of the season. At the within-person level, athletes' controlled motivation positively predicted perceptions of coaches’ controlling behaviors. The results at the between-person level support the unidirectional perspective and the tenets of SDT. The results at the within-person level suggest that individual characteristics such as motivation can influence how athletes perceive external events, which has been proposed theoretically but seldom examined empirically. Three plausible explanations for this reversed association are presented in the discussion.

  • 41.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden & Research Institute for Sport and Exercise, Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra, Australia.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Using bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling to examine global and specific factors in measures of sports coaches' interpersonal styles2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 1303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work we investigated distinct sources of construct-relevant psychometric multidimensionality in two sport-specific measures of coaches’ need-supportive (ISS-C) and controlling interpersonal (CCBS) styles. A recently proposed bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) framework was employed to achieve this aim. In Study 1, using a sample of floorball players, the results indicated that the ISS-C can be considered as a unidimensional measure, with one global factor explaining most of the variance in the items. In Study 2, using a sample of male ice hockey players, the results indicated that the items in the CCBS are represented by both a general factor and specific factors, but the subscales differ with regard to the amount of variance in the items accounted for by the general and specific factors. These results add further insight into the psychometric properties of these two measures and the dimensionality of these two constructs.

  • 42.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity. Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling in Sport and Exercise Psychology2015In: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 37, p. 410-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bayesian statistics is on the rise in mainstream psychology, but applications in sport and exercise psychology research are scarce. In this article, the foundations of Bayesian analysis are introduced, and we will illustrate how to apply Bayesian structural equation modeling in a sport and exercise psychology setting. More specifically, we contrasted a confirmatory factor analysis on the Sport Motivation Scale II estimated with the most commonly used estimator, maximum likelihood, and a Bayesian approach with weakly informative priors for cross-loadings and correlated residuals. The results indicated that the model with Bayesian estimation and weakly informative priors provided a good fit to the data, whereas the model estimated with a maximum likelihood estimator did not produce a well-fitting model. The reasons for this discrepancy between maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation are discussed as well as potential advantages and caveats with the Bayesian approach. © 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.

  • 43.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cross-lagged structural equation modeling and latent growth modeling2016In: An Introduction to Intermediate and Advanced Statistical Analyses for Sport and Exercise Scientists / [ed] Nikos Ntoumanis & Nicholas D. Myers, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2016, 1, p. 131-154Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The only constant is change: analysing and understanding change in sport and exercise psychology research2017In: International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1750-984X, E-ISSN 1750-9858, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 230-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to examine within-person change is essential to test process-based theories in sport and exercise psychology. Longitudinal data, whether experimental or observational, are prerequisites to be able to examine change processes, but most longitudinal studies in sport and exercise psychology focus solely on between-person/group differences, not on within-person change. In this review, we (1) provide researchers in the sport and exercise psychology field with a framework for longitudinal research that focuses on within-person change; (2) provide an overview of how researchers in sport and exercise psychology currently analyse longitudinal data, which showed that most longitudinal studies focus on between-person/group differences; and (3) provide examples of statistical models for analysing longitudinal data that correspond to the framework for longitudinal research. In the examples, we focus on latent variable modelling, such as latent growth-curve modelling and latent change-score modelling, which capture within-person change. We argue that there is a need for stronger emphasis on the match among theory of change, temporal design, and statistical models when designing longitudinal studies in sport and exercise psychology. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

  • 45.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden & University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand & University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gucciardi, Daniel F.
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Exploring longitudinal measurement invariance and the continuum hypothesis in the Swedish version of the Behavioral Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ): An exploratory structural equation modeling approach2018In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 36, p. 187-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The aims of the present study were to: (a) examine longitudinal measurement invariance in the Swedish version of the Behavioral Regulations in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ) and (b) examine the continuum hypothesis of motivation as postulated within self-determination theory.

    Design

    Two-wave survey.

    Method

    Young competitive athletes (N = 354) responded to the BRSQ early in the season (November) and at the end of the athletic season (April). Data were analyzed using exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) and bifactor ESEM.

    Results

    We found support for strict longitudinal measurement invariance in the BRSQ. Latent mean comparisons showed an increase in external regulation and amotivation across the season. The latent factor correlations indicated some deviations from a simplex pattern related to amotivation, external regulation, and introjected regulation. In the bifactor model, intrinsic motivation items had negative factor loadings on the global factor, identified regulation items had factor loadings approaching zero, and introjected and external regulation and amotivation items all had moderate to strong positive factor loadings.

    Conclusion

    The present study adds longitudinal measurement invariance to the psychometric evidence of the BRSQ. Research on why the latent means of the behavioral regulations changed over the athletic season is warranted. The continuum hypothesis was partially supported. Latent factor correlations and factor loadings on the global factor in the bifactor ESEM highlighted that the discriminant validity of the controlled regulations and amotivation needs further investigation. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 46.
    Weman Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Kristina
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Sara
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mechanisms in Self-Determined Exercise Motivation: Effects of a Theory Informed Pilot Intervention2017In: Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.), ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 90-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to examine the effects of an exercise pilot intervention informed by Self-determination theory. The 64 participants were randomized into experimental and control group. The main questions were whether the intervention would influence (a) exercise level, (b) motivation quality, and (c) autonomy and competence need satisfaction. We also examined the indirect effects of self-determined motivation on exercise. Significant intervention effects were found regarding exercise level and motivation quality. Also, intervention effect on exercise was found to be mediated by motivation quality and identified regulation. The results provide interesting information about the underlying mechanisms involved in exercise behaviour change. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

  • 47.
    Weman Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Halila, Fawzi
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wickström, Nicholas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Wärnestål, Pontus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Digital innovations and self-determined exercise motivation: a person-centred perspective2014In: Vitalis – Nordens ledande eHälsomöte 2014: Vetenskapliga papers presenterade vid Vitalis konferens, Svenska Mässan, Göteborg, 8-10 april 2014, Göteborg: Vitalis & Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet , 2014, p. 22-25Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health care costs are increasing twice as fast as wealth, making health promotion and development of cost-effective care increasingly important in order to generate sustainable health care solutions. E-health, applications and interactive tools for exercise promotion flourish; but despite this and an overflow of information regarding health benefits of regular physical activity, exercise adherence has proven to be a significant challenge. This article concerns a project aimed to design an interactive tool based on comprehensive knowledge from the field of psychology combined with expertise from information technology and innovation, based on e-health industrial requirements and user needs. The research group will, together with the expertise and infrastructure of the collaborating companies Health Profile Institute AB and Tappa Service AB, support and progress an existing PhD-project on digital interventions in exercise motivation. This will be done by designing; applying and evaluating a person-centred digital intervention prototype for exercise motivation and adherence enhancement based on Self-Determination Theory.

  • 48.
    Weman Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effects of a digital intervention program on motivational regulation patterns in an exercise context: A latent transition analysis of the “motivational soup”2017In: Sport Psychology: Linking theory to practice: Proceedings of the XIV ISSP World Congress of Sport Psychology / [ed] Gangyan, S., Cruz, J. & Jaenes, J.C., Sevilla: International Society of Sport Psychology , 2017, p. 319-320Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the self-determination theory of motivation the concept “motivational soup” refers to motivational regulations forming profiles of accumulated drives towards behavior. Few studies have examined the probability of intervention effects to change such motivational profiles over time, knowledge that might inform future program design to promote sustainable exercise motivation. Participants (N=318) were 279 women and 40 men, aged 23-67 years (Mage=46.7; SD=9.4) consisting of adult members of a web-based step contest provided by their employers. Of the 166 individuals randomly assigned to the experimental group, 85 logged in to the digital intervention platform at least once and were considered treated as intended. This group had access to a web-based digital exercise motivation intervention based on SDT for three weeks. The trial had three measure points; T1 baseline, T2 (3 weeks) and a follow up T3 (6 weeks). To investigate the potential effect of the intervention on the odds of participants to change motivational profiles between T1 and T3 we used Latent Transition Analysis. The intervention had positive main effects on exercise level. A four profile solution showed good quality of classification into the separate profiles (entropy = .92). The profiles were labeled high-high (n=262), high-low (n=26), low-high (n=8), and low-low (n=12), where the label high reflected a more autonomous regulation pattern (missing n=10). Participants in the autonomous profile at T1 had high probabilities of remaining there at T3, but slightly lower probability in the control (82%) than the intervention (95%) condition. Participants in the control condition also had a statistically significant increased probability to belong to the profile with a decreased level autonomy T3 (high-low profile) (OR=4.0, p=.008).These results indicate that this digital exercise motivation intervention can increase the likelihood for participants to sustain autonomous motivation profiles over time.

  • 49.
    Weman Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zooming in on the effects – Psychological need satisfaction mediates the effects of a digital exercise intervention on motivational regulations and exercise behavior2017In: Sport Psychology: Linking theory to practice: Proceedings of the XIV ISSP World Congress of Sport Psychology / [ed] Gangyan, S., Cruz, J. & Jaenes, J.C., Sevilla: International Society of Sport Psychology , 2017, p. 309-310Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Examination of the mediating mechanisms within the self-determination theory process model will provide deeper insight in the mechanisms of motivational regulations and psychological need satisfaction. Optimally, such studies should also include examination of action theory links and conceptual theory links to consider theory capacity (Cerin & MacKinnon, 2009). We studied 318 participants (aged 23-67 years) included in a controlled trial testing a digital intervention tool aiming to promote self-determined exercise motivation using 3 wave measurement over the course of 6 weeks. The participants (279 women and 40 men) were randomized into experimental and control group and completed a web-based test battery with the SDT-related measures (Psychological needs in exercise scale, Behavioral regulations in exercise scale -2, and Leisure time exercise questionnaire) at baseline, post intervention (3 weeks) and follow up (6 weeks). Mediation analyses were conducted using the SPSS macro Process by Hayes (2013). Results showed indirect effects of psychological need satisfaction regarding the effect of the intervention on motivation and exercise behavior at follow up measures. In the group of participants exposed to the intervention, higher levels of autonomy need satisfaction at follow-up predicted lower levels of amotivation and external regulation. In these models we found positive significant action theory links and negative conceptual theory links, showing the intervention to impact autonomy in positive direction, while higher autonomy need satisfaction in turn decreased controlled motivation and amotivation. Higher scores of autonomy need satisfaction at follow-up also predicted higher scores of identified regulation, intrinsic regulation and autonomous motivation. Lower levels of amotivation were linked with higher levels of total exercise. In sum, the results reflect expectations from a a self-determination theory perspective and are in favor of intervention efficacy.

  • 50.
    Weman Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zooming in on the Effects: a Controlled Trial on Motivation and Exercise Behaviour in a Digital Context2018In: Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.), ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 250-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a description of a short-term digital exercise intervention based on the theoretical framework self-determination theory and tested in a controlled trial. The sample consisted of 318 adult women (n = 279) and men (n = 40) aged 23–67 years (M = 46.7; SD = 9.4) participating in a digital step contest provided by their employer. All participants completed study baseline measures via validated web-based versions of the following instruments: Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale, Behavioural Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2, and Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire. These measures were repeated twice, 3 weeks (post-intervention) and 6 weeks (follow-up) after study baseline. The experimental group had access to the intervention platform for three weeks. Data were analysed by analyses of covariance and mediation variable analysis. Results showed the intervention to affect exercise level and intensity as well as basic psychological need satisfaction and behavioural regulations. Intervention effects on amotivation post-intervention were found to mediate total exercise behaviour at follow-up. Moderation analyses showed intervention effects on light exercise to be stronger for those participants engaging in moderate or high levels of light activities at study baseline. Also, the effect on identified regulation was stronger for those with low levels of identified regulation at study baseline. This study adds to the knowledge on exercise motivation based on short-term intervention effects on level and intensity of exercise and physical activity. The use of mediating and moderating analyses uncover processes underlying the main intervention effects. Findings are discussed in relation to self-determination theory and previous research. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

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