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  • 1.
    Hoang, Le-Nam
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Relaying for Timely and Reliable Applications in Wireless Networks2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many emerging applications based on wireless networks involve distributed control. This implies high requirements on reliability, but also on predictable maximum delay. Further, for applications, it is vital to use off-the-shelf components, both due to cost constraints and requirements on interoperability with existing networks. This, in turn, implies that concurrent transmissions and multiuser detection are seldom possible. Instead, half-duplex time-division multiple access (TDMA) is typically used. Aiming to reduce the packet error rate given a deadline (a set of TDMA time-slots), this thesis proposes a relaying scheme, which can be implemented on top of off-the-shelf components. The relaying scheme selects the best sequence of relayers, given the number of time-slots allowed by the deadline, such that the resulting error probability is minimized at the targeted receiver(s). The scheme differs from existing work in that it considers both unicast as well as broadcast and assumes that all nodes can overhear each other, as opposed to separating source nodes, relay nodes and destination nodes into three disjoint sets. A full analysis of the resulting error probability is provided and complementary numerical results show that the proposed relay sequencing strategy significantly improves reliability given a certain maximum delay, or alternatively, reduces the delay, given a certain target reliability requirement. To illustrate the performance improvements of relay sequencing, it is incorporated in a platooning application. If the decision regarding which relayer to assign in each time-slot can be taken online, just before the transmission, much can be gained. To this end, a low-complexity algorithm is developed, which is shown to be highly likely to find the optimal combination of relaying nodes that minimizes the resulting error probability at the targeted receiver(s). Data packets in wireless automation networks is typically small. To enable timely and reliable all-to-all broadcast in such systems, relay sequencing using packet aggregation is proposed. The strategy assigns relayers to time slots, as well as determines which packets to aggregate in each slot, using the proposed low-complexity algorithm. To further increase the reliability, a clustering scheme is proposed. When a relayer in the sequence fails to overhear a correct copy, a backup relayer in the cluster takes over. This work thereby enables ultra-reliable communications with maintained end-toend delay using low-complexity techniques and off-the-shelf components.

  • 2.
    Hoang, Le-Nam
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Relaying for Timely and Reliable Message Dissemination in Wireless Distributed Control Systems2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed control applications enabled by wireless networks are becoming more and more frequent. The advantages of wireless access are many, as control systems become mobile, autonomous and connected. Examples include platooning and automated factories. However, distributed control systems have stringent requirement on both reliability and timeliness, the latter in terms of deadlines. If the deadline is missed, the packet is considered useless, similarly to a lost or erroneous packet in a system without deadlines. In addition, wireless channels are, by nature, more exposed to noise and interference than their wired counterparts. Consequently, it implies a considerable challenge to fulfill the deadline requirements with sufficient reliability for proper functionality of distributed control applications. However, by taking advantage of cooperative communications, increased reliability can be achieved with little or no additional delay.

    Reducing the delay until a message is successfully received is a two-fold problem: providing channel access with a predictable maximum delay and maximizing the reliability of each transmission, once granted by the medium access method. To this end, this thesis proposes a framework that provides a bounded channel access delay and handles the co-existence of both time-triggered and event-driven messages encountered in distributed control applications. In addition, the thesis proposes and evaluates an efficient message dissemination technique based on relaying that maximizes the reliability given a certain deadline, or alternatively determines the delay required to achieve a certain reliability threshold for both unicast and broadcast scenarios. Numerical results, which are verified by Monte-Carlo simulations, show significant improvements with the proposed relaying scheme as compared to a conventional scheme without cooperation, providing more reliable message delivery given a fixed number of available time-slots. It also becomes clear in which situations relaying is preferable and in which situations pure retransmissions are preferable, as the relay selection algorithm will always pick the best option. The relay selection algorithm has a reasonable complexity and can be used by both routing algorithms and relaying scenarios in any time-critical application as long as it is used together with a framework that enables predictable channel access. In addition, it can be implemented on top of commercially available transceivers.

  • 3.
    Hoang, Le-Nam
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    A Framework for Reliable Exchange of Periodic and Event-Driven Messages in Platoons2015In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Communication Workshop, Piscataway: IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, p. 2471-2476Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Platooning is widely considered a promising approach to decrease fuel consumption by reducing the air drag. However, in order to achieve the benefits of aerodynamic efficiency, the inter-vehicle distances must be kept short. This implies that the intra-platoon communication must not only be reliable but also able to meet strict timing deadlines. In this paper, we propose a framework that reliably handles the co-existence of both time-triggered and event-driven control messages in platooning applications and we derive an efficient message dissemination technique. We propose a semi-centralized time division multiple access (TDMA) approach, which e.g., can be placed on top of the current standard IEEE 802.11p and we evaluate the resulting error probability and delay, when using it to broadcast periodic beacons and disseminating eventdriven messages within a platoon. Simulation results indicate that the proposed dissemination policy significantly enhances the reliability for a given number of available time-slots, or alternatively, reduces the delay, in terms of time-slots, required to achieve a certain target error probability, without degrading the performance of co-existing time-triggered messages. © 2015 IEEE

  • 4.
    Hoang, Le-Nam
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    A novel relaying scheme to guarantee timeliness and reliability in wireless networks2017In: 2016 IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps): Proceedings, New York: IEEE, 2017, article id 7848822Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many emerging applications based on wireless networks involve distributed control. This implies high requirements on reliability, but also on a predictable maximum delay and sometimes jitter. Further, many distributed control systems need to be constructed using off-the-shelf components, both due to cost constraints and due to interoperability with existing networks. This, in turn, implies that concurrent transmissions and multiuser detection are seldom possible. Instead, half-duplex time division multiple access (TDMA) is typically used. The total communication delay thereby depends on the packet error rate and the time until channel access is granted. With TDMA, channel access is upper-bounded and the jitter can be set to zero. With the aim to reduce the packet error rate given a certain deadline (a set of TDMA time-slots), we propose a novel relaying scheme, which can be implemented on top of off-the-shelf components. The paper includes a full analysis of the resulting error probability and latency. Numerical results show that the proposed relaying strategy significantly improves reliability given a certain maximum latency, or alternatively, reduces the latency, given a certain target reliability requirement. © 2016 IEEE.

  • 5.
    Hoang, Le-Nam
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    A Simple Relaying Scheme to Guarantee Timeliness and Reliability in Wireless Networks2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many emerging applications based on wireless networks involves distributed control. This implies high requirements on reliability, but also on maximum delay and sometimes jitter. The total delay depends on the packet error rate and the time until channel access is granted. With e.g., TDMA, channel access is upper-bounded and the jitter zero. To reduce the packet error rate given a certain deadline (a set of TDMA time-slots), we propose a simple relaying scheme, including a full analysis of its resulting error probability and delay. Numerical results show that the proposed relaying strategy significantly improves reliability given a certain message deadline.

  • 6.
    Hoang, Le-Nam
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    An Efficient Message Dissemination Technique in Platooning Applications2015In: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 1017-1020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous driving in road trains, a.k.a. platooning, may reduce fuel consumption considerably if the intervehicle distances are kept short. However, to do this, the intraplatoon communication must not only be reliable but also able to meet strict deadlines. While time-triggered messages are the foundation of most distributed control applications, platooning is likely to also require dissemination of event-driven messages. While much research work has focused on minimizing the age of periodic messages, state-of-the-art for disseminating eventdriven messages is to let all nodes repeat all messages and focus on mitigating broadcast storms. We derive an efficient message dissemination scheme based on relay selection which minimizes the probability of error at the intended receiver(s) for both unicast and broadcast, without degrading the performance of co-existing time-triggered messages. We present a full analysis of the resulting error probability and delay, when relayers, selected by our algorithm, are used to disseminate messages within a platoon. Numerical results indicate that the proposed relaying policy significantly enhances the reliability for a given delay.

  • 7.
    Hoang, Le-Nam
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Cluster Relaying to Guarantee Timeliness and Reliability in Wireless NetworksManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many emerging applications using wireless networks imply high requirements on reliability, but also on a predictable maximum delay. Due to cost constraints and interoperability with existing networks, half-duplex time division multiple access (TDMA) is typically used in these applications. With TDMA, channel access is upper-bounded and the jitter can be set to zero. However, the major drawback of TDMA is that the already-allocated time-slots are wasted if their respective transmitters do not have any packet to send. Therefore, in this paper we propose a novel cluster-relaying scheme to overcome this drawback but still reduce the probability of error given a certain deadline. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme significantly enhances reliability while guaranteeing deadline for each message.

  • 8.
    Hoang, Le-Nam
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Low Complexity Algorithm for Efficient Relay Assignment in Unicast/Broadcast Wireless Networks2017In: 2017 IEEE 85th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), [S.l.]: IEEE, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using relayers in wireless networks enables higher throughput, increased reliability or reduced delay. However, when building networks using commercially available hardware, concurrent transmissions by multiple relayers are generally not possible. Instead one specific relayer needs to be assigned for each transmission instant. If the decision regarding which relayer to assign, i.e., which relayer that has the best opportunity to successfully deliver the packet, can be taken online, just before the transmission is to take place, much can be gained. This is particularly the case in mobile networks, as a frequently changing network topology considerably affects the choice of a suitable relayer. To this end, this paper addresses the problem of online relay assignment by developing a low-complexity algorithm highly likely to find the optimal combination of relaying nodes that minimizes the resulting error probability at the targeted receiver(s) using a mix of simulated annealing and ant colony algorithms, such that relay assignments can be made online also in large networks. The algorithm differs from existing works in that it considers both unicast as well as broadcast and assumes that all nodes can overhear each other, as opposed to separating source nodes, relay nodes and destination nodes into three disjoint sets, which is generally not the case in most wireless networks.

  • 9.
    Hoang, Le-Nam
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Relaying with Packet Aggregation for Half-Duplex All-to-All Broadcast in Time-Critical Wireless Networks2017In: 2017 IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless automation and control networks, with stringent latency and reliability requirements, typically use half-duplex communications combined with deadline-aware scheduling of time slots to nodes. To introduce higher reliability in legacy industrial control systems, extra time slots are usually reserved for retransmissions. However, in distributed wireless control systems, where sensor data from several different nodes must be timely and reliably available at all places where controller decisions are made, this is particularly cumbersome as all nodes may not hear each other and extra time slots imply increased delay. To enable all-to-all broadcast with manageable overhead and complexity in such systems, we therefore propose a novel relaying strategy using packet aggregation. The strategy assigns relayers to time slots, as well as determines which packets to aggregate in each slot, using a low-complexity algorithm such that ultra-reliable communications can be obtained with maintained end-to-end latency.

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