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  • 1.
    Billström, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN). Nord University, Business School, Bodø, Norway.
    The Role of Social Network Actors in the Formation of University Spin-Offs: Case Studies of External and Inventor Entrepreneurs in Sweden2017In: The World Scientific Reference on Entrepreneurship, Volume 4: Process Approach to Academic Entrepreneurship – Evidence from the Globe / [ed] Siegel, D., Fini, R. & Grimaldi, R., World Scientific, 2017, p. 81-104Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, policy makers and researchers have taken an increased interest in university spin-offs. Entrepreneurship research provides limited knowledge of the role of the social network actors of external entrepreneurs in the formation process of university spin-offs. External entrepreneurs, who come from outside the university, are likely to use other network actors than academic researchers. This may influence the subsequent development of the firm. The purpose is to develop a conceptual framework for the role of social network actors in the formation of university spin-offs managed by external and inventor entrepreneurs. Literature of social networking, university spin-off formation and external and inventor entrepreneurs guide this study. This study employs a case study design that contains three external and three inventor entrepreneurs of Swedish university spin-offs. The results demonstrate that business actors, support actors and technology actors influence the firm formation process. The study also shows that external entrepreneurs have strong ties (direct access) to business actors while inventor entrepreneurs have weak ties (indirect access) to business actors via the university incubator. University incubators are less important for external entrepreneurs than inventor entrepreneurs because of their strong ties to business actors. The chapter provides implications for researchers and policy makers. © 2017 by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Billström, Anders
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Politis, Diamanto
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Entrepreneurial Networks in University Spin-offs – An Analysis of the External Entrepreneur Model2014In: Entrepreneurship, People and Organisations: Frontiers in European Entrepreneurship Research / [ed] Robert Blackburn, Frédéric Delmar, Alain Fayolle & Friederike Walter, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, p. 136-154Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the study we examine whether external entrepreneurs show differences compared with inventor entrepreneurs in the way they interact and network with others in the start-up process, and – if so – how these differences become manifested in their venturing efforts. The study uses a case study design of four university spin-offs across different industries and development stages originating from a Swedish technical university. In general, our findings emphasize the critical role of incubators for supporting the commercialization and diffusion of technology as they bridge structural holes between research oriented and commercial networks. However, we also find evidence that the external entrepreneur model contains network elements that on the whole makes it more effective in the venturing process. As such, the external entrepreneur model seems to be a highly potent technology transfer mechanism with potential to orchestrate efforts to commercialize public research for the benefit of industry and broader society.

  • 3.
    Billström, Anders
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Svensson, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Satisfaction: Antecedents and postcedents in Swedish Business relationships2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Billström, Anders
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Svensson, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Mysen, Tore
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    Rindell, Anne
    Hanken School of Economics, Finland.
    Satisfaction as a mediator of Swedish Business Relationships2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Billström, Anders
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Ulvenblad, Pia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Winborg, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Lindholm Dahlstrand, Åsa
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    To get them on board: The role of communication for attracting stakeholders to incubator businesses2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Johnson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Hinic, Hansi
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Billström, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Gäbel, Håkan
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Transplant Recipients’ Experience of Participation at the World Transplant Games in Gothenburg 2011: A Study of Psychological Well-being2013In: The Open Transplantation Journal, ISSN 1874-4184, E-ISSN 1874-4184, Vol. 7, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The World Transplant Games (WTG) is a biennial worldwide sporting event. Most published research relating to WTG has focused on medical issues. However, few studies have examined factors such as psychological wellbeing in sport for this group. The purpose of this study is to provide a description of the English-speaking participants at the WTG and analyze five research questions linked to how (1) health, (2), satisfaction with sports participation (3), perceived competence, (4) health as a benefit of sport participation (5), and impaired health as a cost of sports participation, are related to psychological factors in sports. There were a total of 253 participants with a mean age of 43.6 years, originating from seven English-speaking nations. Four validated psychological questionnaires were used, as well as a screening of background data of the group. The main characteristics of the English-speaking population were university educated middle age men with kidney transplants, who had participated in athletics at a rather high competitive level before the transplant. The main statistical findings particularly showed that satisfaction with sport participation, perceived health and health as a benefit were the dependent variables that explained most of the variance in the analysis. In conclusion, perceived competence, enjoyment and health seem to be critical psychological factors that essentially act as prime motivating factors behind participation in games such as WTG, and ultimately lead to a sense of psychological well-being among the participants. Finally, there is a discussion of future research, as well as the practical value of the results.

  • 7.
    Mysen, Tore
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Svensson, Göran
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Rindell, Anne
    Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Billström, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    ‘Antecedents’ and ‘postcedents’ in Relation to satisfaction in Norwegian business relationships2015In: International Journal of procurement management, ISSN 1753-8432, E-ISSN 1753-8440, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 627-642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study tests whether satisfaction plays an important role as mediator between trust and commitment, and coordination, cooperation and continuity expectance in manufacturer-supplier relationships in Norway. Management in a sample of the 500 largest manufacturer companies was approached by phone to identify key informants and surveys mailed to them. 193 usable questionnaires were received corresponding to a response rate of 38.6%. The results were analysed by structural equation modelling, using SPSS/AMOS 17.0 software. The findings support fairly well the conceptual model tested; trust relates positively to commitment and satisfaction; satisfaction, in turn, relates positively to coordination, cooperation and continuity expectance. However, commitment fails to show any significant relationship with satisfaction. This study makes an important contribution to management and future research about balancing the nomological network of quality constructs in manufacturer-supplier relationships. Results support the major impact trust may have on satisfactory relationships and the importance of satisfaction when establishing well-working governance mechanisms towards gaining enduring relationships.

  • 8.
    Rindell, Anne
    et al.
    Marketing Department, Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Mysen, Tore
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Svensson, Göran
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Billström, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    A Validation of Inputs and Outputs of Satisfaction in Business-to-Business Relationships through a Nordic Comparison2013In: International Journal of procurement management, ISSN 1753-8432, E-ISSN 1753-8440, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 424-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to make an international comparison of business-to-business relationships in Finland, Norway, and Sweden. The focus is on testing: a) the validity and reliability of whether trust and commitment have a positive association with satisfaction; b) whether satisfaction has a positive association with the outputs of specific investments, opportunism, and formalisation. This international study consisted of 1,500 companies. The Finnish, Norwegian, and Swedish sampling frame each consisted of the 500 largest companies, based upon revenue, across multiple industries. The response rate was 38%. Based on the tested model, it was validated that: a) the most solid positive relation is between trust and satisfaction; b) the most solid negative relation is between satisfaction and opportunism. The study indicates that companies should focus on and strive toward solid satisfaction in business relationships to reduce the risk of business partners becoming opportunistic. The study validates previous research comparing cross-country inputs and outputs of satisfaction in business relationships. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  • 9.
    Rindell, Anne
    et al.
    Marketing Department, Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Svensson, Göran
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Mysen, Tore
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Billström, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Satisfaction as a Mediator between Quality Metrics in Manufacturer-Supplier Relationships2014In: International Journal of Business Excellence, ISSN 1756-0047, E-ISSN 1756-0055, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 16-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the current study is to test the findings in previous research indicating satisfaction is a mediator between trust and commitment, and among the three important outcomes of coordination, cooperation and continuity expectancy. Researchers contacted a sample of the 1,000 largest companies in Finland and Sweden by telephone to identify key informants, and posted surveys to them. The empirical findings of the current study validate the conceptual model tested; commitment and trust relate positively to satisfaction, and satisfaction, in turn, relates positively to all three outcomes of coordination, cooperation and continuity. The validation of the measurement and structural properties of the tested conceptual model is of benefit to other researchers. The empirical findings indicate that to establish lasting relationships of cooperation, and coordination, companies need develop commitment and trust in ongoing relationships to enhance satisfaction. A contribution is the validation of empirical findings in previous research. Copyright © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  • 10.
    Rindell, Anne
    et al.
    Department of Marketing, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Svensson, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER). Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Mysen, Tore
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Billström, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Wilén, Kristoffer
    Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Towards a conceptual foundation of 'Conscientious Corporate Brands'2011In: Journal of Brand Management, ISSN 1350-231X, E-ISSN 1479-1803, Vol. 18, no 9, p. 709-719Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article develops a conceptual foundation for Conscientious Corporate Brands (CCBs) by exploring the role that (i) environmental and (ii) climate change issues, and that (iii) internal and (iv) external corporate codes of ethics play as dimensions of CCBs. The article's aim is to extend previous research in ethical branding by proposing an empirically grounded conceptual foundation of the conscientious dimension of a corporate brand. The empirical context is based on Nordic business-to-business relationships. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.

  • 11.
    Svensson, Göran
    et al.
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Mysen, Tore
    Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Rindell, Anne
    Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Billström, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Validation of a META-RELQUAL construct through a Nordic comparative study2013In: Marketing Intelligence & Planning, ISSN 0263-4503, E-ISSN 1758-8049, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 72-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test the validity and reliability of a META-RELQUAL construct in Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish business relationships.

    Design/methodology/approach: A total of 1,500 companies were involved. The Finnish, Norwegian, and Swedish sampling frames each consisted of the 500 largest companies based upon revenue across multiple industries. The response rate was 38 percent.

    Findings: The goodness-of-fit measures of the tested measurement model of the META-RELQUAL construct were all found to be satisfactory within the recommended guidelines. The recommended guidelines for convergent, discriminant and nomological validity, as well as for construct reliability, were all well met. It is concluded that the measurement properties of the META-RELQUAL construct applied in Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish business relationships indicate acceptable validity and reliability.

    Research limitations/implications: The tested META-RELQUAL construct appears accurate for those Finnish, Norwegian, and Swedish business relationships studied, but only further testing and comparisons will verify whether it can be seen as a valid, reliable measurement for other countries and their companies' business relationships. Suggestions for further research are provided.

    Practical implications: This international study is of managerial interest to executives since it provides a framework of constructs to be considered in corporate efforts to maintain satisfactory levels of relationship quality in Finnish, Norwegian, and Swedish business relationships. It may also be applicable in other business relationships and in other countries.

    Originality/value: This Nordic comparative study of a META-RELQUAL construct contributes to theory since it outlines a higher-order construct and measurement instrument benefitting other researchers and practitioners. It appears unique in making an international comparison of a tested measurement model of the META-RELQUAL construct. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 12.
    Ulvenblad, Pia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Winborg, Joakim
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Billström, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Entrepreneurs’ perceptions of stakeholder importance and timing - A Pecking Order Stakeholder (POS) perspective of incubator businesses2012Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 12 of 12
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