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  • 1.
    Back, Jenny
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Solstad, Bård Erlend
    University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway; Norwegian Research Centre of Children and Youth Sports, Oslo, Norway.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Ntoumanis, Nikos
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Psychosocial Predictors of Drop-Out from Organised Sport: A Prospective Study in Adolescent Soccer2022In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 19, no 24, article id 16585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years an increased drop-out rate in adolescents’ soccer participation has been observed. Given the potentially adverse consequences of drop-out from soccer, more information about risk factors for drop-out is warranted. In the current study, Classification and Regression Tree (CRT) analysis was used to investigate demographic and motivational factors associated with an increased risk of drop-out from adolescent soccer. The results of this study indicate that older age, experiencing less autonomy support from the coach, less intrinsic motivation, being female, and lower socioeconomic status are factors associated with an increased risk of drop-out. An interpretation of the results of this study is that coaches play a central part in creating a sports context that facilitates motivation and continued soccer participation. Based on the findings of the current study we propose that soccer clubs implement theoretically informed coach education programs to help coaches adopt autonomy-supportive coaching strategies. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 2.
    Bengtsson, Dennis
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Nygren, Jens M.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Ntoumanis, Nikos
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    The effects of interpersonal development programmes with sport coaches and parents on youth athlete outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis2024In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 70, article id 102558Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interpersonal coach-and parent development programmes (CDP and PDP, respectively), have the goal to foster positive youth sport experiences through high-quality relations between coaches, parents, and youth athletes. In this paper we systematically reviewed the extant literature and estimate the overall magnitude of such programmes and how they can inform future interventions. Specifically, we aimed to: (a) conduct a systematic review on the literature of interpersonal CDPs and PDPs within the youth sport context; (b) examine the effects of such interventions on youth athlete outcomes via a meta-analysis. English written peer-reviewed publications and grey literature was identified through electronic search in databases and manual searches of reference lists. By utilising a priori criteria for inclusion and exclusion, 33 studies describing interpersonal CDPs, and PDPs were identified in the systematic review. Studies that presented required data for estimation of Hedge's g effect sizes were included in the meta-analysis (k = 27). By and large, the included studies used a quasi-experimental design (58%), sampled from team sports (79%), and reported several delivery methods (e.g., workshops, audio feedback, observations, peer group discussions) and outcome measures (e.g., anxiety, autonomous motivation, self-confidence). Some interventions were based on the same delivery protocols (e.g., Coach Effectiveness Training, Mastery Approach to Coaching) or theoretical frameworks (e.g., Achievement Goal Theory, Self-Determination Theory). The meta-analysis showed statistically significant small, and medium, effect sizes on a subsample of youth athlete outcomes (e.g., task-related climate, fun and enjoyment, anxiety), indicating that coach interpersonal skills can contribute to positive youth sport experiences. Theory-based interpersonal CDPs and PDPs are recommended to expand the knowledge in this field of research. © 2023 The Authors

  • 3.
    Chan, Derwin
    et al.
    Faculty of Education and Human Development, The Education University of Hong Kong, New Territories, Hong Kong, China; The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China & Faculty of Education and Human Development, The Education University of Hong Kong, New Territories, Hong Kong, China & The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China & Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Stenling, Andreas
    University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand & Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Yusainy, Cleoputri
    Department of Psychology, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia.
    Hikmiah, Ziadatul
    Department of Psychology, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Hagger, Martin
    University of California, Merced, CA, United States & Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Rhodes, Ryan
    Health and Physical Education, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada.
    Beauchamp, Mark
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Consistency tendency and the theory of planned behavior: a randomized controlled crossover trial in physical activity2020In: Psychology and Health, ISSN 0887-0446, E-ISSN 1476-8321, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 665-684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study examined the effects of consistency tendency on the predictive power of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in relation to physical activity behavior.

    Methods: In this randomized controlled cross-over trial, we recruited 770 undergraduate students from Indonesia who were randomly assigned into two groups. Participants completed physical activity versions of TPB measures at T1 (baseline) and T2 (post 1 week), and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire at T3 (post 1 month). At T1 and T2, the TPB questions were either presented in ensemble-order (i.e., consistency tendency supressed) or alternate-order (i.e., consistency tendency facilitated).

    Results: The parameter estimates of the model (CFI > .92, TLI > .90, SRMR < .08, RMSEA < .08) aligned with the tenets of TPB. As compared to ensemble-order, a TPB measured in alternate-order yielded stronger cross-sectional relationships, but this pattern did not appear in the prospective relationships in TPB (i.e., intention/perceived behavioral control and behavior).

    Conclusions: Consistency tendency inflated the factor correlations of cross-sectionally measured TPB variables, but the inflation was not observed in the prospective prediction of behavior. Health psychology questionnaires with items presented in ensemble order may represent a viable means of reducing the confounding effect of consistency tendency. © 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 4.
    Clement, Damien
    et al.
    West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, United Kingdom.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Investigating the influence of intra-individual changes in perceived stress symptoms on injury risk in soccer2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 1461-1466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that high levels of stress and stress responsivity can increase the risk of injuries. However, most of the research that has supported this notion has focused on between-person relationships, ignoring the relationships at the within-person level. As a result, the objective of this study was to investigate if within-person changes in perceived stress symptoms over a 1-month time period could predict injury rates during the subsequent 3 months. A prospective design with two measurement points (Time 1—at the beginning of the season and Time 2—1 month into the season) was utilized. A total of 121 competitive soccer players (85 males and 36 females; Mage = 18.39, SD = 3.08) from Sweden and the United States completed the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (KPDS) and a demographic sheet at Time 1. The KPDS was also completed at Time 2, and all acute injuries that occurred during the subsequent 3-month period were recorded. A Bayesian latent change scores model was used to determine whether within-person changes in stress symptoms could predict the risk of injury. Results revealed that there was a credible positive effect of changes in stress symptoms on injury rates, indicating that an increase in reported stress symptoms was related to an increased risk for injury. This finding highlights the importance of creating caring and supportive sporting environments and relationships and teaching stress management techniques, especially during the earlier portion of competitive seasons, to possibly reduce the occurrence of injuries. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  • 5.
    Clement, Damien
    et al.
    West Virginia University, Morgantown, United States.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Profiles of psychosocial factors: Can they be used to predict injury risk?2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 782-788Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The creation of risk profiles using the model of stress and athletic injury1 represents a proposed shift from the reductionism paradigm to the complex sport approach in an attempt to formulate prevention strategies to combat the increasing number of injuries being reported in sporting populations. As a result, the primary purpose of this study was to: a) identify different risk profiles based on psychosocial factors associated with the Williams and Andersen’s model of stress and athletic injury model; and b) examine potential differences in the frequency of injuries across these risk profiles. A prospective research design was utilized with a sample of 117 competitive soccer players (81 males and 36 females) from Sweden and the United States of America. Data was collected at two time points over the course of three months. At time 1 (beginning of the season) - a demographic information sheet, the Life Event Survey for Collegiate Athletes (LESCA), Sport Competitive Anxiety Test (SCAT), and Brief Cope were administered. At time two (T2), three months after the initial data collection, participants’ traumatic injuries were recorded. Latent profile analysis (LPA) showed that 3 profiles solution showed best fit to data. Players in profile 1 and 2 reported fewer injuries compared to players in profile 3. However, whereas individuals in profile 1 had a lower predictive risk of sustaining an injury when compared to those in profile 3, both profiles had similar anxiety levels and use of coping strategies with differing stress levels. These findings suggest that the interaction between different proposed risk factors might influence injury risk. © 2021 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • 6.
    Ekelund, Rebecka
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. University Of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Interventions for improving mental health in athletes: a scoping review2023In: International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1750-984X, E-ISSN 1750-9858Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this scoping review were to map the current literature on interventions for improving mental health in athletes, identify knowledge gaps, and generate future research questions. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guided this review. A systematic literature search was conducted in SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS and 44 intervention studies met the inclusion criteria. Results showed that 22 studies (50%) implemented cognitive behavioural principles, and the majority of these studies were influenced by various mindfulness programmes. Most studies (93%) included healthy athlete samples, and athletes aged 15–19 were the most examined age group (43%). Only three studies used clinical criteria in their sampling of participants and mediators were examined in two studies. The scarcity of studies examining mediators and subclinical or clinical samples revealed critical knowledge gaps in the literature. Furthermore, the critical appraisal showed that regardless of study design, most studies demonstrated low internal validity. We propose the use of high-quality single-case studies with athletes who experience subclinical or clinical mental health issues, and further investigation of mechanisms of change linking intervention components to outcomes of interest. © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 7.
    Gredin, Viktor
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Back, Jenny
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Solstad, Bård
    University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Exploring psychosocial risk factors for dropout in adolescent female soccer2022In: Science and medicine in football, ISSN 2473-3938, E-ISSN 2473-4446, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 668-674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: We examined the manner in which age, participation in other sports, socioeconomic status, perceived sport competence, achievement goal orientations, and perceived motivational climate may interact to predict the risk of dropout among adolescent female soccer players.

    Methods: Self-reported data from 519 female soccer players between 10 and 19 years of age (M = 13.41, SD = 1.77) were analysed using a person-centred approach to uncover the interactions among risk factors and their relative predictability of dropout.

    Results: Perceived motivational climate was identified as the main predictor, where relatively lower levels of mastery climate were associated with a higher dropout tendency (absolute risk reduction [ARR] = 12.2% ±6.1% [95% CL]). If combined with relatively lower levels of mastery climate, then relatively lower levels of perceived sport competence were related to higher dropout risks (ARR = 16.5% ±9.5%), whereas, in combination with relatively higher levels of mastery climate, then relatively lower levels of ego-orientated achievement goals were associated with higher dropout rates (ARR = 10.8% ±12.6%).

    Conclusions: Our findings afford novel insights into the interactions between, and the relative importance of, various risk factors for dropout in adolescent female soccer. This knowledge may be useful for soccer associations, clubs, and coaches when developing guidelines and strategies that aim to foster young females' sustained participation in organised soccer. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 8.
    Holmquist, Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ntoumanis, Nikos
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Schéle, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Dimensionality, Invariance, and Nomological Network of the Need Satisfaction and Frustration Scale (NSFS): An Extensive Psychometric Investigation in a Swedish Work Cohort2023In: Journal of Personality Assessment, ISSN 0022-3891, E-ISSN 1532-7752Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study evaluated the dimensionality, measurement invariance, and nomological network of the Need Satisfaction and Frustration Scale (NSFS) in a sample of Swedish workers. Using confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory structural equation modeling, and bifactor modeling, 30 different measurement models were evaluated cross-sectionally (n = 2123) and longitudinally (n = 1506). Measurement invariance was tested across gender and time. The nomological network of the NSFS was examined through its relations with life satisfaction and cognitive weariness. The findings supported a first-order six-factor ESEM model and measurement invariance of the Swedish version of the NSFS. Need satisfaction was positively related to life satisfaction and unrelated to cognitive weariness. Need frustration was negatively related to life satisfaction and positively related to cognitive weariness. The present study supported a six-factor structure of the Swedish NSFS, which appears suitable for assessing changes over time and gender differences in ratings. © 2023 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  • 9.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden & University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Prediction of injury risk in sports2019In: Wiley StatsRef: Statistics Reference Online / [ed] N. Balakrishnan, Theodore Colton, Brian Everitt, Walter Piegorsch, Fabrizio Ruggeri & Jozef L. Teugels, John Wiley & Sons, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sport injuries are a major problem associated with sport participation. To develop preventive strategies and programs, it is important to identify factors that will increase the likelihood of sport injuries. In most sport injury risk factor research, statistical analyses are performed; however, many of the most common statistical analyses provide limited information about predictors of sport injury risk. The common analyses used in previous studies do not acknowledge the complexity associated with investigating risk factors for sport injuries. To better capture this complexity, suggested in most theoretical frameworks, more appropriate of statistical approaches should be used. In this article we present how latent profile analysis, latent change score analysis, and latent growth curve analysis can be used to overcome some of the limitations with more traditional analyses. Lastly, we also elaborate on future directions for analyses in sport injury risk factor research. More specifically, we present how advanced statistical models, such as classification and regression trees (CART) analysis and random forest analysis, can be used to provide researchers and clinicians with results that are more clinically meaningful.

  • 10.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå Universitet, Umeå, Sweden | University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Weman Josefsson, Karin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Höglind, Sten
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden | Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Associations between physical activity and core affects within and across days: a daily diary study2021In: Psychology and Health, ISSN 0887-0446, E-ISSN 1476-8321, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 43-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate (a) if daily physical activity at the within-person level is related to four different core affects the same evening, (b) if core affects in the evening predict physical activity the following day, and (c) if physical activity predicts core affects the following day.

    Design: A total of 166 university students were asked to complete the affect and physical activity measures once a day (in the evening), for seven days. Bivariate unconditional latent curve model analyses with structured residuals were performed to investigate the relations within days and across days between the core affects and physical activity.

    Main outcome measures: Core affects and physical activity.

    Results: Physical activity had positive within-day associations with pleasant-activated and pleasant-deactivated core affects and a negative within-day association with unpleasant-deactivated affective responses. There were, however, no statistically significant relations between core affects and physical activity across days.

    Conclusion: These results highlight that the measurement interval might be an important factor that influences the association between core affects and physical activity behaviors. © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

  • 11.
    Li, Chunxiao
    et al.
    The Education University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Umeå Universitet, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wu, Yandan
    Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, China.
    The dynamic interplay between burnout and sleep among elite blind soccer players2018In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 37, p. 164-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamic pattern between burnout and sleep among athletes is unknown. This longitudinal survey examined the interplay between burnout and sleep among blind elite soccer players. China national blind soccer team players (n = 10) completed measures on burnout and sleep quality through interview at baseline (month 1), and followed at months 2, 3, 4, and 5. The results of dynamic p-technique analysis, using Bayesian estimation, showed a credible relationship between burnout and sleep quality. Also, burnout had a credible lagged effect on subsequent sleep quality whereas sleep quality did not have a credible lagged effect on burnout. The results suggest that burnout and sleep are not reciprocally related and burnout may be a risk factor of sleep problems among athletes. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 12.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity. Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling in Sport and Exercise Psychology2015In: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 37, p. 410-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bayesian statistics is on the rise in mainstream psychology, but applications in sport and exercise psychology research are scarce. In this article, the foundations of Bayesian analysis are introduced, and we will illustrate how to apply Bayesian structural equation modeling in a sport and exercise psychology setting. More specifically, we contrasted a confirmatory factor analysis on the Sport Motivation Scale II estimated with the most commonly used estimator, maximum likelihood, and a Bayesian approach with weakly informative priors for cross-loadings and correlated residuals. The results indicated that the model with Bayesian estimation and weakly informative priors provided a good fit to the data, whereas the model estimated with a maximum likelihood estimator did not produce a well-fitting model. The reasons for this discrepancy between maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation are discussed as well as potential advantages and caveats with the Bayesian approach. © 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.

  • 13.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden & University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand & University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gucciardi, Daniel F.
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Exploring longitudinal measurement invariance and the continuum hypothesis in the Swedish version of the Behavioral Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ): An exploratory structural equation modeling approach2018In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 36, p. 187-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The aims of the present study were to: (a) examine longitudinal measurement invariance in the Swedish version of the Behavioral Regulations in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ) and (b) examine the continuum hypothesis of motivation as postulated within self-determination theory.

    Design

    Two-wave survey.

    Method

    Young competitive athletes (N = 354) responded to the BRSQ early in the season (November) and at the end of the athletic season (April). Data were analyzed using exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) and bifactor ESEM.

    Results

    We found support for strict longitudinal measurement invariance in the BRSQ. Latent mean comparisons showed an increase in external regulation and amotivation across the season. The latent factor correlations indicated some deviations from a simplex pattern related to amotivation, external regulation, and introjected regulation. In the bifactor model, intrinsic motivation items had negative factor loadings on the global factor, identified regulation items had factor loadings approaching zero, and introjected and external regulation and amotivation items all had moderate to strong positive factor loadings.

    Conclusion

    The present study adds longitudinal measurement invariance to the psychometric evidence of the BRSQ. Research on why the latent means of the behavioral regulations changed over the athletic season is warranted. The continuum hypothesis was partially supported. Latent factor correlations and factor loadings on the global factor in the bifactor ESEM highlighted that the discriminant validity of the controlled regulations and amotivation needs further investigation. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

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