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  • 1.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Aagerup, Ulf
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Building Brand Personality in a Business-to-Business Context – the Case of Born Globals2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Branding has for a long time been in focus in strategic decision making for firms in a business-to-consumer context. Brands has been used as a tool to differentiate products and position firms’ offers towards competitors. In a business-to business context branding has not been in focus in the same way. Strategic decisions have more dealt with technology innovation and market expansions. In recent times, a greater interest for brand building in a business to business (B2B) context has emerged, both in practice and academia, especially for globally active B2B firms that strive to create a unified look of their products and firms. The hard global competition has made it difficult to compete on product quality alone, services around the product and intangible features has been important parts of B2B firms’ offers. The B2B firms’ more complex offers can be incorporated under a common brand that differentiates the firms’ offer from competitors. Although that the practical importance of B2B branding has been acknowledge lately, research dealing with B2B branding is still relatively limited. Most studies on B2B branding attempt to describe what brands are, how they affect companies, or vice versa. Research on the process of B2B brand building is however scarce. Also, when B2B brands are in focus of a study, it is usually their tangible characteristics that are examined. In B2C brand literature, intangible aspects and, the metaphor to see the brand as a person is widely discussed (Aaker, 1997). However, there is very little research on brand as a person element in the B2B context. Brand personality is normally defined as the human characteristics associated with a brand, More research into the brand personality building processes in a B2B context are therefore needed. Following the above discussion this study’s aim is to investigate how brand personality is built in B2B companies.

    A qualitative approach has been adopted to enable us to investigate, in-depth, an under-researched area (Ghauri and Gronhaug, 2010; and Yin, 1989) The key factor underpinning the selection of the two cases was conceptual relevance rather than representative grounds, so we used theoretical sampling (Miles and Huberman 1994). We combined secondary data research and field interviews and workshops with the CEOs in the case firms. The researchers constructed an interview-guide based on earlier literature and discussion in a workshop. Our aim and research question served as the basic structure for data analysis.  The study contributes to the literature by integrating theory on brand building from the marketing fields with the research dealing with the born global phenomenon discussed in the international entrepreneurship field.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Aagerup, Ulf
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Customer Value Creation in Mature Born Globals2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION

    Research on firms that already from their inception see the whole world as a market and/or the whole world as a source to access resources, so called born globals (Andersson & Wictor, 2003, Knight & Cavusgil, 2004; Cavusgil & Knight, 2015), has been growing during the last decades  (Servantie, 2016). Born globals are an especially interesting group of firms to study, in regard of value creation, as they have been able to create competitive offers fulfilling the needs of customers on global markets.

     The distinguishing feature of born globals is their international behaviour at birth and soon thereafter. The firms’ behaviour is initiated by the entrepreneurs’ and management’s global mindset and the commitment of resources leading to international growth (Andersson, 2000; Knight & Causgil, 2004). Born globals is, by definition, a born global firm “forever”, as has been characterized by their early years.  We argue that the early years make these firms a special type of firms that will influence their further international development. Firms with a long-term focus on the domestic market must unlearn routines rooted in the domestic context before new, internationally oriented routines can be learned. An early entrance to international markets forces born globals to adopt to new contexts and create new knowledge that leads to new routines and creates a culture in the firms to adapt to new international opportunities (Andersson & Evers, 2015; Autio et al ., 2000, Cavusgil & Knight, 2004).

    There has been extensive research on born globals’ internationalization dealing with which markets, and market channels firms should choose to grow internationally. There has also been extensive research dealing with antecedents and factors influencing these choices. The focus on born global research has also been on the very early stages in the internationalization process. Few studies have captured the long-term behaviour and growth of born globals (2008; Gabrielsson and Gabrielsson, 2013, Melen Hånell, Nordman and Sharma, 2014). A question that has been very little addressed is: what happens to born global firms when they grow up (Cavusgil & Knight, 2015)? In this study we define this grown up born global firms as mature born globals (c. f. Hagen & Zuchella, 2014, maturing born global firms). To succeed with a continued international expansion, the born global firms need to increase sales on international markets. The underlying reason for success on international markets and continuous growth is that the mature born global firms have an offer that gives higher value to the customer than their competitors. However customer value is not explicitly treated in internationalization theories (Axinn & Matthyssen, 2002). To our knowledge there has not been any research that has, in- depth, explored how mature born globals create value for customers to create international growth. In line with the above discussion, the aim of this study is to investigate how mature born global firms create value for customers to create international growth.

    METHOD

    A qualitative approach has been adopted to enable us to investigate, in-depth, an under-researched area (Ghauri and Gronhaug, 2010; and Yin, 1989) “how born global firms create value for customers to create international growth”. In all, the study was conducted with five companies. The key factor underpinning the selection of the five cases was conceptual relevance rather than representative grounds, so we used theoretical sampling (Miles and Huberman 1994). We conducted a review of annual reports, other secondary documentation, and the websites of the case firms. We combined secondary data research and field interviews and workshops with the CEOs in the case firms. The researchers constructed an interview-guide based on earlier literature and discussion on a works-shop. Interviews were carried out with the five CEOs and transcribed. Data analysis included several steps. The information from the interviews, and other sources served as descriptive narratives, which helped us process the large volume of data (Mintzberg and McHugh 1985). This process enabled the unique patterns of each case to emerge before cross-case comparison (Eisenhardt 1989; Yin 1994) was undertaken. Our aim and research question served as the basic structure for data analysis.

    CONCLUSIONS

    We conclude that a strong focus on customer value creation was in focus. To create customer value a combination of proactive and reactive market orientation was implemented built on a competitive offer that was hard to replicate. Depending on the characteristics of the buyer-seller relationship different tools were used to build relationship value. The revenue earned is invested in further international growth, by investing in market driving activities, and entrepreneurial alertness to act on upcoming opportunities was crucial. This study contributes to the international entrepreneurship field by explicitly including marketing literature and empirically investigating how value is created to achieve international growth in born globals. This study also contributes to the industrial marketing field by developing a model that shows how born global firms create value for international customers to generate international growth in a B2B context.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Analyzing Capabilities which Born Global Firms Develop and Implement for their International Growth2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate how born global firms co-operate with local and international network actors to provide innovations for international growth, Consequently, born globals’ use of their own innovation capabilities, stemming from firm-specific advantages, and their access to complementary resources and activities of their network partners, termed here as network capabilities, are analyzed to aid our understanding of the provision of innovative solutions that lead to firms’ international growth. The paper opted for an exploratory study, using a qualitative case study approach of five born global companies. Focus groups, work-shops and interviews with the entrepreneur-CEOs in the companies are used to gain deep insight into innovation and internationalization processes that underlie the case companies’ international growth. The study shows that the entrepreneur-CEOs’ networking and innovation capabilities, have been crucial for the born global firms international growth. A high responsiveness to changes in the environment and incremental rather than radical innovation characterize the firms’ growth. A fruitful relationship between the Born Globals and other actors is crucial for them to be able to get access to resources, which can complement their own to create innovative solutions that will lead to growth. 

  • 4.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Born global's use of innovative solutions to create sustainable competitive advantages as it expands and grows in different international markets2013In: The 16th Annual McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference: Researching New Frontiers: The Conference Program and Collection of Short Summaries, Montreal, Canada: McGill University , 2013, p. 16-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate born global firms’ use of innovative solutions and their networks to create sustainable competitive advantages as they expand and grow in different international markets. Consequently, born globals’ use of their own firm-specific advantages and their access to complementary resources and activities of their network partners are analyzed to aid our understanding of the provision of innovative solutions that lead to growth. For this purpose we use a qualitative case study approach of five born global companies. A focus group  approach with the CEOs in the companies is used to gain deep insight into innovation and internationalization processes that underlie the case companies’ international growth. The study shows that the use of the entrepreneur-CEOs’ personal networks and business networks have been assets that have accorded the firms’ strong position in international markets. It can be concluded that the born global firm has strategies to tap on complementary assets of external network parties.  The Born global firms learn from own experiences and those of others, with whom the firms interact in foreign markets, to create innovative solutions for international growth.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Born Global's Use Of Innovative Solutions To Create Sustainable Competitive Advantages As It Expands And Grows In Different International Markets2013In: / [ed] Helen Lawton Smith, Klaus Nielsen & Carlo Milana, London: Centre for Innovation and Management Research , 2013, p. 1-35Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate born global firms’ use of innovative solutions and their networks to create sustainable competitive advantages as they expand and grow in different international markets. Consequently, born globals’ use of their own firm-specific advantages and their access to complementary resources and activities of their network partners are analyzed to aid our understanding of the provision of innovative solutions that lead to growth. We use a qualitative case study approach of five born global companies. A focus group interview with the CEOs in the companies is used to gain deep insight into innovation and internationalization processes that underlie the case companies’ international growth. The study shows that the use of the entrepreneur-CEOs’ personal networks and business networks have been assets that have accorded the firms’ strong position in international markets. It can be concluded that the born global firm has strategies to tap on complementary assets of external network parties. 

  • 6.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Aagerup, Ulf
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    International growth in born globals – value creation on international markets2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Importance and key contribution

    Research on firm’s that already from inception see the whole world as a market and/or the whole world as a source to access resources, so called born globals (Andersson & Wictor, 2003), have been growing during the last decades (Jones, Coviello and Tang, 2012).  These firms are characterized of innovative business models that are competitive on the global market already from inception (Hennart, 2013). To succeed with a continued international expansion, the born global firms need to adapt their respective business models for a more complex environment; in more institutionally remote markets. The continued growth phase of born globals are scarcely treated in earlier research (Gabrielsson & Gabrielsson, 2013).

    Earlier studies on Born Globals have focused on Born Globals’ development in western, developed countries. Therefore there is a need to examine Born Globals’ activities on emerging markets (Kiss et al, 2012). The attractiveness and growth opportunities in emerging markets are perceived to be higher than what obtains in other conceivable markets of the world (Cavusgil, Knight, and Risenberger, 2012).

    Important in this stage is handle relationship with different stakeholders on a global base. An important tool to handle this relationship is the companies’ branding strategy. Few studies have combined research on born globals’ internationalization and branding (Gabrielsson, 2005) and there is a need to further develop the knowledge about branding and international growth. This study aims to explore how born global companies are using brand management when growing on emerging markets. This study contributes to the international entrepreneurship field by exploring growth on emerging markets, it also contributes by adding knowledge from the brand management field to explore international growth.

    Theoretical base

    In recent studies the “global” part in the BG has been criticized (Lopez, Kundu and Ciravegena, 2009, Rugman and Almodovar, 2011). Some researchers argue that there a very few really Born Global firms with activities in the three economic and political power bases in the world. NAFTA, EU and the largest eight Asia-Pacific economies (Rugman and Almodovar, 2011). Implicit in research on Born Global firms is that distance (geographic, psychic, cultural, and institutional) is no longer an important issue when the international behaviour and international performance in a Born Global is discussed. We argue that the reason for that is a bias in the research treating Born Global firms with focus on companies that both have their origin and target markets in high-developed economies. Peiris, Akoorie and Sinha (2012) showed that most studies on Born Global firm were done on firms originating in developed countries and only a few studies were done on firms from emerging countries. Studies from emerging countries mainly were done on Chinese firms and very few studies has treated firms from Middle east, Africa or South Asia. Another reason why the Born Global research has not focused on institutional differences can partly be explained by the fact that the Born Global studies have looked internally at firm-specific factors (e.g. using resource-based view and knowledge-based view of the firm as a theoretical domain) (Andersson, Evers and Kuivalainen, 2014; Knight and Cavusgil, 2004).

    We argue that institutional differences affect Born Globals’ international behaviour (scope, speed, and entry mode); and to investigate how institutional distances affect Born Global firms, it is important to include nations with a variety of institutional and cultural characteristics. Born Global firms from developed countries entering institutionally distant markets will meet a context that is different from their home markets. Regulations, culture etc. differ and relationships are often fewer and weaker than, the companies’ relationships with western companies.  Born Global companies from developed countries still first focus on other developed countries, followed by emerging markets (e. g China and Brazil). We argue that institutional distance still matters and that firms from developed countries still have more and stronger networks in other developed countries. More research is needed two explore how this influence Born Global firms’ internationalization processes.

    Most studies on born globals have focused on firms in a business-to business context. Also this study is focusing on this sector. Even if most brand management studies have focus on business-to consumer sectors, there is an increasing stream of literature that has shown the importance of brand management also in business-to business settings (Gabrielsson & Gabrielsson, 2005). Brands are used to build relationships with customers. In emerging markets, western companies have fewer and weaker relationships, as the distance is longer (see the discussion above. Research is needed to explore how brand management can be used to create and sustain relationships on emerging markets. The above discussion lead us to the following research questions.

    Research questions

    How do born globals manage the organization’s international growth in in emerging markets?

    Which role has brand management to create and sustain relationships with internal and external stakeholders on emerging markets?

    Method and Findings

    Emprical data will be gathered during the Spring 2015. A case approach is considered as the most appropriate to catch the complexity of value creating process in international network context (Yin, 1994). The case study approach is under-represented in studies about internationalization and has been recommended as a fruitful way to expand the knowledge in this area (e.g Andersson, 2000, Cavusgil, 1980). Eisenhardt (1989) recommends case studies as a fruitful way to give a deeper insight in conflicting literature, as well as sharpening the generalizability of different theoretical standpoints which is an important goal in this study. There is a need to learn more about special types of firms and not only to look for the average firm (Andriani and McKelvey, 2007). The close relationship already established with the firms will make it possible to receive information that is hard to get access to with other methods (Welch et al, 2002).

    The cases will be built built on action research in co-operation with the partner firms, work-shops, personal interviews and observations but complemented with secondary data, such as, annual reports and internal documents. The individuals who have the greatest influence on the internationalization processes will be interviewed. Interviews and observations will lead to the identification of individuals/actors who are central in the international value creating processes. This includes actors outside the focal company, such as customers, suppliers, and co-operation partners. Our long co-operation with the companies has created trustful relationship between the researchers and the company representatives.

    The analysis of the data will include several steps. The information from interviews and other sources will be written down in descriptive narratives. This process allows the researcher to become intimately familiar with each case and allows the unique patterns of each case to emerge before cross-case comparison (Eisenhardt, 1989). The analysis will be carried out together with companies and results will be a base for decisions in each companies as well as part in academic research.

    Patterns will be identified among the cases (Yin, 1994). Earlier theoretical findings will be compared with the international development in the cases. Thereafter, the theory will be revised and the findings examined again. The reasoning is, in other words, not entirely inductive or deductive (Yin 1989). Following Eisenhardt’s (1989) recommendations, the analysis will include several iterations between theory and data.

    Implications

    The study will also give knowledge about pros and cons with different localisation alternatives on emerging markets. It is easy to just follow management trends (everyone should out-source production and buy supplies from China) and “go with the flock” instead of get knowledge of different alternatives. The comparison between the different firms will increase the knowledge about when different alternatives are suitable.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Innovation in Internationalization of Born Global firms2012In: 15th McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization and increased liberalization of markets have made it possible for many firms, large or Small and Medium –Sized Firms (SMEs), to be in many foreign markets, especially those in the global industries (Czinkota and Ronkainen, 2007; Doole and Lowe, 2008, 2004). Since trade barriers among markets have fallen dramatically, due to the effects of globalization, intense competition in many markets, and the spread of technological improvements in almost all sectors of any economy, many firms (small or large) seek to establish their presence in many foreign markets (Awuah, et. al., 2011; Doole and Lowe, 2008; Driffield and Love, 2007). Studies abound to shed light on why and how firms internationalize their business activities (Andersson, 2011; Moen, et al., 2004; Knight and Cavusgil, 1996; Johanson and Vahlne, 1990, 1977; Johanson and Wiedersheim-Paul, 1975). Although increased globalization, trade liberalization, and technological improvements do enable many firms (e.g. “Mininationals” or “Born Globals”) to serve several markets (Doole and Lowe, 2008; Czinkota and Ronkainen, 2007), there has emerged an intense competition among firms in all countries (Peng et al., 2008; Czinkota and Ronkainen, 2007; Beamish and Lu, 2004). For many SMEs, a number of factors (e.g. lower trade barriers, increased competition, rapid technological developments, shrinking market opportunities in domestic market, and firm-specific advantages combine to drive their rapid entry into foreign markets (Andersson, 2011; Peng et al., 2008; Moen, et al., 2004). SMEs that have, from the very inception of their establishment, had the drive to internationalize their business activities are termed “Born Global Firms”, in the subsequent sections to be addressed just as born globals (Andersson, 2011; Rialp et al., 2005; Knight and Cavusgil, 1996; Madsen and Servias, 1997). 

    Previous studies about a firm’s internationalization has predominantly concentrated on big multinational firms, where their motives for internationalization, the pace and pattern of their internationalization have been widely studied (Qian and Delios, 2008; Johanson and Vahlne, 1990, 1977; Johanson and Wiedersheim-Paul, 1975; Cavusgil, 1984; Coviello, 2006). In recent times studies have emerged, which have found out that the pace and pattern of the internationalization of big multinational firms are not in line with the pace and pattern, through which born globals, for example, internationalize their business activities (Andersson, 2011; Andersson and Wictor, 2003; Moen, et al., 2004; Rialp, et. al., 2005; Knight and Cavusgil, 1996; Madsen and Servais, 1997).  

    However, extant literature is virtually silent on what it takes for a born global (a small international player with limited resources, for example) to compete with big and resourceful multinational enterprises in many international markets. Our contention is that born globals’ ability to use innovative solutions to create sustainable competitive advantages as they aspire to expand and grow in international markets will be very crucial. The pace and pattern at which born globals internationalize their businesses, in the face of intense competition in almost all markets, in order to provide innovative solutions that enable them to achieve competitive advantages in the marketplace is under-researched. This has been an important reason for the study of the present phenomenon.   As stressed by Doole and Lowe (2008), products and services offered by firms, these days, are becoming ‘commodities’ (i.e. ‘me too’ products/services), if firms are not able to differentiate the core product benefit or service by offering a bundle of benefits for target customers or users in a target market. For Porter (1985), the competitive advantage of a firm grows fundamentally out of the value the firm can create for its customers, irrespective of the markets in which a firm operates.  Operating across borders, though offers opportunities, dealing with new set of macro-environmental factors (e.g. politics, laws, economics, cultures, and societies) and intense competition, will demand that a born global, for example, differentiates its products and services that will help it to meet similar needs and wants of its transnational customers, while it adapts to meet different market-specific requirements and/or needs of customers (e.g. Doole and Lowe, 2008). And for Doyle and Stern (2006), a firm that is good at satisfying customer needs, better than its competitors can do, has the best opportunities to grow and expand. Hence, Born Globals and their growth and expansion narratives are worth studying.

    In view of the above, the purpose of the present study is to investigate a born global’s use of innovative solutions to create sustainable competitive advantages as it expands and grows in different international markets. To be able to achieve the above purpose, we seek to address the following research questions:

    1. Why and how does a born global firm enter any chosen foreign market?
    2. Which strategies does the firm develop and implement in order to provide innovative solutions that will help achieve sustainable competitive advantages as the firm strives to grow and expand in the marketplace?
    3. Does the firm use ‘go-alone’ strategies or does it use strategies that influence and are influenced by other actors and the effect thereof? 
  • 8.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    CIRCLE, Lunds universitet.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Born Globals' foreign market channel strategies2006In: International Journal of Globalisation and Small Business, ISSN 1479-3059, E-ISSN 1479-3067, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 356-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Foreign entry mode choices are decisions of paramount importance for the long-term survival and growth of companies that are in a process of rapid international expansion. In this paper we seek to understand the foreign market channel strategies of Born Globals. We examine whether these companies develop a similar strategy regarding foreign entry mode choices and whether their market channel strategies differ from contemporary theories treating this problem. A comparative case study conducted on four companies meeting the criteria of Born Globals suggests that they do not show a common foreign entry mode. Instead, the companies seem to have very different market channel strategies even if they all have internationalised very rapidly. These findings are discussed against the current range of theoretical models that seek to explain the companies' foreign entry mode choice. We conclude the paper with some implications and suggestions for future research.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Born Globals' market channel strategies2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    International activities in small firms: Examining factors influencing the internationalization and export growth of small firms2004In: Canadian Journal of the Administrative Sciences, ISSN 0825-0383, E-ISSN 1936-4490, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 22-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore internationalization and export growth over time in a sample of 135 small manufacturing firms. By using concepts and arguments from literature on international business and small firms, the paper identifies six situational, or contingency, factors that are expected to influence the international activities of small firms. Our results show that a dynamic and fast-changing environment may push small firms to go abroad, while it seems to be the experiences built up in the organization and a younger generation of CEOs that can explain why some small firms continue to expand their international activities. The findings suggest that the factors influencing small firms to go abroad and become international differ from the factors that influence them to continue and grow once they are on the international marketplace. The paper ends with a discussion of the findings, together with suggestions for further research.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    International activities in small firms: Examining factors influencing the internationalization and export growth of SMEs2009In: Entrepreneurship and Globalization / [ed] Rob B. McNaughton and Jim Bell, London: Sage Publications, 2009, p. 288-306Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Innovative international strategies in new firms - born globals2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Innovative International Strategies in new firms: Born Globals - the Swedish case2001In: 4th McGill Conference on International Entrepreneurship : researching new frontiers : 21-23 September 2001, Strathclyde International Business Unit, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland / [ed] Dimitratos, P. and Jones, M.V., eds., 2001, p. 39-63Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Innovative Internationalisation in New firms: Born Globals–the Swedish Case2003In: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 249-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past few years, the phenomenon of Born Globals has been highlighted in many studies. Such firms adopt a global approach right from their inception or very shortly thereafter. This behaviour challenges the traditional internationalisation models of slow and gradual development with respect to geographical markets and market entry modes. In this paper a conceptual framework is developed from earlier research and includes the factors: globalisation, entrepreneurs, networks, and industry. A survey showed that Born Globals were still very uncommon in Sweden. However, four Born Global firms were identified and analysed with the framework. It was concluded that the ongoing globalisation has made it easier to conduct Born Global strategies. However, active entrepreneurs, who recognised the global opportunities, were crucial for the implementation of these strategies, in which personal networks were used as tools.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Internationalization of Born Globals: the Swedish case2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Principal Topic

    Born Global firms adopt an international approach right from their birth or very shortly thereafter. This behavior challenges the traditional models of internationalization that propose that internationalization is developed in a slow and gradual manner with respect to geographical markets and market entry modes. The “slow and gradual view” of internationalization is very strong in Scandinavia as the creator of one of the most well known models in this area, the Uppsala Internationalization model, is developed in Sweden. The aim of the study is to explore the Born Global phenomena, and to compare it with earlier studies from other nations to further enhance the theory development in this area. Do the already developed framework fit on Swedish Born Globals? Do the framework have to be adopted according to the Swedish environment and culture? Can the general framework be further developed?

    Method

    To be able to compare our results with earlier studies in the USA, Denmark and Australia the same definitions and methods are used. Born Globals are defined as firms that have reached a share of foreign sales of at least 25% after having started export activities within three years after their birth. Data from a survey is used, followed by qualitative case studies. The database is used to present descriptive statistics and to identify Swedish Born Globals. The case studies are built mainly on personal interviews, but secondary data, such as such as business magazines, annual reports and internal documents have also been used to complement our primary data source. The cases are confronted with each other and with theories used in the framework but also compared with traditional internationalization theory. The framework includes institutional, network, resource-based and entrepreneurship theory.

    Results and Implications

    The results show that, although still a relatively uncommon phenomenon, the ongoing globalization has made it easier for small firms to conduct Born Global strategies. Active entrepreneurs and personal networks were important tools for implementing these strategies. The findings may have implications for practice as well as policy. Maybe can successful behaviors, found in the Born Global firms, be transferred to other firms? Can policy-makers change the firms institutional environment so it will be easier for firms to became Born Globals?

  • 16.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Gabrielsson, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Born Globals - the Swedish case2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Kormann, Gerhard
    et al.
    IMC University of Applied Science Krems, Krems an der Donau, Austria.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Moser, Reinhard
    University of Economics and Business, Wien, Austria.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Will the Digital Transformation become a Game Changer in the Field of Internationalisation Research?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at investigating the way in which digital technologies affect the internationalisation of businesses and how digital transformation can be incorporated into current theories of internationalisation and international entrepreneurship (IE).

    In order to define how digitalisation has been treated in the academic literature on Internationalisation, we will attempt to examine the range of existing research in the field. The Uppsala Model will be used as a tool to assess whether the impact of digital technologies can be integrated into current “stage” theories of internationalisation. This will eventually allow us to determine to what extent these models are valid in the context of our research.

    We will need to consider the evolution of digitalisation, which in the context of internationalisation has normally been understood as to mean merely internet-based communication technologies. The concept of digitalisation used in this paper goes beyond communication technologies and includes such aspects as industrial technologies and the “Internet of Things”, often referred to as emerging digital economies or “digital revolution”.

    Our goal is to identify aspects which have so far not been satisfactorily investigated. These may call for adjustments to current theories of internationalisation or, alternatively, require the emergence of totally new theories.

    The paper will be organised as follows. We will first define a contextual framework of the phenomenon we call digital transformation based on a meta-analysis through a comprehensive literature review. We will then integrate this digital framework into the Uppsala Model (UM) in order to assess whether it is sufficient to explain a “digitalised establishment chain”, and finally discuss whether “stage” theories are still useful. The paper will close closes with major findings followed by considerations of limitations and implications for further research.

    The work on this paper is part of an Austrian-Swedish research project called “Enterprise 4.0”, which aims at investigating digital transformation processes in international entrepreneurial firms, with special emphasis on internationalisation processes.

  • 18.
    Svetoft, Ingrid
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Centrum för lärande, kultur och samhälle (CLKS).
    Jonasson, Mikael
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Centrum för lärande, kultur och samhälle (CLKS).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Falk, Magnus
    Energi- och Miljöcentrum (EMC), Varberg, Sverige.
    Jeppsson, Kajsa
    Energi- och Miljöcentrum (EMC), Varberg, Sverige.
    Boström, Ida
    Alexandersoninstitutet, Varberg, Sverige.
    Arnesten, Helena
    Varbergs kommun, Varberg, Sverige.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Falkenbergs kommun, Falkenberg, Sverige.
    Thuresson, Roger
    Peterson & Hansson Bygg AB, Falkenberg, Sverige.
    Christiansson, Per
    Peterson & Hansson Bygg AB, Falkenberg, Sverige.
    Kylin, Christian
    Derome AB, Veddige, Sverige.
    Axelsson, Dennis
    Kulturmiljö Halland, Halmstad, Sverige.
    Hansson, Charlotta
    Laholms kommun, Laholm, Sverige.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Laholms kommun, Laholm, Sverige.
    Rapport 2014 – den goda och hållbara plan- och byggprocessen2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns flera olika anledningar till att förstudien “Den goda och hållbara plan-och byggprocessen” startades upp under våren 2014. Ett flertal aktiviter arrangerade av det halländska företagsnätverket Energi-och Miljöcentrum (EMC) i Varberg har sammanfört ett antal olika aktörer som annars inte vanligtvis möts. I dessa möten har idéer och inspirerande samtal förts som lett till en gemensam vilja att samverka i olika frågor. I denna rapport beskrivs bakgrund och genomförande av förstudien samt några sammanfattande resultat. Ett antal reflektioner om framtida möjligheter presenteras i slutet av rapporten. Alexandersoninstitutet har med sitt uppdrag gett möjligheten till oss på Högskolan i Halmstad att samordna ett antal möten och problemformulera processer och dialoger med koppling planering och byggande. Uppdraget har finansierats av Europeiska Regionalfonden via projektet Efterfrågad Utveckling. Resultatet har blivit ett antal temaformuleringar och case som nu kan användas för fortsatt arbete med forskningsansökningar och spridning av erfarenheter.

  • 19.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    A Born Global Company’s Way to Growth2011Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a Born Global company is studied, with the aim of investigating how it has developed from 1990 to 2007. Which growth stages can we identify over time? Which factors influence these stages? The method used is the case study and the information was gathered through interviews and secondary data. For the theoretical approach, I have used the indicative ‘stages’ of the growth/life-cycle modelsby Churchill and Lewis (1987) and Smallbone and Wyer (2006), a framework focusing oninternational growth, international market strategy, international entrepreneurship and cultureand international organisation. The Rubber Company was studied from 1990 to 2007, which suggests that three CEOs have been in charge of the company; the founder, external CEO I and CEO II. The company’s development and expansion over the study period were followed and related to the stages of growth/life-cycle model and theoretical framework. The stages analysed are the Entrepreneurial stage (1990–1999), the Expansion stage (2000–2004) and the Industrial stage (2005– ). The three CEOs took part in different stages, which affect firm development. The Rubber Company is still growing and very entrepreneurial, over time lifting its development curve to newlevels. Market strategy has changed from distributors to subsidiaries. Unknown global segmentshave been developed. Critical incidents over time have been the founder’s way of acting during the second stage in relation to CEO I, who came from a much larger company with a strong support staff. In combination with the fact that the founder was still the owner and had the power, this did not make it easy to change the company to a new stage of development. He also did not have the experience of working in a smaller company. CEO II already had a close relationwith the founder and thus he was more quickly accepted. During the Industrial stage, the new investor supported the firm’s strong development.The ongoing Entrepreneurial stage on the business development curve indicates even faster growth for the Rubber Company. For that situation, entrepreneurship strategies must be more open, decentralised and teamwork-oriented. Another management style is later required to leadand expand the company. Since 2005, the company has been in the Industrial stage; i.e.expanding even faster in the global market. A value-added pricing concept has been developed. The company’s external focus on customers and relations is very important. CEO II suggests that traditional multinationals have too much of an internal focus. The learning process in the Rubber Company has been present from inception, but the firm hashow become more professionalised through international workshops. For the culture and vision,it is important to agree on the internal values of the company all over the world – the “CompanyWay” of doing business. Entrepreneurship strategies have changed from an entrepreneur deciding in most cases to a more coaching style of leadership. New owners have now invested inthe company and capital for expansion is available.The most interesting question is how the Rubber Company grows over time and how management continuously manages to shift the life-cycle curve to new levels. A Born Global company grows and develops in its special way according to the prevailing theory. However,when it is growing, it is more and more like a traditional company but still with an extreme entrepreneurial focus, in some cases because of the founder.

  • 20.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Born globals: explanations to rapid internationalisation2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Born Globals, Networks and Management2013In: The 16th Annual McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference: Researching New Frontiers: The Conference Program and Collection of Short Summaries, 2013, p. 103-103Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have been focusing the entrepreneur and the international market situation for the Born Global Company as parts of developing the company and its growth. Networks have also been studied over time but not so much value creating networks from an internal perspective in relation to the company’s management. Networks are important and can be used to “involve help in overcoming perceived barriers on cultural and regulatory issues, those associated with locating partners, plus other matters deemed important to specific management teams” (Crick, 2009, p. 466). Cooney (2009) found evidence of a positive relationship between entrepreneurial teams and high-growth firms.

    This study will take its starting point in the conceptual framework of Andersson and Wictor (2003): The Entrepreneurs, Networks, Globalisation and Industry. The study will deepen especially the knowledge about networks and how the management works developing the company and making it profitable. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how value creating networks are used in Born Global companies and how management acts.

    In this quality study data has been collected through a case study. For this a conceptual framework has been developed. How does the management work in Born Global Companies?

    Results which were found, was that different networks were handled differently. Building a strong and profitable company is due to how you work with your core manufacturing, outsourcing and your strategic situations in the company, how you handle your suppliers and who is responsible in your management team. In this case they have built up strong and close relationships to the suppliers and have for strategic reasons taken over strategic equipment suppliers. The management has to be aware of and define what is core manufacturing and not. It may be the easiest way to outsource but is it the best in the long run? To compete you should build a strong local network and if possible automatize your core manufacturing. The CEO has to take his or her responsibility for strategic operative situations. To decide the different roles are important in the management team. The entrepreneur’s charismatic leadership is important for empowering the organisation and its acting and for creating interesting ‘value creating networks’. Theoretical implications may be to deepen this study even more in many more companies. To study the relation from the suppliers and the customers perspective would very interesting. Practical implications are for the management to be aware of how important the strategic questions are for the management to handle in an efficient way. The board members have to be aware of what they delegate of the core business so the CEO can work with distinct roles and to secure that networks are built for supporting a profitable development. This will be even more important in the future through the Chinese competition.

    This is an on-going study and will be presented in a final paper.

  • 22.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Born Globals: Rapid International Growth in New Ventures2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional theories developed by Johanson and Vahlne (1977, 1990) and other researchers ofinternationalisation have long been questioned because of the fast-changing environment and deregulations. In particular, for Born Global firms, namely a company that has achieved a foreign sales volume of at least 25% within three years of its inception and that seeks to derive significant competitive advantage from the use of resources and the sales of outputs in multiple countries (Andersson and Wictor, 2003, p. 254), itis a question of surviving by establishing in many markets in a short period of time.This thesis summarises five papers. Paper 1 showed that the CEO´s perception and the fast changing environment push small firms to internationalise and that younger CEOs have an important role in expanding the firm. This is often because of their experiences accumulated inthe organisation over time or because the entrepreneur has been exposed to the international arena and information technologies, which can explain why some small firms continue to expandtheir international activities.The conceptual framework in paper 2 comprises four factors that influence Born Global firms:entrepreneurs, networks, industry and globalisation. To succeed in establishing a global firm it isimportant to have certain resources, such as an entrepreneur with international experience and strong networks. A Born Global entrepreneur is distinguished by his interest and motivation todo business abroad and his vision for the future.Paper 3 focuses on the importance of Born Globals’ foreign market channel strategies. The decision to establish a new market is of great importance for the long-term survival of the company. In this comparative case study, four companies that display different foreign entrymodes are compared. We found that these companies had very different market channel strategies even though they internationalised rapidly.Paper 4 is a study of four companies that indicates that their CEOs are active and involved in making strategic decisions in all parts of a Born Global firm’s value chain activities. Decisions on localisation and outsourcing are influenced by the entrepreneur’s definition of his firm’s core competencies. However, factors outside the firm are also an influence: potential suppliers,outsourcing of manufacturing and potential partners in distribution, especially relating to the riseof new emerging markets (e.g. China). The importance of coordinating value chain activities also influences the localisation of different activities. Entrepreneurs aim to arrange value-creating networks to secure their core manufacturing processes and close relations with local suppliers when they outsource products. In such a case, the entrepreneur can be seen as an orchestrator ina virtual organisation. The ‘global factory’ concept can be adjusted to fit locally for a Born Global company and its environment. Paper 5 focuses on a Born Global company’s way to grow and is a longitudinal study of acompany over 17 years (1990–2007) and its development in the different stages in the growth/life-cycle curve. From inception, the vision is already strong to go global. During thea bove period, the founder, external CEO I and CEO II were interviewed to assess whatcharacterises the different stages of growth over time compared with the growth/life-cycle model of Smallbone and Wyer (2006). The company is still growing and very entrepreneurial. The leadership has changed from a deciding style to a more coaching way of leading. Themanagement and organisation have changed to be more professionalised and team-oriented over8time. Entrepreneurial teams have also become more and more important for transferring knowledge to individuals in the organisation.The traditional models of Johanson and Vahlne (1977, 1990) point out that learning at an organisational level is a main factor in international development over time. However, a way to speed up the development of Born Global firms is entrepreneurial background with long experience and different knowledge serving his vision for the company. Nevertheless, theknowledge transfer from the entrepreneur and his team to the organisation is important. Knight and Cavusgil (2004, p. 137) find that “Born Globals pose an important new challenge to traditional views on the internationalization of the firm”.Johanson and Vahlne (2003) study what happens in companies because of rapid changes in the environment. They suggest that the Uppsala model is still valid, but that the early stage of a firm’sinternationalisation is important to study. Organisational learning is carried out at an individual and an entrepreneurial level. Johanson and Vahlne (1977) focus on the importance of the people working in a market and their learning. In their latest published article by Schweizer et al. (2010,pp. 368–369), they argue that “it is the liability of outsidership rather than the liability offoreignness that gives rise to internationalization difficulties. Outsidership implies that the firm isnot a member of relevant networks. Internationalization can be seen then as taking steps tobecome an insider in relevant networks in focal foreign markets … In their last study it emphasizes the entrepreneurial facets of a firm’s internationalization process”. The above defined background of the entrepreneur, his entrepreneurial way of working and his experience from former jobs also means that he already has the networks necessary for international expansion.The entrepreneur and his team in a Born Global company must from the beginning have the capability and knowledge of the environment and market in a country to establish in the new market as well as the understanding of how to manage the company and organisation. If they do not have this knowledge, they must have a network from which to extract this information. The entrepreneur has to be strongly involved in building and sustaining relationships with both customers and suppliers. In the organisation, he also has to build a powerful culture with decentralisation and empowered employees. The leadership in these companies is charismatic,employees are empowered in their jobs and the teams are entrepreneurial. Employees are therefore also allowed to make their own decisions within certain limits. Networks are important to overcome “perceived barriers on cultural and regulatory issues, those associated with locating partners, plus other matters deemed important to specific management teams” (Crick, 2009, p. 466). Coviello and Cox (2006) find that a company’s network is aresource when it is working with acquisitions and important recruitments. For companies growing over many years such as the Rubber Company studied herein, networks change and the chairman’s networks can be of great importance when core individuals should be recruited as an important part of the company’s strategies.

  • 23.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The importance of value chain in born globals2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Management of Value Chain Activities in Born Global Companies2011Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how Born Global companies’ value chain activities are managed and organised.

    Methodology

    This study explores how Born Global firms’ activities are managed and organised through qualitative research using secondary data and interviews with the entrepreneurs and CEOs offour Swedish Born Global firms.

    Findings

    This study indicates that CEOs are active in making strategic decisions in all parts of a Born Global firm’s value chain activities. Decisions on localisation and outsourcing are influenced by the entrepreneur’s definition of his firm’s core competencies. However, factors outside the firmare also an influence: potential suppliers, outsourcing of manufacturing and potential partners indistribution, especially relating to the rise of new emerging markets (e.g. China). The importanceof coordinating value chain activities also influences the localisation of different activities. The use of value-creating networks is important for Born Global companies. These networks,especially local ones, can also be seen in connection with the ‘global factory’ concept but adjusted to the Born Global Company and its international environment.

    Research limitations/implications

    This study provides a deeper understanding of how entrepreneurs in Born Global firms are involved in decisions regarding all parts of the value chain. A limitation is that it has focused onthe value activities within these firms. Future studies should also investigate how the relationship with other actors in the value chain (e.g. suppliers and distributors) influences the development of Born Global firms.

    Practical implications

    It is important to focus on strategic decisions in all parts of the value chain in global settings. The management team needs to create an organisation that can deal with operative matters and work without the direct supervision of top-level management.

    Originality/value

    This paper takes a holistic view of all parts of Born Global firms’ value chain activities and the role of the entrepreneur and management in the value chain, which few previous studies have investigated.

  • 25.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Charismatic leadership and empowerment in born globals2010In: McGill International Entreprenurship Conferences Series / [ed] Hamid Etemad, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Importance of Leadership and Vision in Born Globals2012In: Business and Management Research, ISSN 1927-6001, E-ISSN 1927-601X, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 13-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the beginning of the 1990s studies of Born Global companies has become a major topic in internationalizationliterature. Earlier research has pointed out the importance of the entrepreneur in the born global firm’s internationaldevelopment. Even if many studies have been done which identify the impact of entrepreneurs and management onfirms’ internationalisation and behaviour few studies have focused on leadership in Born Global Companies. Followingearlier research, the aim of this paper is to investigate how the entrepreneur uses his/her vision in Born Globalcompanies. The main findings and conclusions are that the entrepreneur and his/ her vision have an important role inthese companies. The vision is like an umbrella and affects many important parts of the company, such as organisation,communication, recruitment, knowledge transfer and other parts that will form the company’s culture. The born globalentrepreneurs create the company values and motivate the employees in the organisation. The Born Global leaders sharethe power with subordinates. It is crucial to delegate operational decisions to subordinates so the entrepreneur can workwith strategic issues fostering the firms’ international expansion. Communication is open and straight with an openatmosphere in the culture. Good communication is important when building goals, values and conveying the leader’svision. Even if the entrepreneurs motivate their employees in a positive way the entrepreneurs still have a tight control ofthe company. The main implications from this study are that the entrepreneurs in The Born Global firms have been ableto create an innovative culture in the firm that creates international growth.

  • 27.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Mullern, Tomas
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sverige.
    Leadership and organization in born globals2013In: Current Issues in International Entrepreneurship / [ed] Hamid Etemad, Tage Koed Madsen, Erik S. Rasmussen, Per Servais, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013, p. 38-69Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Wictor, Ingemar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Müllern, Tomas
    Jönköping International Business School, Sweden .
    Leadership and Organisation in Born Globals2011Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 28 of 28
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