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  • 1.
    Alinaitwe, Henry Mwanaki
    et al.
    Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Mwakali, Jackson
    Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
    Hansson, Bengt
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Innovation Barriers and Enablers that Affect Productivity in Uganda Building Industry2007In: Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, ISSN 1823-6499, E-ISSN 2180-4222, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 59-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry has of recent been blamed for lack of innovation. Lack of innovation in the industry is believed to be responsible for the decreasing or stagnant levels of productivity in comparison with other industries. This paper reviews the major barriers and enables to innovation in general. Propositions were made about the factors that affect innovation in the construction industry which were then formulated into a questionnaire. A survey was made on building contractors in Uganda, a developing country, targeting those with financial strength, large in size, and with high capacity to carry out big projects. The identified factors were then ranked and correlated. The level of training in science, engineering and technical education, and the level of research and development at the industry level are looked at as the greatest innovation enablers in building that will drive forward labour productivity. The size of the domestic market and the level of security are the worst innovation barriers that lead to low productivity in the building industry in Uganda. Contractors, policy makers and the government should address the identified factors in order to improve productivity.

  • 2.
    Alinaitwe, Henry
    et al.
    Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Mwakali, Jackson
    Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
    Hansson, Bengt
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Building firm innovation enablers and barriers affecting productivity in Mwakali and Taban-Wani2006In: Advances in Engineering and Technology: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Advances in Engineering and Technology 16-19 July 2006, Entebbe, Uganda / [ed] Jackson A. Mwakali & Gyavira Taban-Wani, Oxford: Elsevier, 2006, p. 268-276Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    AlNasseri, Hammad Abdullah
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Aulin, Radhlinah
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Towards a Taxonomy of Planning and Scheduling Methods in the Context of Construction Management2013In: Proceedings from 7th Nordic Conference On Construction Economics And Organisation 2013: Green Urbanisation – Implications For Value Creation / [ed] Ole Jonny Klakegg, Kari Hovin Kjølle, Cecilie G. Mehaug, Nils O.E. Olsson, Asmamaw T. Shiferaw & Ruth Woods, Trondheim: Akademika forlag, 2013, p. 570-581Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning and scheduling are considered as one of the most difficult but most important processes from perspectives of project management. These processes involve implementation of a widerange of planning methods used by different organizations with various levels of planning knowledge. The planning methods for scheduling can be classified as traditional methods (e.g. line of balance, Gantt chart and critical path) and modern methods (e.g. last planner and critical chain). Over time these methods had advanced from paper based to computer based. However, some project planners still prefer using the traditional methods despite other new alternatives. Users of those methods have different perspectives about the efficiency and effectiveness of the different planning methods used to manage different projects. Evidences from the secondary data found from extensive literatures have been used to assess the planning and scheduling methods mentioned above. A taxonomy describing each of the method in terms of their theories, key features, application areas, benefits and limitations is presented. The preliminary outcome of this paper may provide a tool to aid organizations in selecting and prioritizing the most appropriate methods to be developed and implemented in planning and scheduling of their projects. It also initializes a theoretical base for more rapid taxonomy studies on the use of different planning and scheduling approaches. As an overall, the present paper reminds practitioners of common ground about its important insights on how such taxonomy studies have potential to make scope of those methods and tools clearer, especially when they compare among them within the same application contexts.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Niclas
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Construction Innovation Systems - A Sector Approach2005In: Understanding the Construction Business and Companies in the New Millennium / [ed] Kalle Kähkönen & Martin Sexton, Helsinki: VTT – Technical Research Centre of Finland & RIL – Association of Finnish Civil Engineers , 2005, p. 203-213Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies depict the general need to increase and improve innovation in the construction industry. Innovation processes are traditionally described and analysed either on a macro level or a micro level. Production in construction is basically project oriented, as opposed to manufacturing industries for which most of these theories are developed. It is not fully sufficient to study innovation from a micro or a macro level due to the effects of the project orientation and the large number of actors in the construction industry. The objective of this paper is to present a model of the construction innovation systems from a sector systems approach. The study rests upon findings in the area of innovation systems in general and construction innovation systems in particular on one hand and construction sector systems analysis on the other. This paper presents arguments for the development of activity based innovation systems at a construction sector level.

  • 5.
    Anheim, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Learning organizations in the Swedish construction area2001In: Construction Economics and Organization: Proceedings of the 2nd Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization: 24–25 April 2001, Gothenburg, Sweden / [ed] Jan Bröchner, Per-Erik Josephson & Bengt Larsson, Göteborg: Dept. of Building Economics and Management, Dept. of Service Management, Chalmers Univ. of Technology , 2001, p. 259-266Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Bertelsen, Niels Haldor
    et al.
    SBi, Aalborg University, Hørsholm, Denmark .
    Haugbølle, Kim
    SBi, Aalborg University, Hørsholm, Denmark .
    Hansson, Bengt
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Houvila, Pekka
    VTT, Esbo, Finland.
    Porkka, Janne
    VTT, Esbo, Finland.
    Karud, Ole Jørgen
    Selskapet for industriell og teknisk forskning ved Norges tekniske høgskole (SINTEF), Trondheim, Norway.
    CREDIT Summary and National Recommendations: Indicators and benchmarking framework for transparency in construction and real estate in the Nordic and Baltic countries: CREDIT Report 62010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarises the work undertaken in the CREDIT project and proposals for how to implement the CREDIT framework. It is the final part of the Nordic/Baltic project CREDIT: Construction and Real Estate – Developing Indicators for Transparency. The report presents the objectives and the research model for CREDIT followed by a summary of the results of CREDIT Reports 2, 3, 4 and 5. The conclusive part of the report presents national recommendations of how to implement the CREDIT framework in the Nordic/Baltic countries Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Estonia and Lithuania.

  • 7.
    Chen, Le
    et al.
    Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
    Manley, Karen
    Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
    Lewis, Joanne
    Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
    Helfer, Fernanda
    School of Engineering, Griffith University, Nathan, Australia.
    Widén, Kristian
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Procurement and Governance Choices for Collaborative Infrastructure Projects2018In: Journal of construction engineering and management, ISSN 0733-9364, E-ISSN 1943-7862, Vol. 144, no 8, article id 04018071Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative approaches to infrastructure procurement are increasingly popular around the world due to their potential to provide improved project performance compared with more traditional approaches. The problem is that project outcomes continue to be unpredictable. Previous research has shown that this is the case regardless of whether the chosen procurement approach is based on price or non price selection of the project team. This is a major choice that clients make, but the presented research shows that governance choices for project execution are more important. This is significant because clients tend to focus more on procurement choices and typically do not differentiate governance based on those choices. This needs to change, and the authors show that optimal governance configurations vary on the basis of the chosen type of team configuration. For example, three specific governance arrangements for workshops are highlighted for single teams, and two specific governance arrangements for risk/reward sharing are highlighted for multiple teams. This study identifies governance actions that are associated with superior time and cost outcomes on collaborative infrastructure projects in Australia run by experienced public-sector clients under the two procurement scenarios. Based on a survey of 320 senior managers, independent sample t-tests were conducted to compare the application of governance actions among three distinct groups of projects, based on type of team selection and type of project outcome. The study provides evidence of the most effective approaches to project governance in a country that is a world leader. The results provide much needed recommendations for improved project performance based on large-scale quantitative analysis, which before now has not existed. Overall, the study recommends more attention be paid to noncontractual governance under both approaches to team selection, although the specific actions recommended vary. © 2018 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology (LTU), Luleå, Sweden.
    Olander, Stefan
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Szentes, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology (LTU), Luleå, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Managing short-term efficiency and long-term development through industrialized construction2014In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 32, no 1-2, p. 97-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a strong need for a productive and innovative infrastructure sector because of its monetary value and importance for the development of a sustainable society. An increased level of industrialization is often proposed as a way to improve efficiency and productivity in construction projects. In prior literature on industrialized construction, there are however neither many studies addressing more long-term aspects of innovation and sustainability nor studies within the infrastructure context. Organizational theory suggests that firms need to be ambidextrous and focus on both long-term exploration of new knowledge and Technologies and short-term exploitation of current knowledge and technologies, in order to achieve sustainable development. Therefore, an investigation of how both short-term exploitative performance objectives and long-term explorative development can be addressed when implementing industrialized construction in infrastructure projects was conducted. A case study consisting of four infrastructure projects shows that the main drivers for increased industrialization are of an exploitative nature, focusing on cost savings and increased productivity through more efficient processes. The main barriers to increased industrialization are however related to both explorative and exploitative activities. Hence, by managing the identified barriers and explicitly addressing both exploitation and exploration, industrialized construction can improve both short-term efficiency and long-term innovation and sustainability. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

  • 9.
    Hansson, Bengt
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Barriers to the dissemination of results from development projects in Sweden2003In: Construction economics and organization: Proceedings of the 3rd Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization, 23-24 April 2003, Lund, Sweden / [ed] Bengt Hansson & Anne Landin, Lund: Division of Construction Management, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund University , 2003, p. 181-190Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Hansson, Bengt
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Gröning, Per-Åke
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Byggprocessforum för en effektivare process2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Construction Process Forum was initiated by the Construction Council. The Construction Council is an organisation which supports cooperation between universities and the construction industry. The Construction Process Forum was formed through that chosen key persons were asked to come up with suggestions on how to create a more effective construction process plus how to improve the image of construction. The aim was also to increase the awareness among the participants of Construction Process Forum. This report narrates the result of one years work within the Construction Process Forum. The focus of this first year was the construction site and the changes needed of the construction process to create better conditions for the construction site. The Construction Process Forum ended with the formulation of a plan of action for the development of construction.

  • 11.
    Hansson, Bengt
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Pemsel, Sofia
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bertelsen, Niels
    Statens Byggeforskning Institut (SBi), Hørsholm, Danmark.
    Haugbølle, Kim
    Statens Byggeforskning Institut (SBi), Hørsholm, Danmark.
    Karud, Ole Jørgen
    Selskapet for industriell og teknisk forskning ved Norges tekniske høgskole (Sintef), Trondheim, Norway.
    Huovila, Pekka
    VTT, Esbo, Finland.
    Project Assessments in Construction and Real Estate: Analysing management of end-user needs and ensuring performance in the building life cycle. CREDIT Report 42010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report a generic model for the capture and assessment of end-user requirements and needs, the CREDIT carpenter model, has been developed. The main determinants of the model is the need for the project organisation (including the facilities management organisation) to ensure a thorough understanding of the end-user requirements and needs as well as an assessment through out the project process. The end-users and the project organisation are often working in two different value chains. This, among other things, means that they may not share a common understanding of the process. Apart from just assessing to what extent the requirements and needs has been achieved it is important to assess the process of accomplishing the desired result. This way it is possible to learn from what has worked well and what has not. There is some variation in what and how it is being assessed depending on what type of building it is. Assessments on housing are more inclined to focus on softer aspects, for example perception etc. In the other cases there are, generally, a more technical perspective. It may be an affect of how knowledgeable the users are. In regard to housing the users have possible less experience of construction and communicating their needs than in the case of offices etc. There is also a notable difference between approaches and interest on what to assess in the different countries. Sweden has a much more soft approach and an ambition of getting as many as possible to understand what is being assessed and for what reasons while Finland has a much more technical and measurable approach. The clients, naturally, play a large part in the construction process, also when it come to capturing and transferring the requirements and needs of the end-users. It is mainly the clients that initiate it. Maybe more surprisingly, they do perform a lot of the work themselves as well. Designers play an important role as do known end-users as well. During the project it is mainly the client that initiates the assessments, but the actors of the project process, designers and producers that perform it. Evaluating the degree of fulfilling the requirements and needs as well as assessing the process to enable learning is again mainly a client action both initiating and performing, the rest of the actors do not engage to any larger degree. The processes from begin of the brief to the end of construction have well developed routines as a part of the project management system. These routines are good enough to successfully fulfil the studied project and the control of the process in order to get internal efficiency in the short run perspective. But there is almost no case that shows any assessment tool that support feedback, the knowledge development and the innovation process which is important in the long-run perspective. The missing feedback is marked in the carpenter model. Found in the study there are two examples of tools that together may to some extent overrun this issue. Building Information Models have the potential of acting as an information carrier within a project, storing all types of information needed for assessing a number of different aspects. The main issue is to get the right information and presenting it in a way suitable for the target group. This is done in the case of Falk in Skanska (in Norway). It is a system gathering and presenting a multitude of KPIs, from a number of different systems, in an easy to understand layout.

  • 12.
    Hansson, Bengt
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sverige.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sverige.
    Seeger-Meriaux, Anna
    Lund University, Lund, Sverige.
    Byggandets innovationsprocess: hinder och möjligheter i svenska utvecklingsprojekt2004Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Hjort, Bengt
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Larsson, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Widén, Kristian
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Adoption of a Working Environment Innovation: “Rollout Bar Carpets”2015In: Proceedings CIB W099 Belfast 2015 / [ed] Mike Behm & Ciaran McAleenan, Downpatrick: EEI Publishing , 2015, p. 417-425Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work environment problems associated with reinforcement work at constructions sites are often great and difficult. This applies especially to the ergonomic situation. The situation is particularly difficult in connection with reinforcement in horizontal structural elements such as slabs and foundation slabs on the ground, where several of the most difficult load factors occur. Since about 15 years there is an innovation (rollout bar carpets) available on the Swedish market. This innovation can many times be used at these structural elements and gives both time savings and working environmental benefits. Despite this the innovation has been and is adopted rather seldom. The reasons for this have been studied through semi structured interviews with with design-engineers, site-managers, workers and persons working at a reinforcement manufacturing company. The main results from the study are as follows: i) Rollout bar carpets have a potential of improving both work environment and time consumption on site. However, this may not be enough in itself to achieve a general adoption of the technology. ii) The implementation and adoption of innovations in construction may be more complex than the novelty of the innovation may suggest. This is due to the contextual delimitations of a project-based industry and the different roles in the construction process.

  • 14.
    Hjort, Bengt
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Petersson, Pontus
    Sendabo, Teferi
    Ström, Kaleb
    Widén, Kristian
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Introduction of sustainable low-cost housing. Experiences from a demonstration project viewed from an innovation diffusion perspective2016In: Proceedings of the CIB World Building Congress 2016: Volume V - Advancing Products and Services / [ed] Nebil Achour, Tampere: Tampere University of Technology, 2016, Vol. 5, p. 431-442Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to describe and analyse, from an innovation diffusion perspective, factors important when using demonstration projects as a tool for introduction of sustainable low cost housing. The study is focused on Ethiopia, a country with big challenges as regards population increase, lack of resources, deforestation, land erosion and a general need for better and sustainable housing, especially in rural areas. The study is furthermore focused on the adobe technology as a more sustainable alternative to the traditional building technology which is very timber consuming. Many attempts have been made to introduce this technology with the use of demonstration buildings. A great part of these attempts have failed, some have been successful. In order to study and discuss important factors in connection with the use of demonstration buildings, a project executed some years ago in southern Ethiopia has been analysed. The study is based on findings collected during and after the erection of these buildings mainly through practical tests, interviews and observations. From a technical point of view this demonstration project was successful. It was possible to develop an appropriate production technology and the result was buildings with a good standard and good function. Experiences up to now indicate a good durability. From an innovation diffusion perspective however the demonstration buildings have not fulfilled their purpose. The impact in the region seems to be very small. The conclusion in the paper is that the reasons behind this failure mainly are: (1) Lack of clear and visible relative advantage in comparison to the traditional building technology. The supply of construction timber in the area in question is still good. (2) Lack of a champion advocating the technology by using the demonstration buildings and thereby giving the message to the society that the technology is valuable and trustworthy. (3) Lack of continuity in the demonstration efforts, as a result of the lack of a champion.

  • 15.
    Hjort, Bengt
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Widén, Kristian
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Introduction of Sustainable Low-cost Housing in Ethiopia – an Innovation Diffusion Perspective2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As many developing countries, Ethiopia is facing a lot of problems. A high population growth and erosion caused by deforestation can be considered the most serious one. The need for housing is increasing while deforestation causes a lack of sustainable and appropriate timber for construction. A challenge facing the Ethiopian society is thus to give a growing population opportunities to obtain decent, sustainable and affordable housing. One way to achieve this is to use adobe technology, which means that houses are built with sun-dried clay blocks. Used correctly, the adobe technology has many benefits. The main advantages are that the technique is relatively simple, local materials can be used and that timber demand is low. Because of this, the technology also has many advantages from a sustain ability perspective. In Ethiopia, most attempts with the adobe technology have been less successful without lasting impacts. In this paper, the reasons for this are discussed. Six cases where adobe has been used are described an analysed. Many factors have been identified as being important for the diffusion of the technology, i.e., a strong champion, market and risk factors, cultural factors creating stigma and basic training. © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 16.
    Hooper, Martin
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    BIM Inertia: Contracts & Behaviours2015In: Building Information Modeling: Applications and Practices / [ed] Raja R. A. Issa & Svetlana Olbina, Reston, Virginia: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2015, p. 107-134Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Whilst Building Information Modelling (BIM) promises significant improvements in construction quality and efficiency, current contractual models do not encourage its use; indeed actively inhibit the collaboration at its core. To help bring BIM into the mainstream, it is claimed we need to re-craft existing contractual relationships to facilitate collaborative decision making and to equitably allocate responsibility among construction participants. This chapter looks at the case of Sweden and aims to identify and appraise observed hindrances to BIM collaboration and digital information stewardship. It presents an understanding of the connections between the commercial environment and contractual provisions that regulate the party’s business relationships and the resultant procedural and behavioural phenomena that can be viewed to thwart BIM collaboration and degrade the value or integrity of digital deliverables. The study then, in a more general context, asks what we can learn here that may have wider application through consideration of suitable BIM collaboration support mechanisms that may reduce or remove collaboration barriers, induce open, sharing behaviours and support the creators and users of digital information. Methods employed include a critical review of existing contract forms, synthesized with focus group interviews (FGIs) with representatives from diverse AEC disciplines. Results indicate that a number of systemic difficulties exist that can create an inertia which can be traced through behaviours and circumstances to contractual provisions. An understanding of such difficulties is presented and a consensus emerges on a number of key supporting mechanisms that may better facilitate meaningful early BIM collaboration and oil the wheels of communication without recourse to re-writing the rule-book.

  • 17.
    Huovila, Pekka
    et al.
    VTT, Esbo, Finland.
    Porkka, Janne
    VTT, Esbo, Finland.
    Bertelsen, Niels Haldor
    SBI, Copenhagen, Denmark & Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Hansson, Bengt
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Haugbølle, Kim
    SBI, Copenhagen, Denmark & Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Hietanen, Päivi
    Senate Properties, Helsinki, Finland.
    Karud, Ole Jørgen
    SINTEF, Trondheim, Norway.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    National and International Benchmarking: CREDIT Report 52010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarizes findings and recommendations from 24 case studies from seven participating countries addressing performance indicator benchmarking at a sectoral, national or international scale. Their distribution in scope is: – benchmarking systems and indicators (4 case studies) – offices (7 case studies) – housing (6 case studies) – school and nursery (4 case studies) – shopping centres (3 case studies). In addition, actual performance benchmarking was done between six Finnish and Norwegian office buildings using CREDIT Key Performance Indicators and a web-based benchmarking tool, developed in CREDIT for that purpose. Some good benchmarking practices exist already at a national and international level. They focus on process issues, investment aspects and environmental properties. These existing schemes contribute to the CREDIT framework, but don't cover well the performance dimension. There isn't yet any commonly agreed European Key Performance Indicator system, or building and real estate performance indicator standard. CREDIT made a contribution to their development from the Nordic/Baltic perspective. It also provided valuable input from the performance and social sustainability point of view to existing economic and environmental oriented schemes that are continuously updated and amended. CREDIT made progress in performance indicator framework and actual performance indicators and tools, some of which were already tested in the case studies. Understanding on existing benchmarking schemes is also improved. The results of CREDIT WP6 performance indicator benchmarking at a sectoral, national or international scale can be exploited in number of ways, such as – the front runner companies adopt the core performance indicators in their practices and influence in forming their use a sector based practice – further development of standardization, tool development (IFCs), benchmarking schemes and rating systems makes use of the results.

  • 18.
    Lindgren, John
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Widén, Kristian
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Diffusing BIM – knowledge integration mechanisms and their effects2016In: Proceedings of the CIB World Building Congress 2016: Volume V - Advancing products and services / [ed] Nebil Achour, Tampere: Tampere University of Technology , 2016, Vol. 5, p. 832-843Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building Information Modelling (BIM) has for a number of years been seen as a systemic inter-organizational innovation that will have great impact on the efficiency of the construction process as a whole. In this study both successful and unsuccessful attempts to diffuse a BIM-service in the construction sector by a building material manufacturer has been studied through multiple data collection methods. Of special interest has been in what ways knowledge has been integrated, i.e. what mechanisms has been used in the case, since it is a key area for diffusion, and this is described and discussed.  Furthermore, the contextual characteristics of the construction sector have been highlighted as influential on diffusion, especially when it comes to areas such as learning, flow of knowledge and feedback loops. Therefore, the context of the different cases and in what ways this affects the knowledge integration process is also described and discussed.

  • 19.
    Olander, Stefan
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sverige.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sverige.
    Differences in implementation and effects of the public procurement act in the EU construction sector2008In: CME 25 Conference Construction Management and Economics: ‘Past, Present and Future’, Volume 1 / [ed] Will Hughes, 2008, Vol. 1, p. 267-276Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All member countries in the EU must follow the given directive for public procurement that has been decided upon. The purpose of the directive is to ensure a sufficient public procurement and a sound use of public resources. However, knowledge about the implementation and effects of the directive is limited. One clear indication is that the effects vary between different countries in the EU. A preliminary study of the implementation of the public procurement act in Sweden and Denmark for the construction sector has been conducted, with the aim of obtaining knowledge of how and why implementation and effects vary. One distinction is that the number of appeals concerning public procurement is higher in Sweden than in Denmark that might depend on a different implementation of the directive, mainly because Sweden has added amendment to the directive while Denmark has not. The variation of implementing the directive between member countries may have negative impact upon the opportunities of obtaining the best possible service and technical solution in the public procurement process.

  • 20.
    Olander, Stefan
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Measuring Change in a Sector: CREDIT Case SE062010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This case describes an ongoing initiative in Sweden with the aim of measuring the development of the Swedish infrastructure sector. The reason this case was chose is that it is one, of only a very few, national initiatives with a clear aim of taking an holistic approach to assess the development of one large share of the Swedish construction sector. The purpose of this case is to investigate:– What measures are used– The underlying assumptions for the choice of measureThe case study mainly contributes to WP6 (report 4)National benchmarking (WP6) summaryIn Sweden, apart from the larger Utmärkt Samhällsbyggande a more focused program aimed at improving the competitiveness of the civil engineering part of construction, FIA (Renewal within the civil engineering sector), was launched in December 2003. FIA saw a need to monitor how the civil engineering sector develops, in order to effectively plan and implement development projects.

    This survey will not directly measure the effect that FIA has on the civil engineering sector. What is measured is the direction of change for the Swedish civil engineering sector during the years that FIA is active. This knowledge could indirectly be used by FIA to initiate additional studies concerning specific subjects that could guide the civil engineering sector in a desired direction.

    Two main issues are of importance in regard to the CREDIT objectives.

    1. The difficulty of getting in the data – although this assessment has been initiated, approved and sponsored by the very top management of the two largest infrastructure clients and even though it is written in the procurement guidelines for both of these organisations that the survey hould be carried out jointly, between the client and the supplier consultant or contractor), it has been extremely difficult to get the survey sent in. Now, both of these two organisations have designated personnel to track down projects and make them fill it out, according to guidelines, and send it in.

    2. The main performance the parties in the sector are interested to measure and to keep track of is efficiency and productivity. They are largely uninterested of measuring the performance of the product and/or how it affects the end-users. Similar tendencies have been seen in other national initiatives on housing in Sweden. This is to some extent in large contrast to the views and aim of the CREDIT project.

  • 21.
    Olander, Stefan
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Bengt
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Industrialiserat anläggningsbyggande – möjligheter och hinder2012In: Vägar till förbättrad produktivitet och innovationsgrad i anläggningsbranschen: bilagedel : betänkande. D. 2 / [ed] Produktivitetskommittén, Stockholm: Fritze , 2012, p. 327-356Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Olander, Stefan
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Bengt
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Pemsel, Sofia
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Productivity comparisons, are they possible or even desirable?2010In: CIB World Congress 2010, Building a Better World, Programme & Book of Abstracts / [ed] Peter Barrett, Dilanthi Amaratunga, Richard Haigh, Kaushal Keraminiyage, & Chaminda Pathirage, Salford: University of Salford , 2010, p. 58-67Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased productivity is of societal good and efforts to achieve this should be a relevant task for all businesses. However, the concept of productivity is not clear as to what is to be measured. This becomes a problem especially when statements are made that the development of productivity in the construction industry is not as good as other sectors of industry. It is not clear if this comparison is relevant or even possible to make. This study aims to address and discuss the problem surrounding productivity measurements and comparison of them and is based on literature reviews that address the problem of evaluating productivity, with special focus on construction productivity. The results show that there is no uniform measure for construction productivity that can be used. Different situation calls for different measures. There unique circumstances for various construction activities, such as housing, commercial, industrial, infrastructure etc, that makes comparison of productivity between them virtually impossible. If statements of productivity are made without the knowledge of what the measures really show or is based on, there is a risk that these lead to misleading conclusions. Every study of productivity needs to be critically scrutinised with a high degree of scepticism. Instead of trying to achieve one uniform measure of productivity a set of key performance indicators can be used instead in order to obtain more qualitative facts about the state of the construction industry.

  • 23.
    Olander, Stefan
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nordvall, Frida
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Implementering av LOU: effekter för byggsektorn2008Report (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Pemsel, Sofia
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bridging boundaries between organizations in construction2011In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 495-506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations have boundaries that serve various purposes; for example, differentiating internal operations from external activities and controlling flows of information. Boundaries can however hinder knowledge exchange in inter‐organizational collaboration, leading to less effective outcomes. Empirical results from comparative case studies on how boundaries between organizations in a project can be bridged effectively to support knowledge exchange are presented. End‐user organizations and real estate companies form the subjects of the enquiry. The results show that the depth of involvement of the end‐user organization varies widely and, with it, the use of bridging roles and activities. To identify bridging strategies that can foster productive knowledge exchange in inter‐organizational collaboration, it is necessary to understand contextual aspects of end‐users’ needs to ensure the availability of sufficient competence within, and time for, the project team to perform its duties. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  • 25.
    Pemsel, Sofia
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Creating knowledge of end users' requirements: The interface between firm and project2010In: Project Management Journal, ISSN 8756-9728, E-ISSN 1938-9507, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 122-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to stay competitive and meet the changing needs of the market, construction firms must develop efficient means of gathering and using knowledge of end-users requirements. This study uses two case studies, to explore the knowledge creation of end-users requirements in project driven firms. The focus of the study is the interface between firm and project. The interface is analyzed from both an autopoietic and cognitive, organizational and societal view. The findings implicates the importance of understanding (a) what kinds of knowledge that is dominated in the different organizations (b) what could be expected in the exchange of data, (c) what action needs to be taken in order to create value of it. The study suggests that considering the organization as an autopoietic system could be useful to understand the organizations responses to a dynamic environment. © 2010 by the Project Management Institute.

  • 26.
    Pemsel, Sofia
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Bengt
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Managing the needs of end-users in the design and delivery of construction projects2010In: Facilities, ISSN 0263-2772, E-ISSN 1758-7131, Vol. 28, no 1/2, p. 17-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The two-fold purpose of this paper is identifying areas of difficulty in managing the needs of end-users in the course of the design and delivery of construction projects and suggesting possible solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The focus of the paper is the interaction between three principal parties: end-users, project leader (a selected end-user) and facility planner (a facilities professional). The context is two projects in the public sector: a university and a hospital. The end-users of both are known from the start and participate in the whole process. The paper is based on a case study comprising 12 interviews - seven end-users and five professionals. Findings: The research shows that during the project's design and delivery, communication and attitudinal problems have to be managed alongside the inherent difficulty of understanding end-users' real needs. To help in managing these issues, facility planners relied heavily on pedagogical and behavioural skills, rather than formalised methods as found in the literature. Practical implications: The findings highlight areas of difficulty for managers and planners and how these areas were handled in practice. Suggestions on how to resolve some of the areas are presented and discussed. Originality/value: Much of the research related to managing end-users focuses on how to extract value from the construction process, for instance providing greater flexibility and improved air quality. This paper concentrates on relations between parties who are central to the briefing, design and delivery process © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 27.
    Pemsel, Sofia
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Svetoft, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Bengt
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Managing End User Requirements in Construction Projects2009In: Proceedings of 5th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organisation, Vol. 1, 2009, p. 44-55Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The research presented is the initial part of a project with the aim of increasing the use of end-user requirement through out the construction process. This initial part maps how Swedish real estate companies manage end-user requirements and evaluate the outcome.

    Methodological approach

    The focus of the study was on methods for capturing and managing end-user requirements and for measuring their satisfaction with the outcome. The study was conducted as a desktop study using literature databases and through interviews with key personnel from 12 different companies; from housing, office and school real estate management to health care facilities management.

    Results

    The literature review showed that there are a number of different methods that could be used for parts, but that there exist no method that cover the whole process. There are different ways to combine methods for achieving an end-user focus throughout the project. The Swedish real estate companies did, in most cases, measure end-user satisfaction; not in relation to construction projects, but on a general level. Feeding back the knowledge, gained from the evaluations, into construction projects were found difficult and thereby not done. The companies were all interested in new ways of working and thought that it would improve there business.

    Status

    The paper is based on work made in the spring of 2008 this initial part of the study is almost finished and will be completely finished by the time of full paper submission.

    Contribution

    The work identifies the problems of keeping an end-user approach through the whole building cycle; from briefing to evaluating the building in use. The paper gives a collection of different methods and indicators and how these could be combined to create greater value for the end-users as well as the state of the art of work methods in practice in Sweden.

  • 28.
    Porkka, Janne
    et al.
    VTT, Esbo, Finland.
    Huovila, Pekka
    VTT, Esbo, Finland.
    Bertelsen, Niels Haldor
    Statens Byggeforskning Institut (SBi), Hørsholm, Danmark.
    Hansson, Bengt
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Haugbølle, Kim
    Statens Byggeforskning Institut (SBi), Hørsholm, Danmark.
    Hietanen, Päivi
    Senate Properties, Helsinki, Finland.
    Karud, Ole Jørgen
    Selskapet for industriell og teknisk forskning ved Norges tekniske høgskole (SINTEF), Trondheim, Norway.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nordic and Baltic Case Studies and Assessments in Enterprises - CREDIT Report 22010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarizes 28 case studies addressing the common interest for indicators in case studies in Nordic and Baltic countries and is distributed to different building types

    – Benchmarking systems and indicators (4 case studies)

    – Offices (7 case studies)

    – Housing (8 case studies)

    – School and nursery (5 case studies)

    – Shopping centres (3 case studies)

    – Hospital (1 case studies)

    There are some good practices for benchmarking in large scale. At the moment, those are addressing mostly process and investment indicators, and do not yet cover performance indicators. Front-runner enterprises are already recognizing the potential of benchmarking, rating to highest class may increase interest from investors and building owners. Otherwise, some national and international rating systems are available in the market.

    Few frontline owners are already using cost and performance indicators in daily operations, such as Senate Properties in Finland and Statsbygg in Norway. Their focus is mostly directed to investment, costs, and energy efficiency. Altogether, it seems that systematic procedures are needed in the industry for evaluating performance and compliance to end result to needs.

    There is no commonly agreed or standardized global or European Key Performance Indicator system, but some national and international rating schemes are available. During the past five years a number of rated buildings has grown greatly, and motivation for using those is increasing.

    Market signals are also showing paradigm shift towards end user involvement, and standardized methods for involving end users and making continuous monitoring of satisfaction should be agreed. When committing end users, they need help in order to be able to contribute in value adding way. Workplace management in office buildings is used for tailoring spaces better to end user needs. Senate Properties in Finland develops services where spaces are a strategic asset that can help to contribute an organizational change.

    National and international indicator systems do not cover all important business matters and companies are developing their own systems. Some contractors have been developing national systems for process performance monitoring. Indoor environment is important in shopping centres, and performance level for spaces is an opportunity to owner to enhance cash flow through rental agreements. In the future, building automation systems could provide real-time monitoring of performance indicators continuously contributing changes automatically to reach desired performance.

    Organizations are looking for an indicator system that could help them to measure and enhance performance of buildings. Apparently some indicators are more important than others; regulations for accessibility have become tighter, location is still the core driver, common interest towards operations and reducing annual energy consumptions is growing. There is potential to improve energy efficiency of buildings. Indicator systems should be implemented in tools to encourage usage in projects; those processes are now rather manual. Building Information Models (BIMs) may be suitable tool for managing those more automated way. Based on findings in CREDIT project, offices and shopping centres are most attracting building types in terms of benchmarking.

    Enterprises are benchmarking indicators to some extent but systematic process has not yet been developed and a uniform indicator system considering also building performance and value creation is missing. CREDIT project has increased understanding on indicators and transparency and industry needs more research on this matter.

  • 29.
    Steinhardt, Dale
    et al.
    School of Civil Engineering and Built Environment Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
    Manley, Karen
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Bildsten, Louise
    Department of Industrial Management and Logistics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Widén, Kristian
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    The structure of emergent prefabricated housing industries: a comparative case study of Australia and Sweden2019In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prefabricated housing is a disruptive innovation struggling to take hold in a traditional complex product system (CoPS). It is quicker to produce and has improved environmental performance compared to traditional housing. CoPS have more dense and complex network connections than commodity industries, making disruptive innovation more difficult. Effective relational capabilities can achieve the coordination necessary to address this challenge. The prefabricated housing industry needs to develop a structure that drives these capabilities. Using a case study methodology, the structure of the industry is examined in two contrasting countries, namely Australia and Sweden, as they represent an early and late stage of industry emergence, respectively. A new framework is proposed for this purpose, enabling a repeatable, orderly and comprehensive disaggregation of industry structure to examine the latent drivers of relational capability. The main empirical contribution is to (1) describe an industry that is yet to be formally recognized by national statistical agencies and (2) show how the adoption of prefabricated housing can be accelerated. The study found that younger industries need a focused industry association with diverse membership to act as an effective system integrator. © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 30.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Encouraging innovation through new approaches to procurement2003In: Construction Process Improvement / [ed] Brian Atkin, Jan Borgbrant & Per-Erik Josephson, Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishing, 2003, p. 143-153Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Innovation brokers in the Swedish construction sectorManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As demand on the construction sector to improve has grown in many countries an increasing understanding of the complexity of the national innovation system has developed. in other industrial sectors, with similar complexity, the concept and the importance of innovation brokers has been identified. This concept is examined here in the context of the Swedish construction sector. A number of organisational types, acting as innovation brokers, have been identified. There are no organisations acting as innovation brokers solemnly and their level of independency can to some extent be questioned. This may not be a problem as such; because of the construction innovation system in Sweden varies from the innovation systems from where the concept of innovation brokers has been identified.

  • 32.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Innovation Diffusion in the Construction Sector2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation and development are the backbone of a thriving market economy. It is through innovations of various kinds that nations, industries and companies compete. Many actions in areas internationally and nationally will affect the construction sector. Research into construction innovation has attracted increasing interest. There have been studies ranging from how national research policies support construction innovations to how projects should be organised. One general conclusion is that the level of innovation needs to be improved. There is a need to assess the potential barriers and enablers to achieving a better diffusion of innovations in construction. The overall aim of the research is to increase knowledge of the factors creating successful development, implementation and diffusion of innovations in the construction sector. More specifically, the research aims to understand where the usefulness and weaknesses exist in applying established innovation theory, particularly in regard to diffusion, within the Swedish construction context with the further aim of identifying a suitable basis for creating a shared understanding among stakeholders of the innovation process at work.

    A conceptual model for improving the existing situation was developed using contextualised innovation and diffusion theories. The model was tested using the findings in several supporting papers. It was found that actions in line with the conceptual model would enhance the probability of successful diffusion. The research has also investigated national policies, innovation brokerage and (research and) development projects in Sweden and found systemic weakness in the innovation process. The research has also found that tools of analysis not normally associated with the research problem in the construction domain can be used to provide improved insights to policy makers, innovation brokers and development managers. Significant in this regard is the criticality of communication vertically within the supply chain and laterally amongst suppliers with respect to specific innovations, such that diffusion becomes a normal and, therefore, integral feature of construction activity. The tools of analysis identified and adopted in the research can be used directly by policy makers, innovation brokers and development managers to lead to a shared understanding of barriers and enablers to innovation and a basis for continual improvement. In this connection, causal loop diagrams can aid in assessing the type of organisations needed in communication. Shortcomings in communication can, to a certain extent, also be mitigated by innovation brokers.

  • 33.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Innovation in the Construction Process; a comparison with Complex Product SystemsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovations in construction materials and components are made without being integrated with other materials and components. It is not even enough with innovations only in construction materials and components. This paper is mainly a literature study of research regarding Complex Product Systems (CoPS) and the construction process. The construction process can be compared with theories concerning another context, as in the case of theories of CoPS. According to theory, one problem in a construction process is that solving single issues is not adequate as the required result is often influenced by other issues, confounding the expected outcome. CoPS focuses on system design, knowledge transfer, cross co-operation interactions and communication, and skills and knowledge. It is necessary that these focus work well to achieve an innovation process. Using traditional forms of cooperation, these areas often pose problems in the construction process. The forms of co-operation, which have greater potential than others, are those that do not separate design from production.

  • 34.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Innovation in the Construction Process: A Theoretical Framework2002Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The demands on the construction industry can be met either by fulfilling them by applying existing knowledge and solutions or by creating something new. Trying to meet demands with existing knowledge and solutions is only possible to a certain point, beyond which it is necessary to create something new.

    This thesis aims to create a theoretical framework for new forms of co-operation that encourage innovative procedures. The theoretical framework is based on innovation theories.

    Findings suggest that motivation to innovate is important. It is mainly the client who can provide the incentives for innovation, while it is mainly a malfunctioning process that breaks them down. The process is very much the result of the forms of co-operation used. In the comparison between the construction process and the innovation process eight aspects are found, which are directly influenced by how the co-operation forms are function, namely, allowing the actors to be involved during an extended period of every project, communication, contractual incentives to encourage innovation, early involvement of the different parties, learning, relationship and co-operation with other parties, risk and reward, and support for the idea of longer relationships between the actors.

  • 35.
    Widén, Kristian
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Innovation roles for clients: implementing building information modelling2017In: Clients and Users in Construction: Agency, Governance and Innovation / [ed] Kim Haugbølle & David Boyd, Abingdon: Routledge, 2017, p. 214-228Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Modelling the causes and effects of problems in the construction processManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction process is faced with many challenges, not least dealing with concerns over an adversarial culture, weak suppliers integration and variable quality. With its different levels and numerous participants, the process can be a complex affair. There is a need to understand how the different elements of the process relate to, and effect, each other. The paper presents an analysis of the relationships between certain of these elements, by treating the construction process in a system' context. The particular use of casual loop diagrams to help improve understanding of the interdependences between elements that are considered to the problematic is explored. These diagrams can be used to identify connections of importance when seeking solutions and examples of their use are presented. They show the relationships between problems and those factors that may reinforce or balance one another. The approach advocated in this paper provides tentative steps towards unravelling some of the complexity that obscure the root cause of problems inherent in the process.

  • 37.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nationella innovationsstrategier i byggsektorn – en internationell kartläggning2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Huvudsyftet med rapporten är att göra en kartläggning av nationella innovationsstrategier och en lägesbeskrivning om hur man behandlar innovations frågor i andra länder. Målet är att bidra till en förståelsegrund för hur det fortsatta arbetet med att öka möjligheterna till att en innovativ byggindustri i Sverige ska kunna utvecklas.

    Förståelsen för innovationssystem och processer har ökat, där några nya är specifikt intressanta för byggbranschen.

    Om man ser resultatet av TG 35 arbete som en bild av hur det förhåller sig i omvärlden ligger Sverige bra till. Flera av de aspekter som lyfts fram som något man arbetar med eller kommer att påbörjat i de undersökta länderna pågår redan, i större eller mindre omfattning, i Sverige.

  • 38.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Public Policies and Innovation in the Construction Industry2006In: Clients Driving Construction Innovation: Moving Ideas into Practice / [ed] Kerry Brown, Keith Hampson, Peter Brandon & Janet Pillay, Brisbane, Qld.: CRC Press, 2006, p. 275-280Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    The Construction Process; a Systems ApproachManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction process is believed to have problems. The causes suspected and their solutions have been put forward, but the problems in the construction process have not disappeared. The primary aim of this article is to show that many of the problems perceived are interlinked in a system and that this is one of the reasons that the solutions have not had the expected impact. A systems approach, with reinforcing and balancing causal loop diagrams, has been used to show this. A secondary aim is to give some recommendations for the improvement of the construction process. The article first investigates how to fulfil the goals of a project and solve the problems perceived of the construction process. The main findings are that the systems approach gives a useful understanding of the interconnections between some of the perceived problems and that in some cases it is not enough to change only the most obvious cause of the problem. The causal loop diagrams clearly show that the reinforcing loops are balanced by balancing loops. These are good as they will hinder negative reinforcing loops from becoming vicious, but bad as they may hinder a positive development of the reinforcing loops.

  • 40.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    The Effects of Public Policies on the Construction Industry: How To Analyze and Predict Them?2006In: Clients Driving Innovation: Moving Ideas into Practice, Brisbane, Qld: CRC Press, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Widén, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Utveckling, implementering och spridning av innovationer i byggsektorn2010In: Management of innovation and technology, ISSN 1102-5581, no 2, p. 8-9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42.
    Widén, Kristian
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Andersson, Ola
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Johansson, Rasmus
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Implementation of an Organisational Innovation: The case of partnering in Sweden2008In: Clients Driving Construction Innovation: Benefiting from Innovation / [ed] Kerry Brown, Keith Hampson, Peter Brandon & Janet Pillay, Brisbane, Qld.: CRC Press, 2008, p. 235-240Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Widén, Kristian
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Atkin, Brian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hommen, Leif
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Setting the game plan – The role of clients in construction innovation and diffusion2008In: Clients Driving Innovation / [ed] Peter Brandon & Shu-Ling Lu, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008, p. 78-87Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Widén, Kristian
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Bengt
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Diffusion characteristics of private sector financed innovation in Sweden2007In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 467-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although construction is considered to be slow in adopting new technology and new processes, innovation, research and development are performed routinely. Nonetheless, knowledge about what affects the diffusion of research results - in the context of innovations - is incomplete, limiting the effectiveness of procedures designed to evaluate project proposals. The aim is to examine the factors that can influence the diffusion of results, in this case from externally funded construction innovation projects. A Fisher's exact test is performed on six concepts derived from general innovation theory which are tested on 20 development projects. The test is used to establish the significance of the six concepts and their applicability to construction-related innovation. The results reveal support for all six concepts, although only four of them attract a high level of significance. External lateral and vertical communication and external integration during the development phase are shown to increase the chances of successful diffusion and should therefore be assessed in project proposals.

  • 45.
    Widén, Kristian
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Bengt
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    The construction sector tries to take the lead – A sector lead approach to construction process improvement2005In: Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Construction and Real Estate Management : Challenge of innovation in construction and real estate / [ed] Wang Yaowu & Shen Qiping, Beijing: China Architecture & Building Press , 2005, p. 274-277Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many reports the improvements of the actors in the construction sector have been requested. One explicit factor that has been called for is an increase in cooperation and communication between the different actors. The Swedish construction sector in general has not been swift in accepting new process improvements as they have been put forward by academics or government. There are many possible explanations, among them are that the solutions have been too much of 'desk products', not suitable for direct application into the construction sector and its firms. In the southern region of Sweden a sector initiated and lead initiative with an aim of developing the construction and the real estate management process, increase the profitability across the supply-chain, increase the human value among the actors of the construction process, and increase the image of construction, has been carried out. The forum resulted in increase of knowledge of the construction industry and effect of different actors on it for those who participated. On a more general level a program with the aim of increasing the efficiency and improving the image of the construction industry was developed. This paper discusses the approach as such; advantages and disadvantages as well as lessons learned. It also reports on the outcome of the initiative.

  • 46.
    Widén, Kristian
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Per-Ola
    Skanska, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Governmental guidelines: a barrier to innovative procurement?2003In: Knowledge construction: proceedings of the Joint International Symposium of CIB Working Commissions : W55 : Building economics, W65 : Organisation and management of construction : W107 Construction in developing countries, 22-24 October 2003, Singapore / [ed] George Ofori & Florence Yean Yng Ling, Singapore: Dept. of Building, National University of Singapore , 2003, Vol. 2, p. 438-447Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Widén, Kristian
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lember, Veiko
    Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estland.
    Olander, Stefan
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Helby Petersen, Ole
    Danish Institute of Governmental Research, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Scherrer, Walter
    University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.
    Institutional reasons for not implementing PPPs in the transport sector2012In: COST Action TU1001: Public Private Partnerships in Transport Trends & Theory: 2011 Discussion Papers / [ed] Athena Roumboutsos & Nunzia Carbonara, Bari: Favia , 2012, p. 108-121Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Italian implementation of PPP has its own features which distinguish it from other models adopted in Europe and in the world. International literature lacks of contributions about the Italian case, while the analyses on this issue in the national literature are not systemic. To fill this gap we aim at characterizing the main features of Italian PPPs, in comparison to the features of such partnerships in Europe and in the world.

    Design/methodology/approach – In order to describe the PPP implementation, the paper proposes a theoretical framework describing PPP as it is conceived by international literature.

    Findings – A set of factors, like uncertainty on the rules, complex procedures and the lack of private competences  on PPP, hinder the involvement of private operators in PPPs. Consequently, PPP project financing structure is mainly based on public guarantees, even because of scarce utilization of capital markets for funding.

    Social implications – Practitioners and scholars can use this framework analysis in order to know strengths and weaknesses of PPP application in their socio-economic context.

    Originality/value – The proposed framework represents a useful tool for comparing the application of PPPs among different sectors and different countries. Furthermore, the theoretical framework can be considered a starting point of future research aiming at developing a tool for assessing the expected performance of PPP projects.

  • 48.
    Widén, Kristian
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Olander, Stefan
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Effects of a Lack of Support for Public Private Partnerships: The Swedish Case2010In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Innovation in Architecture, Engineering & Construction (AEC) / [ed] Anumba, C. J., Bouchlaghem, N. M., Messner, J. I., Parfitt, M. K., Loughborough: Loughborough University , 2010, p. 668-676Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is part of a small European minority in the perceived societal gain of PPP. After a pilot PPP project in late 1990’s no additional project has been started in Sweden. Although there is interest from both public infrastructure clients and construction companies the national government has very clearly stated that infrastructure projects should be procured in a traditional way where all funding should come from the national budget. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how a lack of support for governmental interests in PPP solutions affect the innovative climate of infrastructure investments. Broadly defined, PPP solutions are arrangements where the public sector together with a private partner engages in a long-term co-operation to solve a public need. The opponents in Sweden base their arguments on the viewpoint that it if the state cannot finance a well needed infrastructure project within the national budget there is no need for a private initiative since the state can borrow funds on better terms than a private actor. However, the proponents see PPP as way of not only financing well needed project but also as a way of improving the innovative climate of the infrastructure sector. In short, the opponents only see PPP as an alternative way of financing public projects while the proponents see PPP as a opportunity to improve performance of infrastructure facilities by long-term partnerships and incentives to adopt new and innovative solutions in construction and maintenance. The study presented here shows that the main effects of a lack of PPP solutions is the following: First, the time from an identified need until finished project becomes very long since each project needs to fit in the yearly national budget. Secondly, when national funds are insufficient, well needed infrastructure projects are delayed in the planning process often with no definite new time plan, and very rarely does the government borrow additional funds. Thirdly, there is a tendency to divide large infrastructure facilities in smaller entities in order to fit them in the national budget, which has the effect that the full benefits of the investment are delayed. Finally, and maybe most importantly, the Swedish government’s reluctance to adopt PPP solutions and to finance infrastructure projects in small entities, promotes traditional design and build contracts with very small incentives for adopting new innovative solutions to improve the construction process.

  • 49.
    Widén, Kristian
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Olander, Stefan
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Atkin, Brian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Links between Successful Innovation Diffusion and Stakeholder Engagement2014In: Journal of Management in Engineering, ISSN 0742-597X, E-ISSN 1943-5479, Vol. 30, no 5, article id 04014018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stakeholders can positively assist or hinder attempts at innovation. Much depends on the nature of their engagement. The stakeholder engagement process can be complex and unpredictable, more so if no strategic plan is put in place or if no systematic thinking is invested in the innovation. Stakeholder engagement in the innovation process in general and innovation diffusion in particular is examined in the context of construction. From a theoretical perspective, analysis of the effect of stakeholders could be expected to help in refining the innovation process so that it produces decisions and outcomes more likely to lead to successful innovation and diffusion. To cover diverse applications from product development to the drafting and implementation of national standards, 19 innovation projects were studied. Through a statistical analysis of stakeholder involvement, based on a Fisher's exact test, it was concluded that a structured process of engagement has to be an integral part of the innovation process. Accordingly, an explicit plan for communication and engagement with identified key stakeholders is necessary ex ante as a condition for successful innovation and diffusion. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  • 50.
    Widén, Kristian
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Olander, Stefan
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Bengt
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Industry initiated development program: How to measure the effects?2006In: Construction in the XXI Century: Local and global challenges: Joint 2006 CIB W065/W055/W086 International Symposium proceedings / [ed] Roberto Pietroforte, Enrico De Angelis & Francesco Polverino, Napoli: Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane , 2006, p. 1-12Conference paper (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 54
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