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  • 1.
    Hjort, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Early Procurement by Partnering2003In: Construction economics and organization: Proceedings of the 3rd Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization, 23-24 April 2003, Lund, Sweden / [ed] Bengt Hansson & Anne Landin, Lund: Division of Construction Management, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund University , 2003, p. 191-198Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The procurement strategy ”Partnering” has been and is used in Sweden, although to a rather limited extent. One variant of this strategy is when the contractor very actively works in the market in order to get in touch with a client and in order to enter into a building or construction project in a very early phase. This variant can be called ”Early Procurement by Partnering” (EPP). This paper describes a project with the aim of studying and analysing this special procurement strategy.

    Based on interviews with four individuals, three cases are described and analysed.

    The results of the project are mainly the following:

    • In order to have successful EPP-activities, the construction company must have employees with a suitable character, attitude and interest and with appropriate technical and economic competence.

    • EPP-projects can have a great economic importance for a local division of a construction company. It has not been possible, however, to express this importance in quantitative terms.

    • The interviewed individuals have mentioned that there are several advantages of EPP-projects. Among the most important is a simplified situation for the client and possibilities for the construction company to have long-range planning and to take its experience and wishes into consideration at the design stage. For individuals within the construction company the main advantage is that they have the possibility of joining a project very early and thereby having the potential to influence it and to be creative and innovative.

  • 2.
    Hjort, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Innovation in construction engineering education: some experiences and a planned follow-up1999In: Byggandets ekonomi och organisation : nordiskt seminarium, Göteborg 12-13 april 1999 = Construction economics and organization : proceedings of the Nordic Seminar on Construction Economics and Organization 12-13 April 1999, Göteborg, Sweden / [ed] Jan Bröchner & Per-Erik Josephson, Göteborg: Department of Management of Construction and Facilities (Institutionen för byggnadsekonomi), Chalmers tekniska högskola , 1999, p. 227-232Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an attempt to include a course, “Innovation”, in an educational programme for construction engineers. This course has been divided into two parts; part 1 which is entirely theoretical, and part 2 which mainly consists of a project. The course has been given during six academic years and the response from the construction engineering student has been mainly positive. Some of the projects have resulted in feasible new products. The intention is to execute some research within the field “Innovation in Construction” with this course as a starting point.

  • 3.
    Hjort, Bengt
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Larsson, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Widén, Kristian
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Adoption of a Working Environment Innovation: “Rollout Bar Carpets”2015In: Proceedings CIB W099 Belfast 2015 / [ed] Mike Behm & Ciaran McAleenan, Downpatrick: EEI Publishing , 2015, p. 417-425Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work environment problems associated with reinforcement work at constructions sites are often great and difficult. This applies especially to the ergonomic situation. The situation is particularly difficult in connection with reinforcement in horizontal structural elements such as slabs and foundation slabs on the ground, where several of the most difficult load factors occur. Since about 15 years there is an innovation (rollout bar carpets) available on the Swedish market. This innovation can many times be used at these structural elements and gives both time savings and working environmental benefits. Despite this the innovation has been and is adopted rather seldom. The reasons for this have been studied through semi structured interviews with with design-engineers, site-managers, workers and persons working at a reinforcement manufacturing company. The main results from the study are as follows: i) Rollout bar carpets have a potential of improving both work environment and time consumption on site. However, this may not be enough in itself to achieve a general adoption of the technology. ii) The implementation and adoption of innovations in construction may be more complex than the novelty of the innovation may suggest. This is due to the contextual delimitations of a project-based industry and the different roles in the construction process.

  • 4.
    Hjort, Bengt
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Lindgren, John
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Larsson, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Emmit, Stephen
    School of Civil and Building Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Success Factors Related to Industrialized Building in Sweden2014In: CIB International Conference 2014: W55/65/89/92/96/102/117 & TG72/74/81/83: Construction in a Changing World: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Dilanthi Amaratunga, Richard Haigh, Les Ruddock, Kaushal Keraminiyage, Udayangani Kulatunga & Chaminda Pathirage, Salford: School of the Built Environment, University of Salford , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade there has been intense discussion in Sweden about industrialization in construction. The discussion has focused on industrialization in connection with erection of multi dwelling houses. It has been argued that industrialization is a key factor as regards obtaining affordable high-quality dwellings. During the last ten years some new industrialization concepts have been developed and tested. Even though some concepts have failed others have been more successful and are under further development. Industrialization is a reality within the Swedish construction sector and can be assumed to play an important role in the future as regards obtaining affordable high-quality dwellings. In this paper success factors related to four industrialized building concepts/methods are described and discussed. The review is based on available literature relating to each of the concepts/methods/producers, from which it was possible to ascertain success and failure factors.

  • 5.
    Hjort, Bengt
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Petersson, Pontus
    Sendabo, Teferi
    Ström, Kaleb
    Widén, Kristian
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Introduction of sustainable low-cost housing. Experiences from a demonstration project viewed from an innovation diffusion perspective2016In: Proceedings of the CIB World Building Congress 2016: Volume V - Advancing Products and Services / [ed] Nebil Achour, Tampere: Tampere University of Technology, 2016, Vol. 5, p. 431-442Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to describe and analyse, from an innovation diffusion perspective, factors important when using demonstration projects as a tool for introduction of sustainable low cost housing. The study is focused on Ethiopia, a country with big challenges as regards population increase, lack of resources, deforestation, land erosion and a general need for better and sustainable housing, especially in rural areas. The study is furthermore focused on the adobe technology as a more sustainable alternative to the traditional building technology which is very timber consuming. Many attempts have been made to introduce this technology with the use of demonstration buildings. A great part of these attempts have failed, some have been successful. In order to study and discuss important factors in connection with the use of demonstration buildings, a project executed some years ago in southern Ethiopia has been analysed. The study is based on findings collected during and after the erection of these buildings mainly through practical tests, interviews and observations. From a technical point of view this demonstration project was successful. It was possible to develop an appropriate production technology and the result was buildings with a good standard and good function. Experiences up to now indicate a good durability. From an innovation diffusion perspective however the demonstration buildings have not fulfilled their purpose. The impact in the region seems to be very small. The conclusion in the paper is that the reasons behind this failure mainly are: (1) Lack of clear and visible relative advantage in comparison to the traditional building technology. The supply of construction timber in the area in question is still good. (2) Lack of a champion advocating the technology by using the demonstration buildings and thereby giving the message to the society that the technology is valuable and trustworthy. (3) Lack of continuity in the demonstration efforts, as a result of the lack of a champion.

  • 6.
    Hjort, Bengt
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Sendabo, Teferi
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Sustainable Low-Cost Housing: new technology and attitudes – the importance of creating awareness. A discussion based on results obtained in a pre-study2006In: Konferensen Hälsa möter teknik, Varberg 18-19 september 2005, Tokyo: SB05 Tokyo National Conference Board , 2006, p. 8-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most serious problems in Ethiopia today is the rapid pace of de-forestation. The consequences are well-known: soil-erosion, shortage of fire-wood and, to a certain extent, lack of timber for construction. In Ethiopia some of the most durable indigenous species have been almost eradicated due to de-forestation.

    Against this background a research project named “Sustainable Low Cost Housing – needs, possibilities and attitudes. A project with focus on the Kambaata Region in Ethiopia” has been initiated at Halmstad University. The aim of the project, which is interdisciplinary, is to develop and introduce a new low-cost housing technology and to analyse attitudes towards low-cost housing. This project has been preceded by a pre- study which forms the basis for this paper. The aim of the pre-study was mainly to gather necessary information on which the planning of the major project could be based

    One of the main conclusions of the pre-study is that developing a new technology alone is not enough. An introduction of a new technology must take societies’ attitudes into account, if it shall be successful. This can be done by an active and systematic awareness building. This, in its turn, must however be based on further research about attitudes towards low-cost housing technology.

  • 7.
    Hjort, Bengt
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Sendabo, Teferi
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    The demonstration project as a tool for introduction of sustainable low cost housing – some experiences from Ethiopia2011In: Innovation and Sustainable Construction in developing countries / [ed] Ben Obinero Uwakweh, Hanoi: Construction Publishing House , 2011, p. 133-137Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of many serious problems in Ethiopia today is the rapid pace of deforestation. This accelerates fire-wood shortage and put a high stress on the natural resources including timber for construction. Based on the assumption that low cost housing based on soil is an economically viable and environmentally sound choice, a research programme at Halmstad University was initiated in 2004. This research, aiming at the Kambaata Region in Southern Ethiopia, has focused on the introduction of adobe technology and cement stabilised soil block technology.

    A final stage of this research programme is to erect demonstration buildings. Its objective is to demonstrate new building technologies and to use the demonstration buildings as reference objects in studies regarding building technique and attitudes towards these new technologies.

    This paper is focused on the role of demonstration projects at the introduction of sustainable low cost housing. As an introductory background some executed demonstration projects are described and their impact is analysed. Against this background, a currently executed demonstration project is described.

  • 8.
    Hjort, Bengt
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Widén, Kristian
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Introduction of Sustainable Low-cost Housing in Ethiopia – an Innovation Diffusion Perspective2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As many developing countries, Ethiopia is facing a lot of problems. A high population growth and erosion caused by deforestation can be considered the most serious one. The need for housing is increasing while deforestation causes a lack of sustainable and appropriate timber for construction. A challenge facing the Ethiopian society is thus to give a growing population opportunities to obtain decent, sustainable and affordable housing. One way to achieve this is to use adobe technology, which means that houses are built with sun-dried clay blocks. Used correctly, the adobe technology has many benefits. The main advantages are that the technique is relatively simple, local materials can be used and that timber demand is low. Because of this, the technology also has many advantages from a sustain ability perspective. In Ethiopia, most attempts with the adobe technology have been less successful without lasting impacts. In this paper, the reasons for this are discussed. Six cases where adobe has been used are described an analysed. Many factors have been identified as being important for the diffusion of the technology, i.e., a strong champion, market and risk factors, cultural factors creating stigma and basic training. © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 9.
    Larsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Hjort, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Söderlind, Lars
    Wennersten, Marcus
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Logistik vid husbyggande: Några praktikfall2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: I slutet av 70-talet påbörjades studier om överförbrukning av material i byggproduktionen med FoU-Väst som pådrivare och SBUF som finansiär. Det genomfördes då ett antal “materialspills- projekt” som blev ganska uppmärksammade och som påverkade synen på hur viktigt det är att hantera byggmaterial på rätt sätt. Under de mer än trettio år som gått sedan dess har ett flertal utvecklingsprojekt om byggandets logistik genomförts. Men ämnet är inte uttömt, byggande innebär ständig utveckling och eftersom 50 % av kostnaderna i ett byggprojekt är kostnader för material finns det fortfarande många möjligheter till effektivisering. I detta utvecklingsprojekt har några arbetsplatser studerats samtidigt som samverkan med några byggmaterialleverantörer har undersökts.

    Syfte: Det finns ett betydande slöseriet inom byggmaterialhanteringen. Brister i inköps- och materialhanteringsprocessen påverkar i hög grad byggandets effektivitet. Exempel på detta är överproduktion, korrigeringsarbete, onödig förflyttning av material, stora materiallager, väntetid i produktionen och onödiga arbetskraftsförflyttningar. Allt detta rör logistiken på byggarbetsplatsen. Bygglogistik omfattar planering, organisering, koordinering och kontroll av materialflöden från råmaterial tills det att materialet byggts in i den färdiga byggnaden. Syftet med detta projekt har varit att identifiera och förklara faktorer som har betydelse för materialflödeskostnadernas struktur och storlek, och som är möjliga att påverka. Normala byggmaterial har valts ut för praktikfallsstudier – material som är besvärliga ur logistikperspektiv och som har en stor besparingspotential.

    Genomförande: Med stöd från SBUF har arbetet utförts av deltagare från PEAB och Högskolan i Halmstad. För att samla in materialet till rapporten gjordes en omfattande litteraturstudie. Vidare gjordes uppföljningar på sju olika husbyggnadsarbetsplatser och intervjuer med sex byggmaterialtillverkare/leverantörer genomfördes.

    Resultat: Erfarenheter från tidigare projekt: Det finns alltså en mängd studier gjorda som visar på olika brister i byggandets materialhantering och många menar att med utnyttjande av studiernas rekommendationer borde kostnaderna för material och hantering av material kunna minskas med bortåt 50 %. Den största vinsten kan nås genom att effektivisera hantering och lagring av byggmaterial. Reduktion av materialspill och minskade störningar kan också ge minskade logistikkostnader. Lägsta pris är ofta inte det samma som lägsta totalkostnad. Det fysiska flödet på byggarbetsplatsen kan förbättras genom att försöka skapa tillgång till nödvändigt byggmaterial utan att bygga upp för stora lager. Byggmaterial som lagras länge riskerar att användas till annat, fördärvas eller att stjälas. Byggmaterialterminaler kan i vissa fall vara ett alternativ till lager på byggarbetsplatsen. Många pekar på vikten av långsiktigt samarbete mellan leverantör och entreprenör/projekt. Men denna samverkan försvåras genom att byggarna går från projekt till projekt och att det krävs så många olika byggmaterial. Det kontinuerliga samarbetet och standardisering av kommunikation och produkter blir lidande på grund av detta.Under senare år har det blivit vanligare med import av byggmaterial. Import kan ge billigare priser men risken är att dessa vinster äts upp av ökande logistikkostnader.

  • 10.
    Rundquist, Jonas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Emmitt, Stephen
    Loughborough University, School of Civil and Building Engineering, UK.
    Halila, Fawzi
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Hjort, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Larsson, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Construction Innovation: Addressing the Project–Product Gap in the Swedish Construction Sector2013In: International Journal of Innovation Science, ISSN 1757-2223, E-ISSN 1757-2231, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction sector is often accused of being inefficient, conservative and noninnovative, although some commentators have suggested that the construction sector is not backward, it is merely different to other industries. One of these differences is the uniqueness of construction projects, which are determined by the characteristics of the site, interaction of project participants (also partly site specific) and the relationship between contractors and building product producers (which changes from one project to another). These factors are known to colour construction innovation. Previous research into the Swedish construction sector has identified a significant gap between the building product producers who are 'product focused' and the contractors who are 'project focused', with concerns expressed about effectiveness of communication between two. The findings of previous research imply, both implicitly and explicitly, that this gap may be hindering innovation within the construction sector. This appears to have implications for those concerned with construction, the building users and society as a whole. In this paper the authors provide an extensive review of the literature and research findings from which a number of unique insights are offered. The reasons for the gap between producers and contractors are discussed and a number of innovative measures are proposed that may help to bridge the gap, and hence improve innovation systems. The paper concludes with some practical findings for producers and contractors as well as some thoughts on where future research should be targeted.

  • 11.
    Rundquist, Jonas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Hjort, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Developing a Design Process for Mobile Applications for Logistics in the Construction Industry2015In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship (ICIE-2015) / [ed] Ramjugernath, D., Reading: ACAD Conferences Ltd , 2015, p. 164-170Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Construction material suppliers have access to various types of information, such as construction data, price, production planning and logistics data. This information could be of great use for the different roles involved in a construction project if the right information is presented to the right role and through a user inter-face designed for best under standing by each role. This situation is not unique for the construction industry, but the specific context with temporary organizations (construction projects) that have to communicate with permanent organizations (construction material suppliers) combined with the fact that, at least, six roles (categories) of employees are involved in a construction project places challenges on the industry to achieve effectiveness. In this paper a process to develop a information interface between construction projects and construction material producers will be presented. Using an interventionist research approach with interaction designers involved, the process aim to guide the development of an application for exchange of information between the actors in the construction projects.

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