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  • 1.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.
    Bertollo, Maurizio
    “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy & University of Suffolk, Ipswich, United Kingdom.
    Debois, Nadine
    National Institute of Sport, Expertise and Performance (INSEP), Paris, France.
    de Oliveira, Rita F.
    London South Bank University, London, United Kingdom.
    Fritsch, Julian
    Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.
    Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis
    University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece.
    Moesch, Karin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). The Swedish Sports Confederation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Raab, Markus
    London South Bank University, London, United Kingdom & German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Sanchez, Xavier
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Vaisetaite, Lina
    National Olympic Committee of Lithuania, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Preface to the special issue: 50 years of FEPSAC2019In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 42, p. 5-7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Henriksen, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Institute of Sport Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark & Team Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Schinke, Robert
    School of Human Kinetics, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada.
    Moesch, Karin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Swedish Sports Confederation, Halmstad, Sweden.
    McCann, Sean
    Parham, William D.
    Larsen, Carsten H.
    Terry, Peter
    Consensus statement on improving the mental health of high performance athletesIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This consensus statement is the product of an international Think Tank on the initiative of the International Society of Sport Psychology. The purpose of the Think Tank was to unify major sport psychology organizations in a discussion of the current status and future challenges of applied and research aspects of athlete mental health. The contributors present six propositions and recommendations to inspire sport organizations and researchers. The propositions are: Mental health is a core component of a culture of excellence; Mental health in a sport context should be better defined; Research on mental health in sport should broaden the scope of assessment; Athlete mental health is a major resource for the whole athletic career and life post-athletic career; The environment can nourish or malnourish athlete mental health; and Mental health is everybody’s business but should be overseen by one or a few specified members. It is recommended that researchers unite to develop a more contextualized definition of athlete mental health and more comprehensive strategies of assessment, as well as join forces with sporting organizations to investigate sustainable elite sport environments and the role of the mental health officer. Sport organizations are advised to recognize athlete mental health as a core component of a healthy elite sport system and a key indicator of their effectiveness, support research initiatives, and to promote the mental health literacy of all their staff while engaging a mental health officer with the responsibility to oversee a support system.

  • 3.
    Moesch, Karin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Swedish Sports Confederation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Applying ACT in the context of elite sports: a reflection on blurred lines between clinical issues and performance enhancement2017In: Sport Psychology: Linking theory to practice / [ed] Gangyan, S., Cruz, J., & Jaenes, J. C., 2017, p. 186-186Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being an athlete at international level is primarily about performance accomplishments, and sport psychology has traditionally focused on performance enhancement and clinical issues has received limited attention. However, mental health is becoming a greater concern in the context of elite sports (Baltzell, 2016; Gardner & Moore, 2006). Acceptance Commitment Therapy (ACT) is regarded as the third wave of Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in clinical psychology (Hayes, 2004). Interestingly, ACT is becoming increasingly applied to the context of sports (Baltzell, 2016; Gardner & Moore, 2006). Basically, brief interventions of ACT can conceptually be described by three core pillars represented by open, aware and engaged (Strosahl, Robinson, & Gustavsson, 2012). Open is about the ability to accept uncomfortable sensations and distress without resistance and struggle. Consequently, when open, behaviour is shaped by direct results rather than rigid rules. Awareness is essentially the ability to experience the present moment and to take perspective on self and the story about self. Finally, engaged is the behaviour oriented dimension and is expressed by strong connection with values and the ability to sustain value-consistent actions. Moreover, value driven recovery behaviours may potentially enhance health and performance. Committed actions are specific behaviours that arise as “reflections” based upon values. Ultimately, athletes should be able to stay connected to valued driven behaviours, on purpose, in the present moment, and do it with full acceptance. This presentation will address sport psychology consultants who work across the blurred lines between performance enhancement and clinical issues with elite athletes with ACT-based interventions at the Olympics. Finally, the presentation will discuss some future directions with emphasise on preventive ACT-interventions applied to the elite sports.

  • 4.
    Moesch, Karin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Swedish Sports confederation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    ”Be mindful even though it hurts”: The potential benefit of mindfulness- and acceptance-based interventions in sport injury rehabilitation.2017In: Nordic Sport Science Conference – "The Double-Edged Sword of Sport: Health Promotion Versus Unhealthy Envirnments" / [ed] Krister Hertting & Urban Johnson, Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2017, p. 45-46Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Getting injured often causes psychological reactions such as depressive symptoms or anxiety (see for an overview Brewer & Redmond, 2017). Such reactions not only compromise the athletes’ wellbeing, but can also impact the athlete’s rehabilitation behaviour, the overall outcome of the rehabilitation, and the fact if he/she returns to sport (e.g., De Heredia et al., 2004). A recent meta-analysis showed that negative affective responses had a negative effect on successful return to sport (Ivarsson et al., 2017). Thus, it seems appropriate to integrate psychological interventions alongside the physical rehabilitation. Reviews supported the effectiveness of psychological interventions (mostly based on Psychological Skills Training or biofeedback) during rehabilitation of sport injury to reduce the negative emotional responses and improve behavioural responses during rehabilitation (Schwab Reese et al., 2012). However, several authors call for the use of other interventions, such as mindfulness- and acceptance-based interventions (MABI).

    Aim and theoretical framework

    The aim of this presentation is to highlight the potential benefit of adopting MABIs, such as mindfulness, Acceptance Commitment Therapy (ACT), and Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment approach (MAC), to help injured athletes handle the negative emotions and thoughts caused by a severe sport injury. The central feature of MABIs is to elaborate a modified relationship with internal experiences (such as thoughts, feelings, bodily sensations) rather than seeking to suppress them or change their form or frequency (as done in PST). By learning to monitor, decenter from, and accept one´s inner experiences, the individual develops a healthier relationship to, and will be less affected by such internal experiences, which leaves more room to engage in valuable behaviours that move the individual toward his/her goals. Specific focus will be laid on mindfulness interventions, as mindfulness is an integral part in all MABIs.

    Method

    A thorough literature search has been conducted to find articles about outcomes of mindfulness training and about mechanisms that are related to these outcomes. Likewise, a specific search for studies done with any MABI with injured athletes and for studies investigating variables related to MABIs has been conducted.

    Results

    Results from reviews reveal that mindfulness practice has a positive effect on stress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, emotion regulation, wellbeing, and on behavior regulation in adults (e.g., Keng et al., 2011), and on self-confidence, life quality and pain acceptance in non-athletic populations of adults in rehabilitation (Hardison & Roll, 2016). Mechanisms for these beneficial effects are among others monitoring, acceptance, decentering and exposure (Brown et al., 2007; Lindsay & Creswell, 2017).

    Four studies have been conducted using MABIs with injured athletes. They show promising results; however, they contain methodological concerns such as short intervention length or small sample sizes. Two recent studies investigated variables that are central in MABIs, acceptance and psychological flexibility. Higher levels in these variables were related to better adherence and emotional response during injury rehabilitation.

    Discussion and conclusions

    Based on the results above, it seems appropriate to adopt MABIs in sport injury rehabilitation. Given the fact that MABIs have become increasingly popular for performance enhancement in elite sports, it seems time to integrate and scientifically study these approaches more thoroughly in the context of sport injury rehabilitation.

    References

    Brewer, B. W., & Redmond, C. J. (2017). Psychology of sport injury. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    Brown, K. W., Ryan, R. M., & Creswell, J. D. (2007). Mindfulness: Theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychological Inquiry, 18, 211-237.

    De Heredia, R. A. S., Muñoz, A. R., & Artaza, J. L. (2004). The Effect of Psychological Response on Recovery of Sport Injury. Research in Sports Medicine, 12, 15-31

    Hardison, M. E., & Roll, S. C. (2016). Mindfulness interventions in physical rehabilitation: A scoping review. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 70, 1-9.

    Ivarsson, A., Tranaeus, U., Johnson, U., & Stenling, A. (2017). Negative psychological responses of injury and rehabilitation adherence effects on return to play in competitive athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, 27. doi:10.2147/OAJSM.S112688

    Keng, S.-L., Smoski, M. J., & Robins, C. J. (2011). Effects of mindfulness on psychological health: A review of empirical studies. Clinical Psychological Review, 31, 1041-1056.

    Lindsay, E. K., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Review: Mechanisms of mindfulness training: Monitor and Acceptance Theory (MAT). Clinical Psychology Review, 51, 48-59. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2016.10.011

    Schwab Reese, L. M., Pittsinger, R., & Yang, J. (2012). Review: Effectiveness of psychological intervention following sport injury. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 1, 71-79. doi:10.1016/j.jshs.2012.06.003

  • 5.
    Moesch, Karin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Swedish Sports Confederation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The FEPSAC certification for specialists in applied sport psychology2017In: Sport Psychology: Linking theory to practice / [ed] Gangyan, S., Cruz, J., & Jaenes, J. C., 2017, p. 295-296Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A main goal of the currently elected Managing Council of the European Federation of Sport Psychology (FEPSAC) is to establish certification guidelines for specialists in applied sport psychology. These guidelines are to define the minimum standard for practitioners in the field of sport psychology - who can have an initial qualification background in either psychology or sport science - that must be met to qualify for professional independent practice in the field of applied sport psychology. This certified practitioner should be able to plan, execute and evaluate sport psychology counselling for mentally healthy athletes who aim to enhance and optimize performance and wellbeing. This excludes work with athletes who suffer from mental health problems, whilst being aware that the line between performance enhancement and mental health issues is not an obvious one (see Roberts, Faull & Tod, 2016). Up until now the members of the FEPSAC MC have analyzed and evaluated the certification systems of different European countries and discussed the topic with individuals and organizations with expertise in certification and education in applied sport psychology. Based on the outcome of these discussions, the MC put forward criteria that need to be met by practitioners in order to be able to receive the FEPSAC certification. These criteria relate to four areas, namely: (a) higher education qualification; (b) sspecialization in sport psychology; (c) supervised applied practice; and (d) commitment to  European and FEPSAC values. During the presentation we will outline these four areas in more detail and further describe the progress FEPSAC has made with regard to implementing its certification system. The goal is to have the certification system running by 2019 preceded by a pilot phase in 2018. 

  • 6.
    Moesch, Karin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Kenttä, G.
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Box 5626, Stockholm, 11486, Sweden & School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, 125 University Private, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada.
    Kleinert, J.
    Institute of Psychology, German Sport University Cologne, Am Sportpark Müngersdorf 6, Köln, 50933, Germany & German Research Centre of Elite Sport – Momentum, German Sport University Cologne, Am Sportpark Müngersdorf .
    Quignon-Fleuret, C.
    National Institute of Sport, Expertise and Performance (INSEP), 11 avenue du Tremblay, Paris, 75012, France.
    Cecil, S.
    English Institute of Sport, Ground Floor, 21 Bloomsbury Street, London, Great Britain WC1B 3HF, United Kingdom.
    Bertollo, M.
    FEPSAC Managing Council, Belgium & BIND-Behavioral Imaging and Neural Dynamics Center, Department of Medicine and Aging Sciences, “G. d'Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara, Via dei Vestini 31, Chieti, 66100, Italy & Department of Science and Technology, University of Suffolk, Waterfront Building, 19 Neptune Quay, Ipswich, IP4 1QJ, United Kingdom.
    FEPSAC position statement: Mental health disorders in elite athletes and models of service provision2018In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 38, no September 2018, p. 61-71Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental health disorders (MHD) in elite athletes is a topic that has received increased attention in recent years. The overall aim of this position statement is to enhance awareness of this important topic and to critically discuss optimal service provision for athletes who suffer from MHD. In the first part of the paper a short overview of the research on MHD in elite athletes is provided. Elite athletes seem to have comparable prevalence rates for the most common MHD when compared to non-athletic peers, but there are still many disorders that have not been investigated in athletes. Sport specific situations such as injuries, periods of overtraining and career termination may put athletes at an increased risk of developing MHD. In the second part of the paper, models of service provision for elite athletes suffering from MHD from six European countries are presented, focusing on 1) professional service providers, 2) support systems, 3) diagnostic assessment, 4) clinical treatment, 5) performance during treatment, 6) screening, and 7) education systems. It emerges that competencies, certification issues, and professional boundaries of the involved service providers, as well as the structure of the National Health Care systems differ strongly across European countries, which makes defining a golden standard difficult. In the third part of this paper, the authors provide general recommendations for athletes and coaches, clubs, federations, organizations and scholars that hopefully will inspire stakeholders to optimize their support systems. © 2018

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