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  • 1.
    Urrutia-Cordero, Pablo
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science. Univ Autonoma Madrid, Dept Biol, Madrid 28049, Spain..
    Agha, Ramsy
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Dept Biol, Madrid 28049, Spain..
    Cires, Samuel
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Dept Biol, Madrid 28049, Spain..
    Angeles Lezcano, Maria
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Dept Biol, Madrid 28049, Spain..
    Sanchez-Contreras, Maria
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Dept Biol, Madrid 28049, Spain..
    Waara, Karl-Otto
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Utkilen, Hans
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Water Hyg, N-0403 Oslo, Norway..
    Quesada, Antonio
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Dept Biol, Madrid 28049, Spain..
    Effects of harmful cyanobacteria on the freshwater pathogenic free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii2013In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 130, p. 9-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grazing is a major regulating factor in cyanobacterial population dynamics and, subsequently, considerable effort has been spent on investigating the effects of cyanotoxins on major metazoan grazers. However, protozoan grazers such as free-living amoebae can also feed efficiently on cyanobacteria, while simultaneously posing a major threat for public health as parasites of humans and potential reservoirs of opportunistic pathogens. In this study, we conducted several experiments in which the freshwater amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii was exposed to pure microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and six cyanobacterial strains, three MC-producing strains (MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-YR, MC-WR, [Dha7] MC-RR) and three strains containing other oligopeptides such as anabaenopeptins and cyanopeptolins. Although the exposure to high concentrations of pure MC-LR yielded no effects on amoeba, all MC-producing strains inflicted high mortality rates on amoeba populations, suggesting that toxic effects must be mediated through the ingestion of toxic cells. Interestingly, an anabaenopeptin-producing strain caused the greatest inhibition of amoeba growth, indicating that toxic bioactive compounds other than MCs are of great importance for amoebae grazers. Confocal scanning microscopy revealed different alterations in amoeba cytoskeleton integrity and as such, the observed declines in amoeba densities could have indeed been caused via a cascade of cellular events primarily triggered by oligopeptides with protein-phosphatase inhibition capabilities such as MCs or anabaenopeptins. Moreover, inducible-defense mechanisms such as the egestion of toxic, MC-producing cyanobacterial cells and the increase of resting stages (encystation) in amoebae co-cultivated with all cyanobacterial strains were observed in our experiments. Consequently, cyanobacterial strains showed different susceptibilities to amoeba grazing which were possibly influenced by the potentiality of their toxic secondary metabolites. Hence, this study shows the importance of cyanobacterial toxicity against amoeba grazing and, that cyanobacteria may contain a wide range of chemical compounds capable of negatively affect free-living, herbivorous amoebae. Moreover, this is of high importance for understanding the interactions and population dynamics of such organisms in aquatic ecosystems. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Waara, Sylvia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Gajewska, Magdalena
    Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Cruz Blázquez, Veronica
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Alsbro, Roland
    Eskilstuna Energi och Miljö AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Norwald, Pernilla
    Eskilstuna Energi och Miljö AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Waara, Karl-Otto
    Yderängen HB, Båstad, Sweden.
    Long term performance of an FWS wetland for post-tertiary treatment of sewage: the influence of flow, temperature and age on nitrogen removal2015In: Book of Abstracts: 6th International Symposium on Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control: Annual Conference of the Constructed Wetland Association: 13th to 18th September, 2015, York, United Kingdom / [ed] Gabriela Dotro & Vincent Gagnon, 2015, p. 38-39Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Waara, Sylvia
    et al.
    School for Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Waara, Karl-Otto
    School for Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Åke
    School for Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Fridolfsson, Magnus
    Tekniska förvaltningen, Örebro Kommun, Atleverket, Örebro, Sweden.
    Performance of a Constructed Wetland System for Treatment of Landfill Leachate2008In: Proceedings Waste 2008: Waste and Resource Management – a Shared Responsibility / [ed] Marie Townshend, Stanton-on-the-Wolds: Waste Conference Ltd. , 2008, p. 655-667Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of a constructed wetland for treatment of landfill leachate has been evaluated based upon data obtained during 4 years (2003-2006). It consists of a series of 10 ponds with a total capacity of 52.000 m3 covering 8 ha. Using univariate and multivariate statistics (PCA) the reduction pattern of a large number of chemical parameters including heavy metals has been investigated in 3 parts of the wetland with equal volume. Analyses show that many parameters are removed to the greatest extent in the first part of the system (e.g. many heavy metals, total suspended solids) or the second part of the system (N-NH4) while other parameters such as total nitrogen are more gradually reduced (10 ton/year removed).  Toxicity testing with 5 bioassays showed that toxicity was sometimes observed at the inlet but no toxicity was observed at the outlet for 4 of the test species. The data presented will be used for optimizing the treatment process as well as to improve the monitoring program.

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