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  • 1.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Hallberg, Lillemor
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Odberg Pettersson, Karen
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Vad gör vi med latensfasen?2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Hallberg, Lillemor R.-M.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Group for Research on health promotion and disease prevention.
    Odberg Pettersson, Karen
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Swedish women's experiences of seeking care and being admitted during the latent phase of labour: A grounded theory study2007In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 172-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: to gain a deeper understanding of how women who seek care at an early stage experience the latent phase of labour.

    Design: a qualitative interview study using the grounded theory approach.

    Setting: the study was conducted at a hospital in the southwestern part of Sweden with a range of 1600-1700 deliveries per year. The interviews took place in the women's homes two to six weeks after birth.

    Participant: eighteen Swedish women, aged 22-36, who were admitted to the tabour ward while they were stilt in the latent phase of tabour.

    Findings: 'Handing over responsibility' to professional caregivers emerged as the core category or the central theme in the data. The core category and five additional categories formed a conceptual model explaining what it meant to women being admitted in the early stage of tabour and their experiences of the Latent phase of tabour. The categories, which all related to the core category, were labelled: (1) 'longing to complete the pregnancy,' (2) 'having difficulty managing the uncertainty,' (3) 'having difficulty enduring the stow progress,' (4) 'suffering from pain to no avail' and (5) 'oscillating between powerfulness and powerlessness.'

    Conclusions and implications for practice: findings indicate that women being admitted to the tabour ward in the latent phase of tabour experienced a need for handing over responsibility for the tabour, the welt-being of the unborn baby, and for themselves. Midwives have an important role in assisting women with coping during the latent phase of tabour, and in giving the women opportunity to hand over responsibility. This care should include validation of experienced pain and confirmation of the normality of the slow process, information and support. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Christensson, Kyllike
    et al.
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Health Care, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Odberg Pettersson, Karen
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Health Care, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bugalho, António
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Health Care, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cunba, Maria Manuela
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Health Care, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dgedge, Clemencia
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Health Care, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Eva
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Health Care, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergström, Staffan
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Health Care, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Challenge of Improving Perinatal Care in settings with Limited Resources: Observations of Midwifery Practices in Mozambique2006In: African Journal of Reproductive Health, ISSN 1118-4841, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 47-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to observe and analyze midwifery care routine related to asphyxia and hypothermia during the perinatal period and to investigate the effect of an in-service education program. A direct non-participant pre-and post intervention observation study of midwifery a performance during childbirth was conducted at a labour ward in Maputo. The observed groups consisted of 702 and 616 midwifery –attended deliveries. Examination was also conducted of the partographs (702 vs. 616). The quality of midwifery care related to prevention and early detection of asphyxia and hypothermia was found to be inadequate and the intervention had no significant effect upon the midwives' performances. This could be attributed to the quality of the intervention itself or to failure of implementing managerial decisions such as transfer to partograph documentation from obstetricians to midwives. Change in professional performance does not automatically follow awareness of evidence-based midwifery practices, but requires behavioural change, which may be more difficult to achieve.

  • 4.
    Odberg Pettersson, Karen
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Challenges and constraints encountered by women and midwives during childbirth in low-income countries: experiences from Angola and Mozambique2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aimed to study the actual and perceived quality of midwifery practices during childbirth at peripheral and central health care levels in two low-income countries, Angola (I-III) and Mozambique (IV-V). Theoretical models interpreting women's and midwives' views have been developed.

    Objectives: Study I evaluates midwives' use of an adapted model of the World Health Organization's partograph, a tool used to monitor the progress of labour. Study II describes midwives experiences of working without immediate medical assistance. Study III explores women's perceptions of care-seeking behaviour during childbirth. Study IV observes perinatal midwifery care routines and examine partograph documentation. Study V explores and develops a theoretical understanding of factors perceived to obstruct or facilitate midwives ability to provide quality of perinatal care.

    Methods: Study I: A one-group pre-and post-test interventional evaluation of 100 partographs from one peripheral delivery unit. Study II: Semi structured interviews with eleven midwives, analysed in a qualitative process comprising six steps. Study III. Ten focus group discussions with pregnant and non-pregnant women, analysed using the grounded theory technique. Study IV. Pre-and post intervention observation of midwifery care of 702 vs. 616 women during delivery and examination of the partographs. Study V: In-depth interviews with 16 midwives, analysed using grounded theory technique. Educational interventions were designed and applied in study II and IV.

    Results: Study I. Significant improvement of documenting was found in seven of the ten variables and more partographs were correctly documented in sample II compared to sample I. Missed transfers increased, however, in sample II. Study II: The midwives experiences were sorted under four main areas: (1) Society/culture (2) Significant Others (3) Personal Self (4) Professional Self. Confidence was felt in the role as autonomous midwives but dependency on various factors such as the partograph, a functional referral system, peer support, community trust and continuous supervision was emphasised. Socio-economic hardships were identified as major stress factors for themselves and the women. Study III: Women seemed compelled to "mould" their care seeking behaviour and four patterns, two 'avoiding' and two 'approaching' institutional care were identified. The salient features of each pattern were found to be "personal courage", [B1]"disempowerment", "discarding traditional practices" and "awareness and emancipation". Study IV. No improvements were found in quality of care following the intervention. Common problems proved to be hypothermia and rare initiation of the graphic part of the partograph, which monitors progress of labour. Study V. A process labelled "changing perinatal care management" emerged, which comprised four dimensions addressing aspects related to i) existing environment ii) midwives' interaction with women in labour, iii) midwifery profession and iv) caring technology in order to improve quality of care. Communication and collaboration were identified as change agents.

    Conclusions: The findings in this thesis indicate that midwives' ability to provide quality of maternal and perinatal care in lowincome and post-war affected countries is restricted by organizational, structural, educational as well as attitudinal aspects. Women in need of assistance during childbirth are negatively affected as a consequence of midwives reaction to the various constraints, which at times (Luanda) seems to oblige adverse care seeking behaviour. Midwives recognises the need for change, but change is found to be a slow and complex process, which requires engagement by all levels of the care chain. A model suggesting how to achieve quality of maternal and perinatal care in Safe Motherhood context is presented.

  • 5.
    Odberg Pettersson, Karen
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Christensson, Kyllike
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    de Freitas, Engracia da Gloria Gomes
    Midwifery School, Luanda, Angola.
    Johansson, Eva
    Department of Public Health Services, Division of International Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adaptation of health care seeking behavior during childbirth: Focus group discussions with women living in the suburban areas of Luanda, Angola2004In: Health Care for Women International, ISSN 0739-9332, E-ISSN 1096-4665, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 255-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore how various factors influenced women's decisions regarding place of confinement in Luanda, Angola. Ten focus group discussions were conducted with pregnant and nonpregnant women residing in suburban areas of Luanda and the data were analyzed using the grounded theory technique. Four patterns of action of the main theme, "the molding of women'scare-seeking behavior during childbirth," were identified: (I) the "labor process 'on-course' avoiding pattern"; (II) the "labor process 'off-course' avoiding pattern"; (III) the "labor process 'on-course' approaching pattern"; and (IV) the "labor process 'off-course' approaching pattern." Our findings indicate that personal "courage" and social support empowered women and impacted on their preference for home birth, whereas demand for informal user fees and perceived low quality of care influenced women to avoid institutional care during childbirth, sometimes even in spite ofcomplications. Ability to meet demands for informal user fees and knowledge of childbirth influenced women to seek institutional care. The study highlights the need to improve the quality of available maternal health care addressing the implicit educational, attitudinal, and ethical issues.

  • 6.
    Odberg Pettersson, Karen
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johansson, Eva
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of International Health (IHCAR), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pelembe, Maria de Fatima M
    Maputo Central Hospital, Maputo, Mozambique.
    Dgedge, Clemencia
    Maputo Central Hospital, Maputo, Mozambique.
    Christensson, Kyllike
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Health Care, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mozambican midwives' views on barriers to quality perinatal care2006In: Health Care for Women International, ISSN 0739-9332, E-ISSN 1096-4665, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 145-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our purpose in this study was to explore the midwives' perception of factors obstructing or facilitating their ability to provide quality perinatal care at a central labor ward in Maputo. In-depth interviews were undertaken with 16 midwives and were analyzed according to grounded theory technique. Barriers to provision of quality perinatal care were identified as follows: (i) the unsupportive environment, (ii) nonempowering and limited interaction with women in labor, (iii) a sense of professional inadequacy and inferiority, and (iv) nonappliance of best caring practices. A model based on the midwives' reflections on barriers to quality perinatal care and responses to these were developed. Actions aimed at overcoming the barriers were improvising and identifying areas in need of change. Identified evading actions were holding others accountable and yielding to dysfunction and structural control. In order to improve perinatal care, the midwives need to see themselves as change agents and not as victims of external and internal causal relationships over which they have no influence. It is moreover essential that the midwives chose actions aiming at overcoming barriers to quality perinatal care instead of choosing evading actions, which might jeopardize the health of the unborn and newborn infant. We suggest that local as well as national education programs need to correspond with existing reality, even if they provide knowledge that surpasses the present possibilities in practice. Quality of intrapartum and the immediate newborn care requires a supportive environment, however, which in the context of this study presented such serious obstacles that they need to be addressed on the national level. Structural and administrative changes are difficult to target as these depend on national organization of maternal health care (MHC) services and national health expenditures.

  • 7.
    Odberg Pettersson, Karen
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Svensson, Marie Louise
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Christensson, Kyllike
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    The lived experiences of autonomous Angolan midwives working in midwifery-led maternity units2001In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 102-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: to describe the lived experiences of autonomous midwives working in Angolan midwifery-led maternity units.

    Design: a qualitative approach using semi-structured, audiotaped interviews, in Portugese. Data were analysed in a six-step process.

    Setting: three midwifery-led maternity units in the most densely populated suburbs in the capital of Angola, Luanda. The average number of deliveries per unit was 2500 per year.

    Participants: II midwives from the three maternity units.

    Findings: four main areas emerged: society/culture, significant others, personal self and professional self. Sub-areas, concepts and supporting statements were defined in each area.

    Key conclusions: the midwives served within a population living in rough circumstances but which maintained strong traditional roots. The midwives did not support homebirths, but did assist when needed,The midwives described their professional role as a 'calling: which was very independent, Cure, was considered more important than care, and strong emotions were expressed when discussing cases of failure,The partograph was viewed as an important instrument and continuous learning as crucial in their role as autonomous midwives.

    Implications for practice: the model of a midwifery-led delivery unit described in this study may be used in other countries facing the same problems as Angola, Difficulties concerning transfer should be seriously considered as well as adequate education for the midwives. A pre-requisite in order for peripheral maternity units to have any impact on maternal morbidity and mortality, is a well-organised first-referral level.

  • 8.
    Odberg Pettersson, Karen
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Svensson, Marie-Louise
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Christensson, Kyllike
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Evaluation of an adapted model of the World Health Organization partograph used by Angolan midwives in a peripheral delivery unit2000In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 82-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    The addition of laboratory bilirubin readings to an algorithm based on pH alone improves prediction of feeding tube location; although reliable pH-teststrips are available, there is no bedside test to measure bilirubin in feeding tube aspirates.

    Objectives:

    This study was designed to test the efficacy of a bilirubin teststrip with a newly developed scale in measuring the bilirubin content in feeding tube aspirates, and to determine the effectiveness of a combination of readings from pH and bilirubin teststrips in predicting feeding tube location.

    Methods:

    A total of 631 gastrointestinal specimens for concurrent pH and bilirubin testing were obtained from adult, acutely ill patients with newly inserted feeding tubes (nasogastric, n = 328; nasointestinal, n = 303) within 5 minutes of radiographs taken to determine tube location. In addition, 225 respiratory specimens were tested. Bilirubin was measured with a teststrip incorporating a newly developed colorimetric visual bilirubin (VBIL) scale, and by a laboratory assay, pH was measured with a teststrip and a pH-meter. Results from the bilirubin and pH tests were read by research assistants and staff nurses and compared with tube location as determined by radiography.

    Results:

    The correlation between readings made from the 5-point VBIL scale and the trimmed laboratory bilirubin was 0.93, with dichotomized readings correlating 0.87 and kappa equal to 0.86. A pH greater than 5 and a bilirubin less than 5 mg/dL successfully identified 100% of the 225 respiratory cases. In the category of pH 5 or less and bilirubin less than 5 mg/dL, 98% of the cases were gastric cases. In the category of pH greater than 5 and bilirubin 5 or higher mg/dL, nearly 88% of the cases were intestinal cases.

    Conclusions:

    The newly developed VBIL scale is effective in determining the bilirubin content in feeding tube aspirates. Furthermore, compared with predicting tube location from pHpaper alone, dichotomized readings from the VBIL scale/bilirubin teststrip used in combination with a pH-teststrip improved the ability to differentiate between respiratory and gastrointestinal tube placement, as well as between gastric and intestinal tube placement. Refinement of the VBIL scale is indicated to increase its accuracy.

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