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  • 1.
    Cooney, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Robot Art, in the Eye of the Beholder?: Personalized Metaphors Facilitate Communication of Emotions and Creativity2021In: Frontiers in Robotics and AI, E-ISSN 2296-9144, Vol. 8, article id 668986Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Socially assistive robots are being designed to support people's well-being in contexts such as art therapy where human therapists are scarce, by making art together with people in an appropriate way. A challenge is that various complex and idiosyncratic concepts relating to art, like emotions and creativity, are not yet well understood. Guided by the principles of speculative design, the current article describes the use of a collaborative prototyping approach involving artists and engineers to explore this design space, especially in regard to general and personalized art-making strategies. This led to identifying a goal: to generate representational or abstract art that connects emotionally with people's art and shows creativity. For this, an approach involving personalized "visual metaphors" was proposed, which balances the degree to which a robot's art is influenced by interacting persons. The results of a small user study via a survey provided further insight into people's perceptions: the general design was perceived as intended and appealed; as well, personalization via representational symbols appeared to lead to easier and clearer communication of emotions than via abstract symbols. In closing, the article describes a simplified demo, and discusses future challenges. Thus, the contribution of the current work lies in suggesting how a robot can seek to interact with people in an emotional and creative way through personalized art; thereby, the aim is to stimulate ideation in this promising area and facilitate acceptance of such robots in everyday human environments. © 2021 Cooney. 

  • 2.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Berck, Peter
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Designing a Robot Which Paints With a Human: Visual Metaphors to Convey Contingency and Artistry2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Socially assistive robots could contribute to fulfilling an important need for interaction in contexts where human caregivers are scarce–such as art therapy, where peers, or patients and therapists, can make art together. However, current art-making robots typically generate art either by themselves, or as tools under the control of a human artist; how to make art together with a human in a good way has not yet received much attention, possibly because some concepts related to art, such as emotion and creativity, are not yet well understood. The current work reports on our use of a collaborative prototyping approach to explore this concept of a robot which can paint together with people. The result is a proposed design, based on an idea of using visual metaphors to convey contingency and artistry. Our aim is that the identified considerations will help support next steps, toward supporting positive experiences for people through art-making with a robot.

  • 3.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Bigun, Josef
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    PastVision: Exploring “Seeing” into the Near Past with Thermal Touch Sensing and Object Detection – For Robot Monitoring of Medicine Intake by Dementia Patients2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present PastVision, a proof-of-concept approach that explores combining thermal touch sensing and object detection to infer recent actions by a person which have not been directly observed by a system. Inferring such past actions has received little attention yet in the literature, but would be highly useful in scenarios in which sensing can fail (e.g., due to occlusions) and the cost of not recognizing an action is high. In particular, we focus on one such application, involving a robot which should monitor if an elderly person with dementia has taken medicine. For this application, we explore how to combine detection of touches and objects, as well as how heat traces vary based on materials and a person’s grip, and how robot motions and activity models can be leveraged. The observed results indicate promise for the proposed approach.

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  • 4.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Bigun, Josef
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    PastVision+: Thermovisual Inference of Recent Medicine Intake by Detecting Heated Objects and Cooled Lips2017In: Frontiers in Robotics and AI, E-ISSN 2296-9144, Vol. 4, article id 61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the problem of how a robot can infer what a person has done recently, with a focus on checking oral medicine intake in dementia patients. We present PastVision+, an approach showing how thermovisual cues in objects and humans can be leveraged to infer recent unobserved human-object interactions. Our expectation is that this approach can provide enhanced speed and robustness compared to existing methods, because our approach can draw inferences from single images without needing to wait to observe ongoing actions and can deal with short-lasting occlusions; when combined, we expect a potential improvement in accuracy due to the extra information from knowing what a person has recently done. To evaluate our approach, we obtained some data in which an experimenter touched medicine packages and a glass of water to simulate intake of oral medicine, for a challenging scenario in which some touches were conducted in front of a warm background. Results were promising, with a detection accuracy of touched objects of 50% at the 15 s mark and 0% at the 60 s mark, and a detection accuracy of cooled lips of about 100 and 60% at the 15 s mark for cold and tepid water, respectively. Furthermore, we conducted a follow-up check for another challenging scenario in which some participants pretended to take medicine or otherwise touched a medicine package: accuracies of inferring object touches, mouth touches, and actions were 72.2, 80.3, and 58.3% initially, and 50.0, 81.7, and 50.0% at the 15 s mark, with a rate of 89.0% for person identification. The results suggested some areas in which further improvements would be possible, toward facilitating robot inference of human actions, in the context of medicine intake monitoring.

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  • 5.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Järpe, Eric
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    “Robot Steganography”: Opportunities and Challenges2022In: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence - Volume 1: ICAART / [ed] Ana Paula Rocha; Luc Steels; Jaap van den Herik, Setúbal: SciTePress, 2022, p. 200-207Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robots are being designed to communicate with people in various public and domestic venues in a perceptive, helpful, and discreet way. Here, we use a speculative prototyping approach to shine light on a new concept of robot steganography (RS): that a robot could seek to help vulnerable populations by discreetly warning of potential threats: We first identify some potentially useful scenarios for RS related to safety and security– concerns that are estimated to cost the world trillions of dollars each year–with a focus on two kinds of robots, a socially assistive robot (SAR) and an autonomous vehicle (AV). Next, we propose that existing, powerful, computer-based steganography (CS) approaches can be adopted with little effort in new contexts (SARs), while also pointing out potential benefits of human-like steganography (HS): Although less efficient and robust than CS, HS represents a currently-unused form of RS that could also be used to avoid requiring a computer to receive messages, detection by more technically advanced adversaries, or a lack of alternative connectivity (e.g., if a wireless channel is being jammed). Some unique challenges of RS are also introduced, that arise from message generation, indirect perception, and effects of perspective. Finally, we confirm the feasibility of the basic concept for RS, that messages can be hidden in a robot’s behaviors, via a simplified, initial user study, also making available some code and a video. The immediate implication is that RS could potentially help to improve people’s lives and mitigate some costly problems, as robots become increasingly prevalent in our society–suggesting the usefulness of further discussion, ideation, and consideration by designers.

  • 6.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Järpe, Eric
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    “Vehicular Steganography”?: Opportunities and Challenges2021In: Electronic Communications of the EASST, E-ISSN 1863-2122, Vol. 80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What if an autonomous vehicle (AV) could secretly warn of potential threats? “Steganography”, the hiding of messages, is a vital way for vulnerable populations to communicate securely and get help. Here, we shine light on the concept of vehicular steganography (VS) using a speculative approach: We identify some key scenarios, highlighting unique challenges that arise from indirect perception, message generation, and effects of perspective-as well as potential carrier signals and message generation considerations. One observation is that, despite challenges to transmission rates and robustness, physical signals such as locomotion or sound could offer a complementary, currently-unused alternative to traditional methods. The immediate implication is that VS could help to mitigate some costly safety problems-suggesting the benefit of further discussion and ideation. © 2021. All Rights Reserved.

  • 7.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International IRC/HIL, Keihanna Science City, Kyoto, Japan.
    Kanda, Takayuki
    Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International IRC/HIL, Keihanna Science City, Kyoto, Japan.
    Alissandrakis, Aris
    Center for Learning and Knowledge Technologies Organization, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Ishiguro, Hiroshi
    Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International IRC/HIL, Keihanna Science City, Kyoto, Japan.
    Designing Enjoyable Motion-Based Play Interactions with a Small Humanoid Robot2014In: International Journal of Social Robotics, ISSN 1875-4791, E-ISSN 1875-4805, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 173-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robots designed to co-exist with humans in domestic and public environments should be capable of interacting with people in an enjoyable fashion in order to be socially accepted. In this research, we seek to set up a small humanoid robot with the capability to provide enjoyment to people who pick up the robot and play with it by hugging, shaking and moving the robot in various ways. Inertial sensors inside a robot can capture how the robot’s body is moved when people perform such “full-body gestures”. Unclear is how a robot can recognize what people do during play, and how such knowledge can be used to provide enjoyment. People’s behavior is complex, and naïve designs for a robot’s behavior based only on intuitive knowledge from previous designs may lead to failed interactions. To solve these problems, we model people’s behavior using typical full-body gestures observed in free interaction trials, and devise an interaction design based on avoiding typical failures observed in play sessions with a naïve version of our robot. The interaction design is completed by investigating how a robot can provide “reward” and itself suggest ways to play during an interaction. We then verify experimentally that our design can be used to provide enjoyment during a playful interaction. By describing the process of how a smallhumanoid robot can be designed to provide enjoyment, we seek to move one step closer to realizing companion robots which can be successfully integrated into human society. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  • 8.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Karlsson, Stefan M.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Impressions of Size-Changing in a Companion Robot2015In: PhyCS 2015 – 2nd International Conference on Physiological Computing Systems, Proceedings / [ed] Hugo Plácido da Silva, Pierre Chauvet, Andreas Holzinger, Stephen Fairclough & Dennis Majoe, SciTePress, 2015, p. 118-123Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physiological data such as head movements can be used to intuitively control a companion robot to perform useful tasks. We believe that some tasks such as reaching for high objects or getting out of a person’s way could be accomplished via size changes, but such motions should not seem threatening or bothersome. To gain insight into how size changes are perceived, the Think Aloud Method was used to gather typical impressions of a new robotic prototype which can expand in height or width based on a user’s head movements. The results indicate promise for such systems, also highlighting some potential pitfalls.

  • 9.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Leister, Wolfgang
    Norsk Regnesentral, Oslo, Norway.
    Using the Engagement Profile to Design an Engaging Robotic Teaching Assistant for Students2019In: Robotics, E-ISSN 2218-6581, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on an exploratory study conducted at a graduate school in Sweden with a humanoid robot, Baxter. First, we describe a list of potentially useful capabilities for a robot teaching assistant derived from brainstorming and interviews with faculty members, teachers, and students. These capabilities consist of reading educational materials out loud, greeting, alerting, allowing remote operation, providing clarifications, and moving to carry out physical tasks. Secondly, we present feedback on how the robot's capabilities, demonstrated in part with the Wizard of Oz approach, were perceived, and iteratively adapted over the course of several lectures, using the EngagementProfile tool. Thirdly, we discuss observations regarding the capabilities and the development process. Our findings suggest that using a social robot as a teachingassistant is promising using the chosen capabilities and Engagement Profile tool. We find that enhancing the robot's autonomous capabilities and further investigating the role of embodiment are some important topics to be considered in future work. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 10.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Menezes, Maria Luiza Recena
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Design for an Art Therapy Robot: An Explorative Review of the Theoretical Foundations for Engaging in Emotional and Creative Painting with a Robot2018In: Multimodal Technologies Interact. Special Issue Emotions in Robots: Embodied Interaction in Social and Non-Social Environments, ISSN 2414-4088, Vol. 2, no 3, article id 52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social robots are being designed to help support people’s well-being in domestic and public environments. To address increasing incidences of psychological and emotional difficulties such as loneliness, and a shortage of human healthcare workers, we believe that robots will also play a useful role in engaging with people in therapy, on an emotional and creative level, e.g., in music, drama, playing, and art therapy. Here, we focus on the latter case, on an autonomous robot capable of painting with a person. A challenge is that the theoretical foundations are highly complex; we are only just beginning ourselves to understand emotions and creativity in human science, which have been described as highly important challenges in artificial intelligence. To gain insight, we review some of the literature on robots used for therapy and art, potential strategies for interacting, and mechanisms for expressing emotions and creativity. In doing so, we also suggest the usefulness of the responsive art approach as a starting point for art therapy robots, describe a perceived gap between our understanding of emotions in human science and what is currently typically being addressed in engineering studies, and identify some potential ethical pitfalls and solutions for avoiding them. Based on our arguments, we propose a design for an art therapy robot, also discussing a simplified prototype implementation, toward informing future work in the area.

  • 11.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Hiroshi Ishiguro Lab (HIL), Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International (ATR), Seika, Japan.
    Nishio, Shuichi
    Hiroshi Ishiguro Lab (HIL), Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International (ATR), Seika, Japan.
    Ishiguro, Hiroshi
    Hiroshi Ishiguro Lab (HIL), Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International (ATR), Seika, Japan.
    Affectionate Interaction with a Small Humanoid Robot Capable of Recognizing Social Touch Behavior2014In: ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems, ISSN 2160-6455, E-ISSN 2160-6463, Vol. 4, no 4, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Activity recognition, involving a capability to recognize people’s behavior and its underlying significance, will play a crucial role in facilitating the integration of interactive robotic artifacts into everyday human environments. In particular, social intelligence in recognizing affectionate behavior will offer value by allowing companion robots to bond meaningfully with interacting persons. The current article addresses the issue of designing an affectionate haptic interaction between a person and a companion robot by exploring how a small humanoid robot can behave to elicit affection while recognizing touches. We report on an experiment conducted to gain insight into how people perceive three fundamental interactive strategies in which a robot is either always highly affectionate, appropriately affectionate, or superficially unaffectionate (emphasizing positivity, contingency, and challenge, respectively). Results provide insight into the structure of affectionate interaction between humans and humanoid robots—underlining the importance of an interaction design expressing sincere liking, stability and variation—and suggest the usefulness of novel modalities such as warmth and cold. © 2014 ACM.

  • 12.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International (ATR) Hiroshi Ishiguro Lab (HIL), 2-2-2 Hikaridai, Keihanna Science City, Kyoto 619-0288, Japan & Department of Systems Innovation, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531, Japan.
    Nishio, Shuichi
    Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International (ATR) Hiroshi Ishiguro Lab (HIL), 2-2-2 Hikaridai, Keihanna Science City, Kyoto 619-0288, Japan.
    Ishiguro, Hiroshi
    Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International (ATR) Hiroshi Ishiguro Lab (HIL), 2-2-2 Hikaridai, Keihanna Science City, Kyoto 619-0288, Japan & Department of Systems Innovation, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531, Japan.
    Designing Robots for Well-being: Theoretical Background and Visual Scenes of Affectionate Play with a Small Humanoid Robot2014In: Lovotics, ISSN 2090-9888, Vol. 1, no 1, article id 1000101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social well-being, referring to a subjectively perceived long-term state of happiness, life satisfaction, health, and other prosperity afforded by social interactions, is increasingly being employed to rate the success of human social systems. Although short-term changes in well-being can be difficult to measure directly, two important determinants can be assessed: perceived enjoyment and affection from relationships. The current article chronicles our work over several years toward achieving enjoyable and affectionate interactions with robots, with the aim of contributing to the perception of social well-being in interacting persons. Emphasis has been placed on both describing in detail the theoretical basis underlying our work, and relating the story of each of several designs from idea to evaluation in a visual fashion. For the latter, we trace the course of designing four different robotic artifacts intended to further our understanding of how to provide enjoyment, elicit affection, and realize one specific scenario for affectionate play. As a result, by describing (a) how perceived enjoyment and affection contribute to social well-being, and (b) how a small humanoid robot can proactively engage in enjoyable and affectionate play—recognizing people’s behavior and leveraging this knowledge—the current article informs the design of companion robots intended to facilitate a perception of social well-being in interacting persons during affectionate play.

  • 13.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Hiroshi Ishiguro Laboratory, Advanced Telecommunications, Research Institute International (ATR), 2-2-2 Hikaridai, Keihanna Science City, Kyoto 619-0288, Japan & Department of Systems Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan.
    Nishio, Shuichi
    Hiroshi Ishiguro Laboratory, Advanced Telecommunications, Research Institute International (ATR), 2-2-2 Hikaridai, Keihanna Science City, Kyoto, Japan.
    Ishiguro, Hiroshi
    Hiroshi Ishiguro Laboratory, Advanced Telecommunications, Research Institute International (ATR), 2-2-2 Hikaridai, Keihanna Science City, Kyoto 619-0288, Japan Department of Systems Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan.
    Importance of Touch for Conveying Affection in a Multimodal Interaction with a Small Humanoid Robot2015In: International Journal of Humanoid Robotics, ISSN 0219-8436, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 1550002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To be accepted as a part of our everyday lives, companion robots will require the capability to communicate socially, recognizing people's behavior and responding appropriately. In particular, we hypothesized that a humanoid robot should be able to recognize affectionate touches conveying liking or dislike because (a) a humanoid form elicits expectations of a high degree of social intelligence, (b) touch behavior plays a fundamental and crucial role in human bonding, and (c) robotic responses providing affection could contribute to people's quality of life. The hypothesis that people will seek to affectionately touch a robot needed to be verified because robots are typically not soft or warm like humans, and people can communicate through various other modalities such as vision and sound. The main challenge faced was that people's social norms are highly complex, involving behavior in multiple channels. To deal with this challenge, we adopted an approach in which we analyzed free interactions and also asked participants to rate short video-clips depicting human–robot interaction. As a result, we verified that touch plays an important part in the communication of affection from a person to a humanoid robot considered capable of recognizing cues in touch, vision, and sound. Our results suggest that designers of affectionate interactions with a humanoid robot should not ignore the fundamental modality of touch.

  • 14.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Intelligent Systems´ laboratory. Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Orand, Abbas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Larsson, Hanna
    Halmstad University.
    Pihl, Jacob
    Halmstad University.
    Aksoy, Eren
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Exercising with an “Iron Man”: Design for a Robot Exercise Coach for Persons with Dementia2020In: 29th IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2020, p. 899-905Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Socially assistive robots are increasingly being designed to interact with humans in various therapeutical scenarios. We believe that one useful scenario is providing exercise coaching for Persons with Dementia (PWD), which involves unique challenges related to memory and communication. We present a design for a robot that can seek to help a PWD to conduct exercises by recognizing their behaviors and providing appropriate feedback, in an online, multimodal, and engaging way. Additionally, following a mid-fidelity prototyping approach, we report on some observations from an exploratory user study using a Baxter robot; although limited by the sample size and our simplified approach, the results suggested the usefulness of the general scenario, and that the degree to which a robot provides feedback–occasional or continuous– could moderate impressions of attentiveness or fun. Some possibilities for future improvement are outlined, touching on richer recognition and behavior generation strategies based on deep learning and haptic feedback, toward informing next designs. © 2020 IEEE.

  • 15.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Pashami, Sepideh
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Järpe, Eric
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Ashfaq, Awais
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Ong, Linda
    I+ srl, Florence, Italy.
    Avoiding Improper Treatment of Persons with Dementia by Care Robots2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phrase “most cruel and revolting crimes” has been used to describe some poor historical treatment of vulnerable impaired persons by precisely those who should have had the responsibility of protecting and helping them. We believe we might be poised to see history repeat itself, as increasingly humanlike aware robots become capable of engaging in behavior which we would consider immoral in a human–either unknowingly or deliberately. In the current paper we focus in particular on exploring some potential dangers affecting persons with dementia (PWD), which could arise from insufficient software or external factors, and describe a proposed solution involving rich causal models and accountability measures: Specifically, the Consequences of Needs-driven Dementia-compromised Behaviour model (C-NDB) could be adapted to be used with conversation topic detection, causal networks and multi-criteria decision making, alongside reports, audits, and deterrents. Our aim is that the considerations raised could help inform the design of care robots intended to support well-being in PWD.

  • 16.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Pashami, Sepideh
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Pinheiro Sant'Anna, Anita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Fan, Yuantao
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Nowaczyk, Sławomir
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Pitfalls of Affective Computing: How can the automatic visual communication of emotions lead to harm, and what can be done to mitigate such risks?2018In: WWW '18 Companion Proceedings of the The Web Conference 2018, New York, NY: ACM Publications, 2018, p. 1563-1566Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What would happen in a world where people could "see'' others' hidden emotions directly through some visualizing technology Would lies become uncommon and would we understand each other better Or to the contrary, would such forced honesty make it impossible for a society to exist The science fiction television show Black Mirror has exposed a number of darker scenarios in which such futuristic technologies, by blurring the lines of what is private and what is not, could also catalyze suffering. Thus, the current paper first turns an eye towards identifying some potential pitfalls in emotion visualization which could lead to psychological or physical harm, miscommunication, and disempowerment. Then, some countermeasures are proposed and discussed--including some level of control over what is visualized and provision of suitably rich emotional information comprising intentions--toward facilitating a future in which emotion visualization could contribute toward people's well-being. The scenarios presented here are not limited to web technologies, since one typically thinks about emotion recognition primarily in the context of direct contact. However, as interfaces develop beyond today's keyboard and monitor, more information becomes available also at a distance--for example, speech-to-text software could evolve to annotate any dictated text with a speaker's emotional state.

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  • 17.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Sant'Anna, Anita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Avoiding Playfulness Gone Wrong: Exploring Multi-objective Reaching Motion Generation in a Social Robot2017In: International Journal of Social Robotics, ISSN 1875-4791, E-ISSN 1875-4805, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 545-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Companion robots will be able to perform useful tasks in homes and public places, while also providing entertainment through playful interactions. “Playful” here means fun, happy, and humorous. A challenge is that generating playful motions requires a non-trivial understanding of how people attribute meaning and intentions. The literature suggests that playfulness can lead to some undesired impressions such as that a robot is obnoxious, untrustworthy, unsafe, moving in a meaningless fashion, or boring. To generate playfulness while avoiding such typical failures, we proposed a model for the scenario of a robot arm reaching for an object: some simplified movement patterns such as sinusoids are structured toward appearing helpful, clear about goals, safe, and combining a degree of structure and anomaly. We integrated our model into a mathematical framework (CHOMP) and built a new robot, Kakapo, to perform dynamically generated motions. The results of an exploratory user experiment were positive, suggesting that: Our proposed system was perceived as playful over the course of several minutes. Also a better impression resulted compared with an alternative playful system which did not use our proposed heuristics; furthermore a negative effect was observed for several minutes after showing the alternative motions, suggesting that failures are important to avoid. And, an inverted u-shaped correlation was observed between motion length and degree of perceived playfulness, suggesting that motions should neither be too short or too long and that length is also a factor which can be considered when generating playful motions. A short follow-up study provided some additional support for the idea that playful motions which seek to avoid failures can be perceived positively. Our intent is that these exploratory results will provide some insight for designing various playful robot motions, toward achieving some good interactions. © 2017, The Author(s).

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  • 18.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology. teraction Science Laboratories (ISL), Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International (ATR), Kyoto, Japa.
    Shiomi, Masahiro
    teraction Science Laboratories (ISL), Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International (ATR), Kyoto, Japa.
    Kochenborger Duarte, Eduardo
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology. stitute of Applied Informatics and Formal Description Methods (AIFB), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany.
    A Broad View on Robot Self-Defense: Rapid Scoping Review and Cultural Comparison2023In: Robotics, E-ISSN 2218-6581, Vol. 12, no 2, article id 43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With power comes responsibility: as robots become more advanced and prevalent, the role they will play in human society becomes increasingly important. Given that violence is an important problem, the question emerges if robots could defend people, even if doing so might cause harm to someone. The current study explores the broad context of how people perceive the acceptability of such robot self-defense (RSD) in terms of (1) theory, via a rapid scoping review, and (2) public opinion in two countries. As a result, we summarize and discuss: increasing usage of robots capable of wielding force by law enforcement and military, negativity toward robots, ethics and legal questions (including differences to the well-known trolley problem), control in the presence of potential failures, and practical capabilities that such robots might require. Furthermore, a survey was conducted, indicating that participants accepted the idea of RSD, with some cultural differences. We believe that, while substantial obstacles will need to be overcome to realize RSD, society stands to gain from exploring its possibilities over the longer term, toward supporting human well-being in difficult times. © 2023 by the authors.

  • 19.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Sjöberg, Jeanette
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Navigating the Current “New World” of Teaching with Technology: A Glimpse into Our Teachers’ Minds2023In: Design, Learning, and Innovation: 7th EAI International Conference, DLI 2022, Faro, Portugal, November 21–22, 2022, Proceedings / [ed] Eva Brooks; Jeanette Sjöberg; Anders Kalsgaard Møller; Emma Edstrand, Cham: Springer, 2023, p. 135-152Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 pandemic helped spark a surge in innovative usages of technology in education, from robot-based remote graduation ceremonies to immersive learning through extended reality, meetings in fantastical game worlds, automatic examination methods, and flexible learning options such as hybrid classes. It’s been said that we can’t go back to “normal” because this is normal now–but what exactly is today’s “new normal”? The current paper reports on the results of an anonymous online survey conducted with 42 teachers in business, IT, nursing, and education at our university in October 2021, to gain insight into where some teachers on the “front lines” currently stand on the use of technology in education. Some insights included that: More teachers than we had expected were using robotics and extended reality (XR), suggesting that silo effects can exist in education, even at small universities; furthermore, the rates of teachers who had seen such usage seemed close to the rates of teachers who had tried using them, suggesting the usefulness of raising awareness to promote professional digital competence (PDC). Rates for using games and exam tools were lower than expected, despite the availability of game platforms and a growing need to consider the threat of how technology can be misused to cheat in exams, possibly due to teachers’ limited time for pedagogical development. Also, teachers appeared to have strong and differing opinions about learning formats, although a general preference was observed for physical classes and exams, and hybrid teacher meetings. Our aim is that these results will be used by our university’s pedagogical center to support our teachers’ PDC and uses of edtech in the near future. © 2023, ICST Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering.

  • 20.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Sjöberg, Jeanette
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Playful AI Prototypes to Support Creativity and Emotions in Learning2022In: Design, Learning and innovation: 6th EAI International Conference, DLI 2021 Virtual Event, December 10-11 2021, Proceedings / [ed] Eva Brooks; Jeanette Sjöberg; Anders Kalsgaard Møller, Cham: Springer, 2022, p. 129-140Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How will learning “look” in the future? Everyone learns–and we do so in a creative and emotional way. However, learners’ creativity and emotions are often not explicitly included in the design process when exploring how technology can be used to provide new learning opportunities, which could result in shallow learning. One way to support such learning with technology could be playfulness. The current paper reports on some of our ongoing experiences in recent years using a playful design perspective to develop three educational Artificial Intelligence (AI) prototypes. Tackling applications intended to facilitate freedom, ease, and engagement in learning, the prototypes comprise an intelligent tutoring system, an automatic display tool, and a hand-waving detector. In closing, some lessons learned are shared to inform subsequent designs.

  • 21.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Valle, Felipe
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Robot First Aid: Autonomous Vehicles Could Help in Emergencies2021In: 2021 Swedish Artificial Intelligence Society Workshop (SAIS), IEEE, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety is of critical importance in designing autonomous vehicles (AVs) that will be able to perform effectively in complex, mixed-traffic, real-world urban environments. Some prior research has looked at how to proactively avoid accidents with safe distancing and driver monitoring, but currently little research has explored strategies to recover afterwards from emergencies, from crime to natural disasters. The current short paper reports on our ongoing work using a speculative prototyping approach to explore this expansive design space, in the context of how a robot inside an AV could be deployed to support first aid. As a result, we present some proposals for how to detect emergencies, and examine and help victims, as well as lessons learned in prototyping. Thereby, our aim is to stimulate discussion and ideation that-by considering the prevalence of Murphy's law in our complex world, and the various technical, ethical, and practical concerns raised-could potentially lead to useful safety innovations. © 2021 IEEE.

  • 22.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Magic in Human-Robot Interaction (HRI)2022In: 2022 Swedish Artificial Intelligence Society Workshop (SAIS), IEEE, 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    'Magic' is referred to here and there in the robotics literature, from 'magical moments' afforded by a mobile bubble machine, to 'spells' intended to entertain and motivate children-but what exactly could this concept mean for designers? Here, we present (1) some theoretical discussion on how magic could inform interaction designs based on reviewing the literature, followed by (2) a practical description of using such ideas to develop a simplified prototype, which received an award in an international robot magic competition. Although this topic can be considered unusual and some negative connotations exist (e.g., unrealistic thinking can be referred to as magical), our results seem to suggest that magic, in the experiential, supernatural, and illusory senses of the term, could be useful to consider in various robot design contexts, also for artifacts like home assistants and autonomous vehicles-thus, inviting further discussion and exploration. © 2022 IEEE.

  • 23.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Yang, Can
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Padi Siva, Abhilash
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Arunesh, Sanjana
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    David, Jennifer
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Teaching Robotics with Robot Operating System (ROS): A Behavior Model Perspective2018In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Aachen: Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen , 2018, Vol. 2329, p. 59-68Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robotics skills are in high demand, but learning robotics can be difficult due to the wide range of required knowledge, increasingly complex and diverse platforms, and components requiring dedicated software. One way to mitigate such problems is by utilizing a standard framework such as Robot Operating System (ROS), which facilitates development through the reuse of opensource code—a challenge is that learning curves can be steep for students who are also first-time users. In the current paper, we suggest the use of a behavior model to structure the learning of complex frameworks like ROS in an engaging way. A practical example is provided, of integrating ROS into a robotics course called the “Design of Embedded and Intelligent Systems” (DEIS), along with feedback suggesting that some students responded positively to learning experiences enabled by our approach. Furthermore, some course materials, videos, and code have been made available online, which we hope might provide useful insights. © 2018 CEUR-WS. All Rights Reserved.

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  • 24.
    Englund, Cristofer
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Erdal Aksoy, Eren
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Alonso-Fernandez, Fernando
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Cooney, Martin Daniel
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Pashami, Sepideh
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Åstrand, Björn
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    AI Perspectives in Smart Cities and Communities to Enable Road Vehicle Automation and Smart Traffic Control2021In: Smart Cities, E-ISSN 2624-6511, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 783-802Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart Cities and Communities (SCC) constitute a new paradigm in urban development. SCC ideates on a data-centered society aiming at improving efficiency by automating and optimizing activities and utilities. Information and communication technology along with internet of things enables data collection and with the help of artificial intelligence (AI) situation awareness can be obtained to feed the SCC actors with enriched knowledge. This paper describes AI perspectives in SCC and gives an overview of AI-based technologies used in traffic to enable road vehicle automation and smart traffic control. Perception, Smart Traffic Control and Driver Modelling are described along with open research challenges and standardization to help introduce advanced driver assistance systems and automated vehicle functionality in traffic. To fully realize the potential of SCC, to create a holistic view on a city level, the availability of data from different stakeholders is need. Further, though AI technologies provide accurate predictions and classifications there is an ambiguity regarding the correctness of their outputs. This can make it difficult for the human operator to trust the system. Today there are no methods that can be used to match function requirements with the level of detail in data annotation in order to train an accurate model. Another challenge related to trust is explainability, while the models have difficulties explaining how they come to a certain conclusions it is difficult for humans to trust it. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • 25.
    Kochenborger Duarte, Eduardo
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Shiomi, Masahiro
    Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International, Kyoto, Japan.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Cooney, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Robot Self-defense: Robot, Don't Hurt Me, No More2022In: HRI '22: Proceedings of the 2022 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, IEEE Press, 2022, p. 742-745Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Would it be okay for a robot to hurt a human, if by doing so it could protect someone else? Such ethical questions could be vital to consider, as the market for social robots grows larger and robots become increasingly prevalent in our surroundings. Here we introduce the topic of “robot self-defense”, which involves the use of force by a robot in response to violence, to protect a human in its care. To explore this topic, we conducted a preliminary analysis of the literature, as well as brainstorming sessions, which led us to formulate an idea about how people will perceive robot self-defense based on the perceived risk of loss. Additionally, we propose a study design to investigate how the general public will perceive the acceptability of a robot using self- defense techniques. As part of this, we describe some hypotheses based on the assumption that the perceived acceptability will be affected by both the entities involved in a violent situation and the amount of force that is applied. The proposed scenarios will be used in a future survey to evaluate participants’ perception of a social robot using self-defense techniques under varying circumstances, toward stimulating ideation and discussion on how robots will be able to help people to live better lives. © 2022 IEEE.

  • 26.
    Kochenborger Duarte, Eduardo
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Shiomi, Masahiro
    Advanced Telecommunications Research, Institute International Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Cooney, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology. The Interaction Science Laboratories, Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International, Kyoto, Japan.
    Robot Self-defense: Robots Can Use Force on Human Attackers to Defend Victims2022In: IEEE RO-MAN 2022: 31st IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Social, Asocial, and Antisocial Robots, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2022, p. 1606-1613Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Could a social robot use force to prevent violence directed toward humans in its care?-Might crime be eradicated, or conversely could excessive use of force proliferate and human dignity become trampled beneath cold robotic wheels? Such speculation is one part of a larger, increasingly important question of how social robots will be expected to behave in our societies, as robotic technologies develop and become increasingly widespread. Here, to gain some insight into this topic of "robot self-defense", we proposed a simplified heuristic based on perceived risk of loss to predict acceptability, and conducted a user survey with 304 participants, who watched eight animated videos of robots and humans in a violent altercation. The results indicated that people largely accept the idea that a humanoid robot can use force on attackers to help others. Furthermore, self-defense was perceived as more acceptable when the appearance of the defender was humanoid rather than mechanical, and when the force disparity between attacker and defender was high. The immediate suggestion is that it could be beneficial to re-examine common assumptions that a robot should never harm or risk harming humans, and to discuss and consider the possibilities for robot self-defense. © 2022 IEEE.

  • 27.
    Lundström, Jens
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Intelligent Systems´ laboratory.
    Ourique de Morais, Wagner
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Cooney, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    A Holistic Smart Home Demonstrator for Anomaly Detection and Response2015In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communication Workshops (PerCom Workshops), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2015, p. 330-335Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Applying machine learning methods in scenarios involving smart homes is a complex task. The many possible variations of sensors, feature representations, machine learning algorithms, middle-ware architectures, reasoning/decision schemes, and interactive strategies make research and development tasks non-trivial to solve.In this paper, the use of a portable, flexible and holistic smart home demonstrator is proposed to facilitate iterative development and the acquisition of feedback when testing in regard to the above-mentioned issues. Specifically, the focus in this paper is on scenarios involving anomaly detection and response. First a model for anomaly detection is trained with simulated data representing a priori knowledge pertaining to a person living in an apartment. Then a reasoning mechanism uses the trained model to infer and plan a reaction to deviating activities. Reactions are carried out by a mobile interactive robot to investigate if a detected anomaly constitutes a true emergency. The implemented demonstrator was able to detect and respond properly in 18 of 20 trials featuring normal and deviating activity patterns, suggesting the feasibility of the proposed approach for such scenarios. © IEEE 2015

  • 28.
    Nowaczyk, Sławomir
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Resmini, Andrea
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Long, Vicky
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Fors, Vaike
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Cooney, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Duarte, Eduardo K.
    Pink, Sarah
    Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Aksoy, Eren Erdal
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Smaller is smarter: A case for small to medium-sized smart cities2022In: Journal of Smart Cities and Society, ISSN 2772-3577, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 95-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart Cities have been around as a concept for quite some time. However, most examples of Smart Cities (SCs) originate from megacities (MCs), despite the fact that most people live in Small and Medium-sized Cities (SMCs). This paper addresses the contextual setting for smart cities from the perspective of such small and medium-sized cities. It starts with an overview of the current trends in the research and development of SCs, highlighting the current bias and the challenges it brings. We follow with a few concrete examples of projects which introduced some form of “smartness” in the small and medium cities context, explaining what influence said context had and what specific effects did it lead to. Building on those experiences, we summarise the current understanding of Smart Cities, with a focus on its multi-faceted (e.g., smart economy, smart people, smart governance, smart mobility, smart environment and smart living) nature; we describe mainstream publications and highlight the bias towards large and very large cities (sometimes even subconscious); give examples of (often implicit) assumptions deriving from this bias; finally, we define the need of contextualising SCs also for small and medium-sized cities. The aim of this paper is to establish and strengthen the discourse on the need for SMCs perspective in Smart Cities literature. We hope to provide an initial formulation of the problem, mainly focusing on the unique needs and the specific requirements. We expect that the three example cases describing the effects of applying new solutions and studying SC on small and medium-sized cities, together with the lessons learnt from these experiences, will encourage more research to consider SMCs perspective. To this end, the current paper aims to justify the need for this under-studied perspective, as well as to propose interesting challenges faced by SMCs that can serve as initial directions of such research.

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  • 29.
    Shiomi, Masahiro
    et al.
    ATR, Kyoto, Japan.
    Nagai, Takayuki
    Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.
    Sumioka, Hidenobu
    ATR, Kyoto, Japan.
    Iio, Takamasa
    Faculty of Culture and Information Science, Doshisha University, Kyoto, Japan.
    Cooney, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Special issue on robot and human interactive communication 2021 (Part II)2021In: Advanced Robotics, ISSN 0169-1864, E-ISSN 1568-5535, Vol. 35, no 19, p. 1131-1131Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Shiomi, Masahiro
    et al.
    ATR, Kyoto, Japan.
    Nagai, Takayuki
    Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.
    Sumioka, Hidenobu
    ATR, Kyoto, Japan.
    Takamasa, Iio
    Doshisha University, Kyoto, Japan.
    Cooney, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Special Issue on Robot and Human Interactive Communication 2021 (Part I)2021In: Advanced Robotics, ISSN 0169-1864, E-ISSN 1568-5535, Vol. 35, no 17, p. 1029-1029Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Sidorenko, Galina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Mostowski, Wojciech
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Sjöberg, Jeanette
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Centrum för lärande, kultur och samhälle (CLKS).
    Cooney, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    The CAR Approach: Creative Applied Research Experiences for Master’s Students in Autonomous Platooning2021In: 2021 30th IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, RO-MAN 2021, IEEE, 2021, p. 214-221Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are crucial robotic systems that promise to improve our lives via safe, efficient, and inclusive transport-while posing some new challenges for the education of future researchers in the area, that our current research and education might not be ready to deal with: In particular, we don't know what the AVs of the future will look like, practical learning is restricted due to cost and safety concerns, and a high degree of multidisciplinary knowledge is required. Here, following the broad outline of Active Student Participation theory, we propose a pedagogical approach targeted toward AVs called CAR that combines Creativity theory, Applied demo-oriented learning, and Real world research context. Furthermore, we report on applying the approach to stimulate learning and engagement in a master's course, in which students freely created a demo with 10 small robots running ROS2 and Ubuntu on Raspberry Pis, in connection to an ongoing research project and a real current problem (SafeSmart and COVID-19). The results suggested the feasibility of the CAR approach for enabling learning, as well as mutual benefits for both the students and researchers involved, and indicated some possibilities for future improvement, toward more effective integration of research experiences into second cycle courses. © 2021 IEEE.

  • 32.
    Sjöberg, Jeanette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Cooney, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    The “New World” of Teaching—Thoughts from our Teachers in the "Front Lines"2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Spring 2020, the world of teaching changed suddenly to use more digital and online tools; now in 2021, there is a move back toward ”normal” campus-based learning--but it's been said that we can’t go back to "normal" because this is normal now: Teachers around the world have been experimenting ever more with inchoate technologies like Mixed Reality tools (comprising Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality) (e.g. Rokhsaritalemi et al, 2020), robots (e.g. Zhong et al, 2020), and gaming apps like Gather.Town that can support feelings of immersion, engagement and social presence. New exam tools are coming out. Additionally, teachers are exploring hybrid setups that allow people to attend physically or remotely, based on their needs (e.g. Coates et al, 2020). Given the lack of assurances and clarity regarding how teaching with technology will look like in the near future, it seems vital to explore such possibilities, in order to excel, stand out, and stay competitive. Moreover, it might not be sufficient to hear only what managers and scholars think; we want to hear what everyday teachers on the front lines think. Thus, here, we turn our gaze inward, on our own teachers at our university: what are we doing with such technologies in our teaching, and where do we want to go? To gain insight, we sent out a short survey, receiving 42 responses from all four schools at our university. The responses indicated a few of our teachers are using new technologies like MR, robots, and gaming apps for fields like physics, marine science, and psychology, where a perceived lack of three elements--competence, opportunities, and understanding of benefits—is suggested as a challenge. Use of automated exam tools is highly limited. Additionally, our teachers do not agree on learning formats. Slightly over half of teachers favor physical classes and hybrid teacher meetings, with a conservative trend (many think students should be forced in one way or another). Most teachers say they have tried hybrid classes; more are for it than against, but the ones who are against it seem very strongly against it; the challenge of focus was mentioned. The aim with sharing our results is to shed light on possibilities for this new world of teaching that looms before us, to stimulate ideas and discussions. 

  • 33.
    Valle, Felipe
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Cooney, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Mikhaylov, Konstantin
    Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    The integration of UAVs to the C-ITS Stack2021In: 2021 IEEE 29th International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP), Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we conceptualise and propose integrating UAVs with Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) based on using the Cooperative-ITS (C-ITS) framework. We start by discussing the state of the art and pinpointing some of the reasons for integration and the applications that the envisaged integration would enable. Next, we recall the critical aspects of the state of the art C-ITS connectivity and discuss how seamless integration of UAVs into C-ITS can be achieved. Notably, we show that encapsulation of UAVs in C-ITS does not imply significant changes for the currently existing mechanisms and data formats. Finally, we discuss some of the open research challenges related to the integration and operation of the integrated systems and pinpoint some mechanisms which can help to address these ©2021 IEEE

  • 34.
    Valle, Felipe
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Galozy, Alexander
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Ashfaq, Awais
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Etminani, Kobra
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Cooney, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Lonely road: speculative challenges for a social media robot aimed to reduce driver loneliness2021In: Workshop Proceedings of the 15th International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver monitoring is expected to contribute greatly to safety in nascent smart cities, also in complex, mixed-traffic scenarios with autonomous vehicles (AVs), vulnerable road users (VRUs), and manually driven vehicles. Until now, one focus has been on detecting bio signals during the relatively short time when a person is inside a vehicle; but, life outside of the vehicle can also affect driving. For example, loneliness, depression, and sleep-deprivation, which might be difficult to detect in time, can increase the risk of accidents–raising possibilities for new and alternative intervention strategies. Thus, the current conceptual paper explores one idea for how continuous care could be provided to improve drivers’ mental states; in particular, the idea of a “robot” that could positively affect a driver’s health through interactions supported by social media mining on Facebook. A speculative design approach is used to present some potential challenges and solutions in regard to a robot’s interaction strategy, user modeling, and ethics. For example, to address how to generate appropriate robot activities and mitigate the risk of damage to the driver, a hybrid neuro-symbolic recognition strategy leveraging stereotypical and self-disclosed information is described. Thereby, the aim of this conceptual paper is to navigate through some “memories” of one possible future, toward stimulating ideation and discussion within the increasingly vital area of safety in smart cities Copyright © 2021

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