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  • 1.
    Bauhn, Lovisa
    et al.
    Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ekberg, Christian
    Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    On the spot study reveals the missing carbon sink2017In: / [ed] Martin Novak, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing amount of CO2 emitted from human activities globally does not add to the increase in the atmosphere. Taking the ocean sink into acount, the fate of about 3 Gt C annually remains to be explained. This huge amount is calculated as the residual from known fluxes1 We present an `on the spot´ study that is based on systematic soil sampling in different regions and over the years since 2004. The difference between gross heterotrophic respiration (GHR) in the soil, and net heterotrophic respiration (NHR) that is the part of the carbon dioxide leaving the ground surface, was analyzed. The accumulated data indicate a within-soil CO2 sink of the same magnitude as the sink derived from different fluxes1 . Both approaches describe the same sink but our results show that the sink is CO2 uptake from the soil atmosphere, not emitted CO2 that is returned to some unknown area on land. The energy yield needed from nitrification to explain the observed reduction of CO2 to organic material is large, and NH4 + is recycled several times. It was unexpectedly observed that O2 was released in this gross nitrification cycle and this was confirmed with H2 18O incubations in soils2 . The large CO2 sink changes between seasons, between sites and even from a sink to an additional source, which may explain why it has so long been ”missing”.

    1 Le Quéré et al. 2015. Global Carbon Budgets 2015. Earth Syst. Sci. Data 7, 349–396

    2 Fleischer S. et al. 2013. Dark oxidation of water in soils. Tellus B 65, 20490

  • 2.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    CO2 Deficit in Temperate Forest Soils Receiving High Atmospheric N-Deposition2003In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 2-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence is provided for an internal CO2 sink in forest soils, that may have a potential impact on the global CO2-budget. Lowered CO2 fraction in the soil atmosphere, and thus lowered CO2 release to the aboveground atmosphere, is indicated in high N-deposition areas. Also at forest edges, especially of spruce forest, where additional N-deposition has occurred, the soil CO2 is lowered, and the gradient increases into the closed forest. Over the last three decades the capacity of the forest soil to maintain the internal sink process has been limited to a cumulative supply of approximately 1000 and 1500 kg N ha−1. Beyond this limit the internal soil CO2 sink becomes an additional CO2 source, together with nitrogen leaching. This stage of “nitrogen saturation” is still uncommon in closed forests in southern Scandinavia, however, it occurs in exposed forest edges which receive high atmospheric N-deposition. The soil CO2 gradient, which originally increases from the edge towards the closed forest, becomes reversed.

  • 3.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Emissionen av koldioxid inom Vesanområdet2010In: Överkörd natur: Rolands Hav och Vesan / [ed] Sven Björk, Olofström: Vekerum , 2010, p. 562-563Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Interaction between N and C in Soil has Consequences for Global Carbon Cycling2012In: Journal of Resources and Ecology, ISSN 1674-764X, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 16-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy—yielding processes in the N—cycle form important links with the global C—cycle. One example is demonstrated with the supply of nitrogen to soils, initially resulting in lowered CO2 emissions. This well known effect has mostly been interpreted as hampered or delayed soil respiration. When added in surplus, however, nitrogen supply does not stabilize the minimum emissions initially obtained, but gradually results in increased CO2 emissions. Specific inhibition of the CO2 consuming process nitrification in soils, with surplus ammonium supply or with acetylene, mostly results in additional CO2 emissions. The difference between this disclosed gross heterotrophic respiration (GHR) and the net CO2 emission (NHR) is the result of a within—soil CO2—sink. Soil respiration solely determined as CO2 emitted as NHR (the common situation) therefore may lead to misinterpretations of the function of the soil system, especially in areas with high N—deposition. As a consequence, the interpreted ‘acclimation’ of the soil respiration response in a warmer world should be reconsidered. The concept of respiration inhibition by nitrogen supply may also be questioned. Disregard of these processes, including the indicated N—driven within—soil CO2—sink, may prevent adequate measures counteracting climate change.

  • 5.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Production of greenhouse gases in Lake Hornborga2014In: Limnological Methods for Environmental Rehabilitation: The Fine Art of Restoring Aquatic Ecosystems / [ed] Sven Björk, Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 2014, p. 102-105Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6. Fleischer, Siegfried
    et al.
    Bauhn, Lovisa
    Fors, Patrik
    En kolsänka med syrebildning på köpet2014In: Kemivärlden Biotech med Kemisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1650-0725, no 4, p. 24-24Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Bauhn, Lovisa
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering/Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fors, Patrik
    Vattenfall Research and Development AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ödegaard-Jensen, Arvid
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering/Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dark oxidation of water in soils2013In: Tellus. Series B, Chemical and physical meteorology, ISSN 0280-6509, E-ISSN 1600-0889, Vol. 65, no 1, article id 20490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the release of oxygen (O2) under dark conditions in aerobic soils. This unexpected process is hidden by respiration which constitutes the dominating reversal O2 flux. By using H218O in different soils, we confirmed that 16O18O and 18O2 released under dark soil conditions originated from added H218O. Water is the only large-scale source of electrons for reduction of CO2 in soils, but it has not been considered as an electron donor because of the very strong oxidation system needed. A high share of soil inorganic material seems to favor the release of O2. © 2013 S. Fleischer et al.

  • 8.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Bouse, Ivo
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Nitrogen cycling drives a strong within-soil CO2-sink2008In: Tellus. Series B, Chemical and physical meteorology, ISSN 0280-6509, E-ISSN 1600-0889, Vol. 60, no 5, p. 782-786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For about three decades, it has not been possible to completely balance global carbon emissions into known pools. A residual (or 'missing') sink remains. Here evidence is presented that part of soil respiration is allocated into an internal soil CO2-sink localized to the saprophytic subsystem (roots excluded). The process occurs in forest, agricultural and grassland soils and is favoured by high N-deposition. Chemoautotrophic nitrification has a key role, and the most efficient internal CO2-sequestration occurs concurrently with lowest soil nitrate (NO3-) concentrations, despite considerable N-loading. Not until drastic N-supply occurs, does the CO2-sink successively breakdown, and nitrate concentrations increase, leading to NO3--leaching. Within-soil CO2-uptake seems to be of the same magnitude as the missing carbon sink. It may be gradually enforced by the ongoing input of nitrogen to the biosphere.

  • 9.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Ohlsson, Lars
    Svensson, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Våtmarkscentrum skapar viktigt nätverk2002In: Cirkulation, ISSN 1103-2855, no 7, p. 26-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Magnheden, Marie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Berglund, Maria
    Hushållningssällskapet Halland, Halmstad, Sverige.
    Ekre, Erik
    Hushållningssällskapet Halland, Halmstad, Sverige.
    Aronsson, Helena
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Lustgas i dräneringsvatten från åkermark: Resultat del 22014Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Mattsson, Marie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science.
    Magnheden, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Catch Crop Known to Decrease N-leaching also Counteracts Soil CO2 Emissions2015In: Journal of Resources and Ecology, ISSN 1674-764X, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 180-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CO2 emissions to the atmosphere were studied in a fertilized sandy agricultural soil with and without a catch crop sown into the main crop. The catch crop was grown primarily with the purpose to decrease N-leaching but this study also wanted to find out if the catch crop could have an effect in a climate change perspective. Plots with catch crop showed decreased CO2 emissions from the soil. Since previous results have shown that catch crops effectively decrease N-leaching we recommend growing catch crops as an effective measure for helping both the climate and the eutrophication issue. Seasonal variations in CO2 emissions were pronounced with maximum emissions from the fertilized agricultural soil in June and from an adjacent unmanaged grassland in August. From the plot with catch crop emissions decreased in July and August but somewhat increased later in the autumn. Fertilized agricultural soil showed a within-soil CO2 sink after harvest, i.e. within-soil CO2 uptake. Availability of NH4+ or NO3- in the soil seems to influence the within-soil CO2 sink, with NH4+ enforcing the sink while the same amount of NO3- instead increased CO2 emissions. © 2015 BioOne All rights reserved

  • 12.
    Paludan, C.
    et al.
    Fyn County, Department of Environmental Protection, Odense SØ, Denmark.
    Alexeyev, F.
    The State Committee for Environ. Protection, Kaliningrad, Russia .
    Drews, H.
    Land for Nature and Environ. in Schleswig-Holstein, Flintbek, Germany .
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    County Adm. Board, Halmstad, Sweden .
    Fuglsang, A.
    Fyn County, Department of Environmental Protection, Odense SØ, Denmark .
    Kindt, T.
    Laholm Municipality, Laholm, Sweden .
    Kowalski, P.
    Regional Board of Water Management, Gdansk, Poland .
    Moos, M.
    Environmental Department of Pärnu County Government, Pärnu, Estonia .
    Radlowki, A.
    Regional Board of Water Management, Gdansk, Poland .
    Strömfors, G.
    Regional Council of Ostrobotnia, Vaasa, Finland .
    Westberg, V.
    West Finland Regional Environmental Centre, Vaasa, Finland .
    Wolter, K.
    Land for Nature and Environ. in Schleswig-Holstein, Flintbek, Germany .
    Wetland management to reduce Baltic Sea eutrophication2002In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 45, no 9, p. 87-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seven regions with coastal eutrophication problems in the Baltic Sea, including the Kattegat, constitute the BERNET project (Baltic Eutrophication Regional Network). To counteract eutrophication and associated severe biological conditions the countries around this large brackish water body must all cooperate. The regions are characterized by large differences in land use, e.g. agricultural intensity, and losses of retention capacity in the catchments due to wetland reclamation. Initially it has been necessary to identify nutrient sources - especially nitrogen - and technical, economical and even administrative obstacles to initiate eutrophication management measures. Nitrogen retention in different types of wetlands in the Baltic Sea Region has been analysed. The wetlands generally have a positive effect on reduced nitrogen transport to aquatic environments and it is generally accepted that measures leading to decreased losses of nutrients to the aquatic environment must be combined with measures leading to increased retention of nutrients in catchments. Data analysed in the BERNET project show that the potential for such a measure is large. Therefore, conservation and restoration initiatives for wetlands is an essential part of the work in the BERNET project. Wetlands have been drained or totally eliminated due to intensive agriculture in some regions while large scale rehabilitation of wetlands occurs in regions with less intensive agriculture. Based on land use data from the seven regions, the working group for wetland management within the BERNET project has identified the possible use of wetlands as building blocks as a contribution to the management of the Baltic Sea eutrophication. Several recommendations are presented on the wise use of existing and constructed wetlands for water quality management in relation to non-point nutrient pollution.

  • 13.
    Rögnvaldsson, Thorsteinn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Brink, Joachim
    Halmstad University.
    Florén, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Gaspes, Veronica
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Holmgren, Noél
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Lutz, Mareike
    Halmstad University.
    Nilsson, Pernilla
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Research on Education and Learning within the Department of Teacher Education (FULL).
    Olsfelt, Jonas
    Halmstad University.
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Ericsson, Claes
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Research on Education and Learning within the Department of Teacher Education (FULL).
    Gustafsson, Linnea
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Contexts and Cultural Boundaries (KK).
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Hylander, Jonny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Nygren, Jens
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK).
    Sandberg, Mikael
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Center for Social Analysis (CESAM).
    Benner, Mats
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Berg, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Center for Social Analysis (CESAM).
    Bergvall, Patrik
    Halmstad University.
    Carlborg, Anna
    Halmstad University.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Hållander, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Olsson, Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Rundquist, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Waara, Sylvia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    ARC13 – Assessment of Research and Coproduction: Reports from the assessment of all research at Halmstad University 20132014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    During 2013, an evaluation of all the research conducted at Halmstad University was carried out. The purpose was to assess the quality of the research, coproduction, and collaboration in research, as well as the impact of the research. The evaluation was dubbed the Assessment of Research and Coproduction 2013, or ARC13. (Extract from Executive Summary)

  • 14.
    Svensson, Jonas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Rosenqvist, Torsten
    Halmstad University.
    Stibe, Lars
    Länsstyrelsen Halland.
    Pansar, Joakim
    Halmstad University.
    Ekologisk dagvattenhantering i Halmstad2002Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report compiles experiences with open stormwater treatment facilities at the City of Halmstad. In specific wetlands, research efforts are demonstrated that investigate retention effects of metals, nutrients and other substances.

  • 15.
    Tonderski, Karin S.
    et al.
    IFM div. Ecology, Linkoping University.
    Svensson, J. M.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Ekstam, Börje
    Högskolan i Kalmar.
    Eriksson, Peder
    Länsstyrelsen i Örebro län.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Herrmann, Jan
    Högskolan i Kalmar.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Våtmarker: Närsaltsfällor och/eller myllrande mångfald?2003In: Vatten: tidskrift för vattenvård, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 259-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes the state-of-the-art with respect to wetlands for nutrient removal and biodiversity enhancement, as expressed at a research workshop in December 2002. In the end of 2002, 260 and 884 wetlands had been constructed in Sweden with subsidies from LIP and the European Union, respectively. Most frequently, the aims were to remove nutrients from water and enhance biodiversity. The question raised is if we know how to design multifunctional wetlands. Should a wetland be deep or shallow, with or without macrophytes to be an efficient nutrient sink? Diverging opinions are presented, but generally it appears that fairly shallow wetlands at least partly covered by emergent macrophytes are favourable. The importance of extreme high flows and hydraulic short-circuiting is highlighted, and Danish and Norwegian approaches to wetlands construction are presented. Also, there is a risk that nutrient retaining wetlands develop a fairly trivial flora and fauna unless special care is taken. Intentional establishment of desirable and less common species, as well as creation of a variation of depth gradients to favour such species are such measures. Others are allowing for water level variations, as well as vegetation management such as grazing and harvesting.

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