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  • 1.
    Cider, Asa
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Jan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Pihl, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Response to 'Exercise programmes and quality of life in the elderly important facts'2012In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 128-128Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Jacobsson, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Group for Research on health promotion and disease prevention.
    Pihl, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Group for Research on health promotion and disease prevention.
    Mårtensson, Jan
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Emotions, the meaning of food and heart failure: a grounded theory study2004In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 514-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Many patients with heart failure have generalized wasting, referred to as cardiac cachexia. This leads to skeletal muscle wasting, impaired mobility, reduced functional capacity and poor prognosis. Patients with heart failure have symptoms that can affect their food intake, for example breathing difficulties, fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite, early feeling of fullness and ascites. These dietary problems and patients' nutritional status, can be significantly improved by means of simple nursing interventions.

    Aim:

    This paper reports a grounded theory study which developed a theoretical model of experiences of food and food intake among patients with heart failure.

    Methods:

    A descriptive and exploratory design, with a grounded theory analysis, was used. Data were collected in 2002 through interviews with 11 patients with heart failure. Findings. Two core categories emerged: emotions and the meaning of food. Psychosocial meaning could be associated with positive feelings of well-being, or negative feelings of sorrow. Physiological meaning could be associated with positive feelings of comfort or negative feelings of burden. Patients' experiences of food and eating changed during the development of the disease. Feelings of fatigue and lack of appetite gave rise to a feeling of deprivation because of missing both eating and the related social environment. This could lead to a loss of personal identity.

    Discussion:

    Although the findings of a qualitative study cannot be generalized, they raise important clinical nursing issues. With increasingly shorter hospital stays, these problems will need to be addressed by community healthcare staff and family carers. Therefore, all healthcare professionals need knowledge about heart disease and information techniques if they are to be able to give appropriate care to this group.

    Conclusion:

    Ignorance about food and eating can easily lead to malnourishment, with an increased risk of the patients falling into a vicious circle. Implications of the study for health care practice and research are identified.

  • 3.
    Jacobsson, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Group for Research on health promotion and disease prevention.
    Pihl-Lindgren, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Group for Research on health promotion and disease prevention.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Group for Research on health promotion and disease prevention.
    Malnutrition in patients suffering from chronic heart failure; the nurse's care2001In: European Journal of Heart Failure, ISSN 1388-9842, E-ISSN 1879-0844, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 449-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic heart failure is associated with a bad prognosis with considerably shortened survival and repeated hospitalisations. Patients suffering from heart failure also have symptoms that can affect their food intake, for example, tiredness when strained, breathing difficulties and gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea, loss of appetite and ascites. Pharmacological therapy can lead to a loss of appetite, which will make the intake of food inadequate to fill the required energy and nutritional needs. The nurse's interest in and knowledge of diet issues can improve these patients' nutritional status, The aim of this literature review was to describe the nurse's interventions regarding malnutrition in patients suffering from chronic heart failure. The literature search gave 13 articles, which were analysed, and sentences whose content was related to the aim were identified. Three areas of content appeared; drug treatment and consequences, gastrointestinal effects, and information and education. The results show that the nutritional status of these patients can be significantly improved by means of simple nursing interventions. Future research should focus on controlled experimental studies to evaluate differences in body weight, body mass index and quality of life between patients suffering from chronic heart failure, who are taking part in a fully enriched nutrition intervention, and patients suffering from chronic heart failure, who are eating their normal diet.

  • 4.
    Pihl, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    The Couples' Experiences of Patients' Physical Limitation in Daily Life Activities and Effects of Physical Exercise in Primary Care when having Chronic Heart Failure2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to explore and describe couples’ experiences of patients’ physical limitation in activities of daily life and evaluate the effects of an exercise programme in primary care when having chronic heart failure (CHF). In Study I, a comparison between patients with CHF and their spouses was made regarding health-related quality of life and depression. Inthe thesis a comparison was also made between patients, spouses and specific age and gender matched norms. There were statistically significant differences in health-related quality of life between patients and spouses as well as between patients and their norms as in SF-36 scores. The deteriorated health-related quality of life in patients was most present in the physical component but also in social function in the mental component. There were no differences between patients and spouses in depression symptoms. In Study II, patients with CHF described their conceptions of physical limitation in daily life activities. A phenomenographic approach made it possible to identify variations of the conceptions and the referential aspects that emerged were: need of finding practical solutions in daily life, having realistic expectations about the future, not believing in one’s own ability and losing one’s social role in daily life. In Study III, spouses’ conceptions about the physical limitation in daily life activities in a loved one with CHF andthe impact these limitations had on their daily life were examined. The phenomenographic approach resulted in different referential aspects. These were: losing self-containment, missing communality, accommodating to the situation and finding satisfaction in life. Study IV aimed at determining effects of an exercise programme in primary care in elderly patients with CHF. The intervention period was 12 months with continuous exercise in the primary care centre and in the patients’ homes. Tests of physical capacity showed significant consistent improvement in the exercise group in arms and shoulders during the intervention and in the 6 minute walk test at 3 months compared to the control group. The physical dimension of Minnesota living with heart failure was significantly improved at 3 months and Euroqol5DVAS was significantly improved at 3 and 12 months in the exercise group compared to the control group. The thesis shows that patients and spouses conceive a variety of issues of physical limitation in daily life and the physical component of health-related quality of life is the most affected. The physical capacity in patients is possible to affect with an exercise programme in primary care and patient homes. The exercise programme is beneficial interms of physical capacity in the upper body and walked distance in 6 minutes.

  • 5.
    Pihl, Emma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Cider, Åsa
    Physiotherapy Department, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Department of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Jan
    Department of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Exercise in elderly patients with chronic heart failure in primary care: Effects on physical capacity and health-related quality of life2011In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 150-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: 

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) limits exercise capacity which influences physical fitness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). 

    AIM: 

    The aim was to determine the effects on physical capacity and HRQoL of an exercise programme in elderly patients with CHF in primary care.

    METHODS: 

    An exercise intervention was conducted as a prospective, longitudinal and controlled clinical study in primary care in elderly patients with CHF. Endurance exercise and resistance training were conducted as group-training at the primary care centre and as home training. Follow-up on physical capacity and HRQoL was done at 3, 6 and 12 months.

    RESULTS: 

    Exercise significantly improved muscle endurance in the intervention group (n=29, mean age 76.2years) compared to the control group (n=31, mean age 74.4years) at all follow-ups except for shoulder flexion right at 12months (shoulder abduction p=0.006, p=0.048, p=0.029; shoulder flexion right p=0.002, p=0.032, p=0.585; shoulder flexion left p=0.000, p=0.046, p=0.004). Six minute walk test improved in the intervention group at 3months (p=0.013) compared to the control group. HRQoL measured by EQ5D-VAS significantly improved in the intervention group at 3 and 12months (p=0.016 and p=0.034) and SF-36, general health (p=0.048) and physical component scale (p=0.026) significantly improved at 3months compared to the control group. 

    CONCLUSION: 

    This study shows that exercise conducted in groups in primary care and in the patients' homes could be used in elderly patients with CHF. The combination of endurance exercise and resistance training has positive effects on physical capacity. However, the minor effects in HRQoL need further verification in a study with a larger study population. ©Sage Publications

  • 6.
    Pihl, Emma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Fridlund, Bengt
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University.
    Mårtensson, Jan
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University.
    Patients' experiences of physical limitations in daily life activities when suffering from chronic heart failure: A phenomenographic analysis2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 3-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe how patients suffering from chronic heart failure conceived their physical limitations in daily life activities. An explorative and qualitative design with a phenomenographic approach was chosen, a total of 15 patients were interviewed. The findings indicate that participants perceived a variety of structural aspects pertaining to physical limitations in activities of daily life which resulted in four referential aspects. Need of finding practical solutions in daily life focused on how life had to be changed and other ways of performing activities of daily life had to be invented. Having realistic expectations about the future was characterised by belief that the future itself would be marked by change in physical functioning, but an incentive to maintain functions and activities ensured good quality of or even increased capacity in daily life. Not believing in one's own ability included the perception of having no opportunity to improve ability to perform activities of daily life. There were perceptions of undesired passivity, undefined fear of straining themselves or performing activities that could endanger their health in addition to uncertainty about the future. In Losing one's social role in daily life, participants described losing their social network and their position in society and family because of limited physical capacity. A lack of important issues, mental and physical, occurred when physical capacity was lost. In conclusion, patients suffering from chronic heart failure found new solutions to manage activities in daily life, including willingness to change focus and identify other ways of doing important things. Patients had an incentive to maintain functions and activities to ensure a good quality of and strengthen their physical capacity in daily life. Inability to trust in their physical capacity in combination with experienced limitations in daily life prevented patients from attempting to increase activities.

  • 7.
    Pihl, Emma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Mårtensson, Jan
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Spouses' experiences of impact on daily life regarding physical limitations in the loved one with heart failure: A phenomenographic analysis2010In: Canadian Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 0843-6096, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 9-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Physical limitation is a great burden for patients with heart failure, but little is known about how that affects spouses. Beneficial effects of support on the prognosis for the patient with chronic heart failure may come at a psychological and physical cost to the person providing the support. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore and describe how spouses conceive the physical limitations in patients with heart failure and the impact these limitations have on the daily life of the spouse. DESIGN: A qualitative design with a phenomenographic approach was chosen for the study. FINDINGS: The informants were 15 spouses of heart failure patients. The spouses perceived a variety of aspects pertaining to how they conceive the physical limitations in the loved one with heart failure and the implication this had on their daily life. The referential aspects were: Losing self-containment, Missing communality, Accommodating to the situation and Finding satisfaction in life. IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS: Awareness must be raised among health care professionals about the profound impact heart failure in loved ones has on the spouses and explore how the spouses' needs can be appropriately met. Since spouses have an important role to play in the management of heart failure, it is of great importance that nurses identify and support spouses to manage daily life activities. Taking care of the good days in order to have a rich life and to help spouses see possibilities is necessary since it is difficult to predict the future.

  • 8.
    Pihl, Emma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Jacobsson, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Strömberg, Anna
    Linköping University.
    Mårtensson, Jan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Depression and health-related quality of life in elderly patients suffering from heart failure and their spouses: a comparative study2005In: European Journal of Heart Failure, ISSN 1388-9842, E-ISSN 1879-0844, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 583-589Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Little is known about the factors that influence the health outcome of elderly patients suffering from heart failure or the health of their spouses. The aim of this comparative study was to determine if older patients suffering from heart failure and their spouses experience similar levels of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and depression. The aim was also to identify those factors that contribute to HRQOL and depression in patient-spouse pairs.

    Methods:

    Data were collected from 47 couples, using the Short Form 36 (SF-36) and Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) questionnaires.

    Results:

    Patients suffering from heart failure and their spouses differed significantly in their experience of the physical, but not the mental, health-related quality of life, with patients experiencing significantly worse physical functioning. Physical symptoms of heart failure seemed to dominate the experience of the patient and was positively related to mental health and inversely related to the New York Heart Association classification (NYHA class) and patients' depression. Depressive symptoms as reflected in SDS showed no significant difference between patients and spouses. Patients' depression was positively related to high NYHA class, while spouse depression was positively related with higher age of the patient.

    Conclusion:

    Physical symptoms seem to dominate the experience of heart failure.

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