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  • 1.
    Bakker, Roel H.
    et al.
    Department of Applied Research in Care, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    van den Berg, Godefridus Petrus
    GGD Amsterdam Public Health Service, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Stewart, R.E.
    Department of Community & Occupational Health, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Lok, W.
    Department of Applied Research in Care, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Bouma, J.
    Department of Health Care, Science shop, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Impact of wind turbine sound on annoyance, self-reported sleep disturbance and psychological distress2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 425, p. 42-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of the research: The present government in the Netherlands intends to realize a substantial growth ofwind energy before 2020, both onshore and offshore. Wind turbines, when positioned in the neighborhood ofresidents may cause visual annoyance and noise annoyance. Studies on other environmental sound sources,such as railway, road traffic, industry and aircraft noise show that (long-term) exposure to sound can havenegative effects other than annoyance from noise. This study aims to elucidate the relation between exposureto the sound of wind turbines and annoyance, self-reported sleep disturbance and psychological distress ofpeople that live in their vicinity. Data were gathered by questionnaire that was sent by mail to a representativesample of residents of the Netherlands living in the vicinity of wind turbinesPrincipal results: A dose–response relationship was found between immission levels of wind turbine soundand selfreported noise annoyance. Sound exposure was also related to sleep disturbance and psychologicaldistress among those who reported that they could hear the sound, however not directly but with noiseannoyance acting as a mediator. Respondents living in areas with other background sounds were less affectedthan respondents in quiet areas.Major conclusions: People living in the vicinity of wind turbines are at risk of being annoyed by the noise, anadverse effect in itself. Noise annoyance in turn could lead to sleep disturbance and psychological distress. Nodirect effects of wind turbine noise on sleep disturbance or psychological stress has been demonstrated,which means that residents, who do not hear the sound, or do not feel disturbed, are not adversely affected.

  • 2.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Nilsdotter, Anna
    Department of Research and Education, Halmstad County Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Thorstensson, Carina
    Research and Development Centre, Spenshult Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Relationship between finger flexion and extension force in healthy women and women with rheumatoid arthritis2012In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 44, no 7, p. 605-608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Balance between flexor and extensor muscle activity is essential for optimal function. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the relationship between maximum finger flexion force and maximum finger extension force in women with rheumatoid arthritis and healthy women.

    METHODS: Twenty healthy women (median age 61 years) and 20 women with rheumatoid arthritis (median age 59.5 years, median disease duration 16.5 years) were included in the study. Finger extension force was measured with an electronic device, EX-it, and finger flexion force using Grippit. The Grip Ability Test and the score from the patient-reported outcome Disability Arm Shoulder and Hand were used to evaluate activity limitations.

    RESULTS: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis showed significantly decreased hand function compared with healthy controls. A correlation was found between extension force and flexion force in the healthy group (r = 0.65, p = 0.002),but not in the rheumatoid arthritis group (r = 0.25, p = 0.289).

    CONCLUSION: Impaired hand function appears to influence the relationship between maximum finger flexion and extension force. This study showed a difference in the relationship between maximum finger flexion and extension force in healthy controls and those with rheumatoid arthritis. © 2012 Foundation of Rehabilitation Information.

  • 3.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    12-weeks of hand exercise provides better hand function, muscle balance and muscle strength in the rheumatoid arthritis hand2010In: Abstract Archive Sessions Index 2010, EULAR , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Impaired grip ability in RA is due to reduced strength in the flexor muscles as well as by dysfunctional extensor muscles leading to inability to open the hand. Furthermore the extensor muscles are important for stabilization during flexion force production and active for developing a controlled grip force. There is today scientific evidence showing that various forms of hand exercise are beneficial for improving hand function and strength in RA patients (Ronningen and Kjeken 2008; Brorsson, Hilliges et al. 2009). However, comparatively little research has evaluated and specific designed hand exercise program for the extensor muscles controlling the hand and fingers (Weiss, Moore et al. 2004; O'Brien, Jones et al. 2006).

    Objectives:

    The objectives for this study were to evaluate the effect of an exercise program on hand strength, hand function and perceived function of daily life activities among RA patients and to explore the possibility to improve the balance between the extensor and flexor muscle forces in the hand.

    Methods:

    The study group comprised of 20 patients with RA (median disease duration 20 years) that performed a hand exercise program for twelve weeks. The finger extension force was measured with a newly developed device (EX-it), finger flexion force was measured with the Grippit. Hand function was evaluated with the Grip Ability Test (GAT) and self reported questionnaire Disability Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH).

    Results:

    Hand strength (both extension and flexion force) and hand function improved significantly after twelve weeks. The RA group showed improvement in the results of the DASH questionnaire (p < 0.05), but on individual level, the result was partly significant. The relation between extension and flexion force in the hand was not correlated, however, after the exercise there was a strong association between flexion and extension force (p < 0.001). The result on individual level is related to age and duration time.

    Conclusion:

    Twelve weeks of hand exercise significantly improved hand strength, hand function and perceived function for RA patients. Furthermore, exercise improved the relation between the finger extension and flexion force. Hand exercise is thus an effective intervention for RA patients, providing better strength and function.

    References:

    1. Brorsson, S., M. Hilliges, et al. (2009). A six-week hand exercise programme improves strength and hand function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rehabil Med 41(5): 338-42.
    2. O'Brien, A.V., P. Jones, et al. (2006). Conservative hand therapy treatments in rheumatoid arthritis–a randomized controlled trial. Rheumatology (Oxford) 45(5): 577-83.
    3. Ronningen, A. and I. Kjeken (2008). ffect of an intensive hand exercise programme in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Scand J Occup Ther: 1-11.
    4. Weiss, A. P., D. C. Moore, et al. (2004). Metacarpophalangeal joint mechanics after 3 different silicone arthroplasties. J Hand Surg [Am] 29(5): 796-803.
  • 4.
    Forssén, Jens
    et al.
    Chalmers, Div Appl Acoust, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, Gothenburg.
    Schiff, Martin
    Lally Acoust Consulting, New York.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Persson Waye, Kerstin
    Univ. Gothenburg.
    Wind turbine noise propagation over flat ground: measurements and predictions2010In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 96, no 4, p. 753-760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise from wind turbines is of concern in the planning process of new wind farms, and accurate estimations of immission noise levels at residents nearby are required. Sound propagation from wind turbine to receiver could be modelled by a simplified standard model assuming constant meteorological conditions, by an engineering method taking atmospheric and ground propagation conditions into account, or by a more exact model. Epidemiological studies have found a higher frequency of annoyance due to wind turbine noise than to other community noise sources at equal noise levels, indicating that the often used simplified model is not sufficient. This paper evaluates the variation of immission sound levels under the influence of meteorological variation and explores if the prediction of levels could be improved by taking the effect of wind speed on sound propagation into account. Long-term sound recordings and measurements at a distance of 530 m from a wind turbine show that the simplified standard model predicts the average sound pressure levels satisfactorily under downwind conditions, and that a more complex propagation model might not be needed for wind turbine noise at a relatively short distance. Large variations of sound immission levels at the same wind speed were however present. Statistical analysis revealed that these variations were influenced by meteorological parameters, such as temperature, static pressure and deviation from ideal downwind direction. The overall results indicate that meteorological factors influence the noise generated by the wind turbine rather than the sound propagation.

  • 5.
    Hansson, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Eno, Kristian
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bra kontakter kan bli bättre: Utvärdering av kontakter mellan brukare, handläggare och politiker inom miljö- och hälsoskyddsarbetet i Hallands län och Borås stad2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att få återkoppling från de som berörs av miljö- och hälsoskyddstillsyn och rådgivning, det vill säga brukarna, är viktigt i det ständiga förbättringsarbetet. Denna studie ”Bra kontakter kan bli bättre” handlar därför om hur mötet mellan myndighet (handläggare och nämndledamöter) och brukare kan utvärderas på bästa sätt. Studien fokuserar på miljö- och hälsoskyddstillsynen av två olika grupper av brukare: verksamhetsutövare med enskilda avlopp (som ofta är privata fastighetsägare) och verksamhetsutövare inom livsmedel (som ofta är företagare), i Hallands län samt i Borås stad.

    Studien tog utgångspunkt i metoden grundad teori där resultatet tas fram och valideras i en process där framväxande faktorer testas i datamaterialet, för att sedan modifieras och testas igen. I denna studie innebar detta en analys av fritextsvar från över 500 tidigare utskickade enkäter, gruppintervjuer med totalt 17 tjänstemän och närmare 30 nämndledamöter samt 23 intervjuer med brukare varav 8 innebar längre samtal vid platsbesök. Analysarbetet fortgick tills faktorerna var kompletta och mättnad uppstod, dvs. inga nya aspekter som ändrade faktorerna kom fram.

    Av analyserna framgår att brukare, handläggare och nämndledamöter har en gemensam syn på vilka faktorer som är viktiga i miljö- och hälsoskyddsarbetet, även om de olika rollerna ibland leder till delvis olika tolkningar av vad dessa innebär. Brukare, handläggare och nämndledamöter är överens om att brukaren har rätt Att bli rättvist behandlad med korrekt bemötande på jämlik nivå och med hänsyn tagen till omständigheterna kring den egna verksamheten. Det är också viktigt som brukare Att få stöd, men det kan vara svårt för handläggaren i sin dubbla roll som rådgivare och inspektör. Både brukare och handläggare upplevde att dialog är nyckeln till god kommunikation, ur brukarnas synpunkt uttryckt som Att bli lyssnad på. Att få kontakt och besked, gärna muntligt, under arbetets gång är centralt. Kontakt med samma handläggare ger möjlighet till Att få kontinuitet, men likartad handläggning oavsett handläggare är viktigast. De avgifter som brukarna betalar för miljö- och hälsoskyddstillsynen upplevdes ibland, av både brukare och handläggare, som svårmotiverade. Upplevelsen Att få valuta för pengarna kan ökas med ökad samsyn av vad miljö- och hälsoskyddstillsyn innebär.

    Resultatet gav också en bild av vad brukare, handläggare och nämndledamöter efterfrågar av utvärderingar kopplade till miljö- och hälsoskyddskontorens arbete. Brukarnas motiv är möjligheten att få uttrycka en åsikt och påverka tillsynsarbetet. Handläggare och nämndledamöter vill kunna använda utvärderingar för att få svar på vad brukarna tycker om tillsynsarbetet och deras bemötande. De vill att resultaten från utvärderingar värderas och leder till kunskap om vad som kan förbättras så att förbättringsåtgärder sätts in där de blir som mest effektiva. En utvärdering ska ge klara svar och förhoppningsvis leda till samsyn mellan olika handläggare och nämndledamöter samt mellan olika kommuner.

    Resultatet som identifierades i studien handlar mycket om kommunikation och behovet av ömsesidig förståelse mellan parterna. Att arbeta för en gemensam samsyn av vad miljö- och hälsoskyddsarbete innebär skulle kunna vara en väg att ytterligare förbättra kontakterna. Svårigheter som uppstår kan bero på att brukare, handläggare och nämndledamöter har olika målbild. Utifrån vad som framkommit i studien och tidigare erfarenheter ger vi ett förslag på hur framtida utvärderingar kan utformas. Förslaget ska ses som ett diskussionsunderlag, snarare än ett färdigt förslag.

    - Syftet med utvärderingen och hur resultatet ska användas klargörs gemensamt av handläggare och nämndledamöter.

    - En övergripande enkät, där det finns möjlighet att följa arbetet över åren och att jämföra kommuner, gärna nationellt, skickas ut även i fortsättningen. Resurser läggs på att få in så många svar som möjligt och att analysera resultaten.

    - Mer detaljerad kunskap om brukarnas upplevelse av miljö- och hälsoskyddsarbetet studeras i samband med utvärdering av själva verksamheten.

    - I utvärdering av en riktad satsning, eller av ett delområde inom den löpande verksamheten, utifrån de kriterier som respektive kommun använder, t.ex. nyckeltal för miljönytta eller kvalitetsmätningar, bör utvärdering av brukarnas upplevelse ingå och belysas av handläggare och nämndledamöter.

    - Utvärderingen bör göras av utredare utanför miljö- och hälsoskyddskontoren med kunskap om utvärderingar, t.ex. av kommunens utredningsavdelning eller av en fristående konsult.

    - Resultatet av utvärderingen, dvs. utvärdering av verksamhet där även brukare, handläggare och nämnledamöters synpunkter synliggörs, återkopplas till brukare som har ärenden inom det studerade ärendeområdet.

    - Utvärderingen ger nämndledamöter ökad kunskap om verksamheten och om hur brukare och handläggare uppfattar den.

    - Utvärderingen ger handläggare återkoppling på sitt arbete och en bas för det fortsatta förbättringsarbetet.

    - Utvärderingen ger brukarna möjlighet att se hur deras perspektiv beaktas och öka sin förståelse för miljö- och hälsoskyddsarbetet.

  • 6.
    Hansson, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Pedersen, Eja
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Willingness to Innovate Business Models for Sustainability amongst Agricultural Businesses2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Hansson, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Landowners’ incentives for constructing wetlands in an agricultural area in south Sweden2012In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 113, p. 271-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eutrophication of the Baltic Sea has in Sweden led to the initiation of government schemes aiming to increase wetland areas in agricultural regions and thereby reduce nutrient transport to the sea. Landowners play a significant role as providers of this ecosystem service and are currently offered subsidies to cover their costs for constructing and maintaining wetlands. We undertook a grounded theory study, in which landowners were interviewed, aiming at identifying landowners’ incentives for constructing wetlands on their land. The study showed that adequate subsidies, additional services that the wetland could provide to the landowner, local environmental benefits, sufficient knowledge, and peers’ good experiences could encourage landowners to construct wetlands. Perceived hindrances were burdensome management, deficient knowledge, time-consuming application procedures and unclear effectiveness of nutrient reduction. The main reason for not creating a wetland, however, was that the land was classified as productive by the landowner, i.e., suitable for food production. Current schemes are directed toward landowners as individuals and based on subsidies to cover costs. We propose that landowners instead are approached as ecosystem service entrepreneurs and contracted after a tendering process based on nutrient reduction effects. This would lead to new definitions of production and may stimulate improved design and placement of wetlands.

  • 8.
    Hansson, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Markägares motiv för att anlägga våtmarker2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att minska näringsläckaget från jordbruksmark via vattendrag till havet ges i Sverige bidrag till privata markägare genom olika åtgärdsprogram. Målet har varit att erhålla 12 000 hektar anlagda våtmarker 2010. Målet kommer dock inte att uppnås. Ett av skälen kan vara att markägarna har andra motiv än ekonomiska när de väljer att anlägga, eller avstå från att anlägga, en våtmark. För att öka förståelsen för markägares syn på miljö, markanvändning och vattenförvaltning och att identifiera motiv för att anlägga våtmarker genomfördes en kvalitativ studie i södra Halland. Femton markägare intervjuades och deras svar analyserades i enlighet med metoden Grundad teori. Viktigast för markägarna var Att förvalta sin mark på bästa sätt vilket innebar att mark som var odlingsbar i första hand skulle användas för det ändamålet. Lågproduktiv mark kunde komma ifråga för våtmarksanläggande, men det var inte självklart. Att ta sitt miljöansvar innebar främst att följa regelverket, men kunde också omfatta frivilliga åtgärder för miljön. Det var dock nödvändigt Att främja företagets ekonomi. Markägarna hade goda Kunskaper och insikter om jordbrukets miljöbelastning, men efterlyste Stöd och bekräftelse. Att vara missgynnad av regelverket som ansågs gynna större jordbruk och jordbruk i andra länder var allmänt. Utifrån resultatet har rekommendationer utformats inför det fortsatta arbetet med att anlägga våtmarker på privat mark.

  • 9.
    Janssen, S.A.
    et al.
    Department of Urban Environment and Safety, Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, P.O. Box 49, 2600 AA Delft, Netherlands.
    Vos, H.
    Department of Urban Environment and Safety, Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, P.O. Box 49, 2600 AA Delft, Netherlands.
    Eisses, A.R.
    Department of Acoustics and Sonar, Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, P.O. Box 96864, 2509 JG The Hague, Netherlands.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    A comparison between exposure-response relationships for wind turbine annoyance and annoyance due to other sources2011In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 130, no 6, p. 3746-3753Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surveys have shown that noise from wind turbines is perceived as annoying by a proportion of residents living in their vicinity, apparently at much lower noise levels than those inducing annoyance due to other environmental sources. The aim of the present study was to derive the exposure-response relationship between wind turbine noise exposure in L(den) and the expected percentage annoyed residents and to compare it to previously established relationships for industrial noise and transportation noise. In addition, the influence of several individual and situational factors was assessed. On the basis of available data from two surveys in Sweden (N=341, N=754) and one survey in the Netherlands (N=725), a relationship was derived for annoyance indoors and for annoyance outdoors at the dwelling. In comparison to other sources of environmental noise, annoyance due to wind turbine noise was found at relatively low noise exposure levels. Furthermore, annoyance was lower among residents who received economical benefit from wind turbines and higher among residents for whom the wind turbine was visible from the dwelling. Age and noise sensitivity had similar effects on annoyance to those found in research on annoyance by other sources

  • 10.
    Janssen, Sabine A.
    et al.
    TNO Department of Environment and Health, P.O. Box 49, 2600 AA Delft, Netherlands.
    Vos, Henk
    TNO Department of Environment and Health, P.O. Box 49, 2600 AA Delft, Netherlands.
    Eisses, Arno R.
    TNO Monitoring Systems - Acoustics, P.O. Box 55, 2600 AD Delft, Netherlands.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Exposure-response relationships for annoyance by wind turbine noise: a comparison with other stationary sources2009In: 8th European Conference on Noise Control 2009 (EURONOISE 2009): Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics, Volume 31, Pt 3, St. Albans Hertfordshire, UK: Institute of Acoustics , 2009, p. 1472-1478Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are indications that, given a certain level of noise exposure, the expected annoyance by wind turbine noise is higher than that by noise from other sources such as industrial noise or transportation noise. The aim of the present study was to establish the exposure-response relationship between wind turbine noise exposure and the expected percentage annoyed residents on the basis of available data. Data from two surveys in Sweden (N=341, N=754) and one survey in the Netherlands (N=725) were combined to achieve relationships between Lden and annoyance indoors as well as annoyance outdoors at the dwelling. In addition, the influence of several individual and situational factors was assessed. In particular, annoyance was lower in residents who received economical benefit from wind turbines, and higher in residents for whom the wind turbine was visible from the dwelling. Age and noise sensitivity had similar effects on annoyance to those found in research on annoyance by other sources. The exposure-response relationship for wind turbine noise is compared to previously established relationships for industrial noise.

  • 11.
    Janssen, Sabine
    et al.
    TNO Department of Environment and Health.
    Vos, Henk
    TNO Department of Environment and Health.
    Eisses, Arno R.
    TNO Department of Environment and Health.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Predicting annoyance by wind turbine noise2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While wind turbines have beneficial effects for the environment, they inevitably generate environmental noise. In order to protect residents against unacceptable levels of noise, exposure-response relationships are needed to predict the expected percentage of people annoyed or highly annoyed at a given level of wind turbine noise. Exposure-response relationships for wind turbine noise were derived on the basis of available data, using the same method that was previously used to derive relationships for transportation noise and industrial noise. Data from surveys in Sweden and the Netherlands were used to achieve relationships between Lden and annoyance, both indoors and outdoors at the dwelling. It is shown that a given percentage of annoyance by wind turbine noise is expected at much lower levels of Lden than the same percentage of annoyance by for instance road traffic noise. Results were used to guide new noise regulation for wind turbines in the Netherlands.

  • 12.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Jens
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Grimsö, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Flykt, Anders
    Academy of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Factors Governing Human Fear of Brown Bear and Wolf2012In: Human Dimensions of Wildlife, ISSN 1087-1209, E-ISSN 1533-158X, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 58-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes people's subjectively experienced fear in areas with presence of brown bear or wolf. Departing from the Human-Environment Interaction Model (Küller, 1991), a hypothetical model of environmental and individual antecedents of fear was tested using structural equation modeling of survey data (n  = 391). In the model of fear of brown bear, the main predictor was the appraisal of the species as dangerous/uncontrollable and unpredictable. In the model of fear of wolf, the greater experience with the species and a stronger appraisal of wolf as dangerous, uncontrollable, and unpredictable led to low social trust and this, together with the appraisal of wolf as dangerous/uncontrollable and unpredictable, increased the likelihood of fear. Efforts to reduce human fear of wolves should focus on building trust between the public and authorities, whereas efforts to reduce fear of brown bear should focus on the individual's appraisal of the species. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  • 13.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Assessing cultural ecosystem services as individuals’ place-based appraisals2019In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 39, p. 79-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Though the existence of cultural ecosystem services is dependent on people’s activities and experiences, these services are still commonly assessed using top–down approaches. In this study, appraisal theory and research into human responses to natural environments formed the basis of a systematic multilevel investigation of appraisals of created wetland areas. The aim was to explore how appraisals could be used as a bottom–up approach to assessing the perceived contribution of wetland areas s to people’s quality of life (QoL). In total, 111 participants assessed environmental perceptions, affective experiences, and restorative potentials on site at three wetlands in Sweden. The results indicate that wetland areas and specific places with different ecological functions within these areas were appraised significantly differently. Moreover these places were perceived to support various QoL aspects to different degrees. Concepts and methods tested here give environmental planners hands-on tools for facilitating communication with expected users about the cultural ecosystem services of created wetland areas. © 2019

  • 14.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Effects of wind turbine noise on humans2009In: Proceedings of the Third International Meeting on Wind Turbine Noise, 2009, p. 11-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Possible adverse health effects due to exposure of wind turbine noise have been discussed since the first modern electrical generating wind turbines were erected in the 1970’s. Despite this, only a few large epidemiological studies have been carried out. This paper is based on data from two Swedish studies and one Dutch study in which self-reported health and well-being were related to calculated A-weighted sound pressure levels outside the dwelling of each respondent. The consistencies in results from these studies make it possible to summarize the impact of wind turbine noise on people living in the vicinity of the turbines. The main adverse effect was annoyance due to the sound; the prevalence of noise annoyance increased with increasing sound pressure levels. Disturbance of sleep was furthermore related to wind turbine noise; the proportion of residents reporting sleep disturbance due to noise increased significantly at sound levels close to those recommended as highest acceptable levels at new installations. No other clear associations between sound levels and self reported health symptoms have hitherto been found. However, noise annoyance was correlated with several measurements of stress and lowered well-being. The study design does not allow causal conclusions, but the association indicates a possible hindrance of psycho-physiological restitution. Such a hindrance could in the long term lead to adverse health effects not detected hear.

  • 15.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Health aspects associated with wind turbine noise: Results from three field studies2011In: Noise Control Engineering Journal, ISSN 0736-2501, E-ISSN 2168-8710, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 47-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind farms are a new source of environmental noise. The impact of wind turbine noise on health and well-being has not yet been well-established and remains under debate. Long-term effects, especially, are not known, because of the short time wind turbines have been operating and the relatively few people who have so far been exposed to wind turbine noise. As the rate of new installations increases, so does the number of people being exposed to wind turbine noise and the importance of identifying possible adverse health effects. Data from three cross-sectional studies comprising A-weighted sound pressure levels of wind turbine noise, and subjectively measured responses from 1,755 people, were used to systematically explore the relationships between sound levels and aspects of health and well-being. Consistent findings, that is, where all three studies showed the same result, are presented, and possible associations between wind turbine noise and human health are discussed.

  • 16.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Human response to wind turbine noise: perception, annoyance and moderating factors2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aims of this thesis were to describe and gain an understanding of how people who live in the vicinity of wind turbines are affected by wind turbine noise, and how individual, situational and visual factors, as well as sound properties, moderate the response.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a flat, mainly rural area in Sweden, with the objective to estimate the prevalence of noise annoyance and to examine the dose-response relationship between A-weighted sound pressure levels (SPLs) and perception of and annoyance with wind turbine noise. Subjective responses were obtained through a questionnaire (n = 513; response rate: 68%) and outdoor, A-weighted SPLs were calculated for each respondent. To gain a deeper understanding of the observed noise annoyance, 15 people living in an area were interviewed using open-ended questions. The interviews were analysed using the comparative method of Grounded Theory (GT). An additional cross-sectional study, mainly exploring the influence of individual and situational factors, was carried out in seven areas in Sweden that differed with regard to terrain (flat or complex) and degree of urbanization (n = 765; response rate: 58%). To further explore the impact of visual factors, data from the two cross-sectional studies were tested with structural equation modelling. A proposed model of the influence of visual attitude on noise annoyance, also comprising the influence of noise level and general attitude, was tested among respondents who could see wind turbines versus respondents who could not see wind turbines from their dwelling, and respondents living in flat versus complex terrain.

    Results: Dose-response relationships were found both for perception of noise and for noise annoyance in relation to A-weighted SPLs. The risk of annoyance was enhanced among respondents who could see at least one turbine from their dwelling and among those living in a rural in comparison with a suburban area. Noise from wind turbines was appraised as an intrusion of privacy among people who expected quiet and peace in their living environment. Negative experiences that led to feelings of inferiority added to the distress. Sound characteristics describing the amplitude modulated aerodynamic sound were appraised as the most annoying (swishing, whistling and pulsating/throbbing). Wind turbines were judged as environmentally friendly, efficient and necessary, but also as ugly and unnatural. Being negative towards the visual impact of the wind turbines on the landscape scenery, rather than towards wind turbines as such, was strongly associated with annoyance. Self-reported health impairment was not correlated to SPL, while decreased well-being was associated with noise annoyance. Indications of possible hindrance to psycho-physiological restoration were observed.

    Conclusions: Wind turbine noise is easily perceived and is annoying even at low A-weighted SPLs. This could be due to perceived incongruence between the characteristics of wind turbine noise and the background sound. Wind turbines are furthermore prominent objects whose rotational movement attracts the eye. Multimodal sensory effects or negative aesthetic response could enhance the risk of noise annoyance. Adverse reactions could possibly lead to stress-related symptoms due to prolonged physiological arousal and hindrance to psychophysiological restoration. The observed differences in prevalence of noise annoyance between living environments make it necessary to assess separate dose-response relationships for different types of landscapes.

  • 17.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet, Sverige.
    Bouma, Jelte
    Univ. Medical Centre Groningen, the Netherlands .
    Bakker, Roel
    Univ. Medical Centre Groningen, the Netherlands .
    van den Berg, Frits
    University of Groningen, the Netherlands.
    Annoyance caused by community noise – interaction of sounds from road traffic and wind turbines2008In: SAE Technical Papers, ISSN 0148-7191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sound from an additional source, for example rail road in addition to road traffic, modifies community noise response. However, interactions of response to low vs. high level sources are not known. The impact of wind turbine sound on annoyance with road traffic noise, and vice versa, was therefore explored. Immission levels of both sounds were assessed for respondents in a survey measuring response to environmental exposures (n = 725). Dose-response relationships for both road traffic and wind turbines were found. Neither sound masked the other, physically or cognitively. However, being annoyed by noise from one of the sources increased the risk for annoyance with the additional noise.

  • 18.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Bouma, Jelte
    Northern Centre for Healthcare Research, University Medical Centre Groningen, PO Box 30001, 9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands.
    Bakker, Roel
    Northern Centre for Healthcare Research, University Medical Centre Groningen, PO Box 30001, 9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands.
    van den Berg, Frits
    University of Groningen - Science & Society Group, Nijenborgh 4, 9747AG Groningen, Netherlands.
    Response to wind turbine noise in the Netherlands2008In: Proceedings of the 7th European conference on noise control, EURONOISE, 2008, p. 4049-4054Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A cross-sectional study with the objective to explore the impact of wind turbine noise on people living in the vicinity of wind farms was carried out in the Netherlands in 2007. A postal questionnaire assessing response to environmental exposures in the living area, including wind turbine noise, was answered by 725 respondents (response rate: 37%). Immission levels of wind turbine noise outside the dwelling of each respondent were calculated in accordance with ISO-9613. The risk for being annoyed by wind turbine noise outdoors increased with increasing sound levels (rs = 0.501, n = 708, p<0.001). The risk for annoyance was decreased for respondents who could not see wind turbines from their dwelling and for respondents who benefited economically from the turbines. No statistically significant correlations between immission levels of wind turbine noise and health or well-being were found. However, noise annoyance due to wind turbine noise was associated with stress symptoms, psychological distress and lowered sleep quality.

  • 19.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Forssén, Jens
    Applied Acoustics, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Persson Waye, Kerstin
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Gothenburg.
    Human perception of sound from wind turbines2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The erection of wind turbines is preceded by an environmental assessment of the impact of wind turbines on people living nearby. One impact to be assessed is sound. It is thus important to have scientifically based knowledge of how wind turbine sound will be perceived in order to ensure that this sound does not adversely affect the health of residents in the area. This report presents an analysis of the results from two previous field studies investigating the relation between sound levels from wind turbines at dwellings and the perception of the sound. It also describes the factors influencing this relationship. In a diary study the participants reported how often they were home and, if so, whether they were outdoors, and whether they could hear the turbines. The objective of this study was to describe how often the sound from wind turbines was heard and in which meteorological conditions. A complementary field study investigated the accuracy of the sound propagation model used today by com­ paring long­term sound measurements with the values calculated using differ­ ent models. This study also investigated whether variations in meteorological factors influenced sound propagation to such a degree that they should be included in the calculation of sound levels.

    The joint analyses of the two field studies confirm and strengthen previously reported data. The percentage of respondents who noticed wind turbine sound as well as the percentage annoyed by the noise, increased with increasing sound levels. The probability of being annoyed was greater in rural areas and if the turbines were visible from the dwelling. However, differences in terrain had no statistical effect. The only association between sound levels and health­related variables other than annoyance was disturbed sleep.

    Participants in the diary study more often reported hearing sound from the wind turbines when the electrical power increased (i.e. when electricity produc­ tion increased). A statistically significant relationship between how often the sound was heard and the calculated sound level at the dwelling was found, even though the amount of time the participants spent outdoor varied substantially; the higher the calculated sound level, the more often the sound was heard. The diary study also gave some insight into the relationship between audibility and wind speed. The results indicate that wind turbine sound could still be heard at relatively high wind speeds, when it would have been expected to be masked.

    Long­term measurements of wind turbine sound at about 550 meters from a modern turbine showed that the calculated and measured levels agreed well. Sound levels calculated using a parabolic equation model, which takes into account variations in meteorological factors, did not give a better prediction than the model commonly used at environmental permit proceed­ ings [Naturvårdsverket 2001]. Meteorological variations are probably only of importance for sound propagation at longer distances. Meteorological circumstances could, however, be important for estimation of the source sound levels, the largest element of uncertainty in the calculations.

    The studies show that the sound levels vary at the same wind speed, and that wind turbine sound could still be heard at wind speeds when it should be masked by other wind­induced sounds. This implies that the description in the environmental impact assessment of the sound that neighbours will pos­ sibly hear should be extended, even though the sound propagation model used today is adequate. Further studies regarding the possibility of hearing the sound at high wind speeds are needed, as the number of participants in the diary study was small. The data also suggest that the risk of sleep disturbance should be further explored.

  • 20.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Forssén, Jens
    Teknisk akustik, Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Persson Waye, Kerstin
    Arbets- och miljömedicin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Människors upplevelse av ljud från vindkraftverk2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I samband med uppförandet av vindkraftverk görs en miljökonsekvensbeskrivning som också innefattar en bedömning av hur människor som bor i området kommer att påverkas av vindkraftverken. En påverkansfaktor är ljud. För att korrekt beskriva hur ljudet kan komma att uppfattas och för att säkerställa att inte verken placeras så att ljudet påverkar de kringboende negativt, är det viktigt att ta fram vetenskapligt baserad kunskap. I den här rapporten presenteras resultaten från flera studier. Samanalyser av resultaten från två fältstudier hade som syfte att visa sambanden mellan ljudnivån från vindkraftverk vid bostaden och upplevelsen av ljudet, och att beskriva faktorer som påverkade detta samband. En dagboksstudie, där deltagarna bl.a. fick fylla i hur ofta de var hemma och i så fall om de var ute, syftade till att beskriva hur ofta vindkraftsljudet hördes och vid vilka meteorologiska situationer. För att undersöka hur väl den ljudutbredningsmodell som används idag stämmer med fältmätningar och om den meteorologiska variationen har så stor betydelse för ljudutbredningen att de bör tas med vid beräkningen av ljudnivåerna, gjordes långtidsmätningar av ljudet där resultatet jämfördes med olika modeller för beräkningar.

    Den sammanvägda analysen av de två störningsstudierna bekräftar och förstärker tidigare rapporterade data. Såväl andelen som märkte vindkraftljud och andelen som stördes av ljudet ökade med ökande ljudnivåer. Sannolikheten att störas av ljud var större om verken var synliga från bostaden och om man bodde i jordbrukslandskap, medan terrängen inte hade någon inverkan. Bland andra studerade hälsorelaterade variabler fanns endast ett samband mellan att störas i sömnen och ljudnivå.

    I dagboksstudien noterade deltagare oftare att de hörde ljud från vindkraftverk när den momentana effekten, d.v.s. elproduktionen, ökade. Även om det var stora individuella variationer i hur mycket tid människor tillbringade utomhus vid sin bostad kunde ett statistiskt säkerställt samband mellan hörbarhet och beräknad ljudnivå påvisas; ju högre beräknad ljudnivå, ju oftare hördes verket vid utomhusvistelse. Dagboksstudien gav även viss kunskap om samband mellan hörbarhet och vindhastighet. Resultaten indikerar att vindkraftsljud hörs även vid relativt höga vindhastigheter då ljudet från vindkraftverket förväntas vara maskerat.

    Långtidsmätningar av vindkraftverksljud 550 meter från ett modernt verk visade att de beräknade ljudnivåerna stämde väl med de uppmätta. Ljudnivåer beräknade med parabolisk ekvationsmodell, som tar hänsyn till variationer hos meterologiska variabler, gav inte bättre överensstämmelse jämfört med den modell som oftast används vid tillståndsprövning [Naturvårdsverket 2001]. Meterologiska variationer har sannolikt bara betydelse för ljudutbredelsen på längre avstånd. Meteorologiska förhållanden kan dock ha betydelse vid skattningen av källjudnivån, som är den största osäkerheten vid beräkningen. 

    Studierna visar att ljudnivån varierar vid en och samma vindhastighet, och indikerar att vindkraftljud hörs även när det blåser så mycket så att vindkraftsljudet borde maskeras av andra ljud åstadkomna av vinden. Det innebär att även om den ljudutbredningsmodell som ändvänds idag fungerar väl, så bör presentationen i miljökonsekvensbeskrivningen av det ljud som de närboende kan komma att höra utvidgas. Fler studier kring hörbarheten vid höga vindhastigheter behövs också eftersom dagboksstudien hade relativt få deltagare. Studierna pekar på att risken för sömnstörningar kan vara angeläget att undersökas vidare.

  • 21.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Hallberg, Lillemor R.-M.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Persson Waye, Kerstin
    Arbets- och miljömedicin, Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Living in the Vicinity of Wind Turbines - A Grounded Theory Study2007In: Qualitative Research in Psychology, ISSN 1478-0895, Vol. 4, no 1-2, p. 49-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known of wind turbines' impact on people living in their vicinity. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of how people perceive and are affected by wind turbines in their living environment. In-depth interviews with 15 informants, strategically chosen to form a heterogeneous group, were analyzed using the constant comparative method of grounded theory. The informants were to different extents affected by the swishing noise, flickering light, and constant movement of the turbines' rotor blades. Some informants perceived the exposures as outside their territory while others perceived them as intrusion into privacy; a divergence partly determined by the informants' personal values about the living environment. The feeling of intrusion was associated with feeling a lack of control, subjected to injustice, a lack of influence, and not being believed. Informants used various coping strategies, such as rebuilding their houses or complaining, but mainly tried to ignore exposures from the wind turbines. The findings can help us to better understand the severe reactions wind turbines sometimes evoke and contribute to the knowledge base used when planning for new wind farms.

  • 22.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Johansson, Maria
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University, Sweden.
    Wind power or uranium mine: Appraisal of two energy-related environmental changes in a local context2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 44, p. 312-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores factors associated with the individual’s appraisal of anticipated environmental changes caused by energy production facilities. The study took place in a Swedish village where exploratory drilling, that could eventually lead to a uranium mine, was being conducted at the same time as a wind farm was approved. Results from the survey, which included the total population, were interpreted in the light of cognitive stress theory. Most residents thought that the wind farm would have a positive impact on the village but that the uranium drilling would have a negative impact; these opinions were closely related to attitudes towards wind and nuclear power. Perceiving the wind farm as positive was further predicted by young age, high education, being an ordinary rather than a committed recycler and having attended a meeting about the wind farm. A negative view of uranium drilling was predicted by the individual valuing closeness to nature, being a recycler, and having attended the uranium meeting. Psychological factors such as concerns for the environment (manifested as pro-environmental behaviour), valuing closeness to nature, and involvement impinge on the appraisal process and should be considered when new developments are presented. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 23.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Johansson, Maria
    Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Värdering av kulturella ekosystemtjänster baserat på bidrag till livskvalitet: slutrapport2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten presenterar resultaten av forskningsprojektet Värdering av kulturella ekosystemtjänster baserat på bidrag till livskvalitet, ett av sju projekt som ingår i forskningssatsningen Värdet av ekosystemtjänster. I projektet undersöks om etablerade teorier, begrepp och metoder från miljöpsykologisk forskning kring interaktionen mellan människa och naturmiljö kan bidra till förståelsen av kulturella ekosystemtjänster och deras värde.

    Projektet visar att värdet av grönområden kan beskrivas utifrån hur områ­ dena bidrar till närboendes livskvalitet genom att de ger möjlighet till miljö­ upplevelser, känsloresponser och aktiviteter som främjar hälsan, inte minst återhämtning. Slutsatsen är att kulturella ekosystemtjänster kan värderas ickemonetärt med utgångspunkt från väletablerade teorier, begrepp och metoder. Men forskarna ser att den kompetens som finns bland tjänstemän som arbetar med kulturella ekosystemtjänster idag behöver kompletteras med kunskap i beteendevetenskap.

    Ekosystemtjänster är grunden för vår välfärd. Ändå tar vi dem ofta för givna. Genom en ökad medvetenhet om och värdering av ekosystemtjänster kan vi påverka vår framtida välfärd och livskvalitet. Politiker, myndigheter, kommuner, företag och organisationer kan därigenom fatta mer välunderbyggda beslut.

    Rapporten är författad av Eja Pedersen och Maria Johansson, Miljöpsykologi, Institutionen för arkitektur och byggd miljö, Lunds universitet och Stefan Weisner, Våtmarkscentrum, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap. Eja Pedersen har varit projektledare och organiserat resultatrapporteringen. Maria Johansson har ansvarat för de miljöpsykologiska teorierna och metoderna. Stefan Weisner har deltagit i projektet som expert på anlagda våtmarker. Samarbetspartners var Länsstyrelsen i Skåne, Hässleholms kommun, Staffanstorps kommun och Helsingborgs stad.

    Forskningssatsningen Värdet av ekosystemtjänster är en central insats för att nå ett av etappmålen inom miljömålssystemet genom att öka kunskapen om hur ekosystemtjänster bättre kan användas i olika beslutssituationer. Etappmålet innebär att betydelsen av biologisk mångfald och värdet av ekosystemtjänster senast 2018 ska vara allmänt kända och integreras i ekonomiska ställningstaganden, politiska avväganden och andra beslut i samhället där så är relevant och skäligt. Sju olika forskargrupper ingår i den omfattande satsningen som började 2014.

    Författarna tackar alla som bidragit med kunskap och erfarenhet under projektets gång. För projektets genomförande och analyser av resultaten, tack till Beatrice Marschke, Emilie Björling, Eva Hedenfelt, Lina Haremst, Linnea Saarela, Lukas Österling och Sanna Stålhammar. För värdefulla synpunkter i slutskedet av rapporteringen tackar projektet David Barton och Eeva Furman. Och till alla som deltagit i fokusgrupper och strukturerade vandringar, svarat på enkäter och deltagit i workshopar – ett stort tack!!

  • 24.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Larsman, Pernilla
    Department of Psychology, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    The impact of visual factors on noise annoyance among people living in the vicinity of wind turbines2008In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 379-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind turbines are highly visible objects and the response to wind turbine noise is possibly influenced by visual factors. In this study, visibility of the noise source, visual attitude and vertical visual angle (VVA) in different landscapes were explored. Data from two cross-sectional field studies carried out among people living near wind turbines (n=1095) were used for structural equation modelling. A proposed model of the influence of visual attitude on noise annoyance, also comprising the influence of noise level and general attitude, was tested among respondents who could see vs. respondents who could not see wind turbines from their homes, living in flat vs. hilly/rocky terrain, and living in built-up vs. rural areas. Visual attitude towards the noise source was associated with noise annoyance to different degrees in different situations. A negative visual attitude, more than multi-modal effects between auditory and visual stimulation, enhanced the risk for noise annoyance and possibly also prevented psychophysiological restoration possibilities. Aesthetic evaluations of the noise source should be taken into account when exploring response to environmental noise.

  • 25.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Persson Waye, K.
    Department of Acoustics, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Audio-visual reactions to wind turbines2003In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 89, no Suppl.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cross sectional study with the aim of evaluating dose response relationships between noise exposure from wind turbines and subjective reactions was performed in a flat landscape in Sweden. The study area comprised 16 turbines. Subjective reactions were obtained by a questionnaire, which purpose was masked. The response rate was 69% (356 respondents). Outdoor noise levels (dBA) were calculated for each dwelling at 2.5 dB intervals. The results showed a significant dose response relationship between noise level and annoyance. The prevalence of noise annoyance was comparatively high. In the categories of greatest noise exposure 37.5-40 dBA and >40 dBA, 20% (95%Cl: ±12.4) and 36% (95%Cl: ±18.4) were very annoyed. The noise only explained part of the annoyance. Noise annoyance was also correlated to visual factors such as the respondents’ opinion of the turbines’ impact on the landscape. To further study interactions between noise annoyance and visual disturbance, the shadows from wind turbines (hours/year) were calculated for each respondent and used as dose for annoyance of shadows, but also as a variable when trying to explain noise annoyance. The results of the analysis and the possible interactions between audio and visual annoyance will be presented at the conference.

  • 26.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Medicine, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Persson Waye, Kerstin
    Department of Environmental Medicine, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Perception and annoyance due to wind turbine noise: a dose–response relationship2004In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 116, no 6, p. 3460-3470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Installed global wind power increased by 26% during 2003, with U.S and Europe accounting for 90% of the cumulative capacity. Little is known about wind turbines' impact on people living in their vicinity. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of annoyance due to wind turbine noise and to study dose–response relationships. Interrelationships between noise annoyance and sound characteristics, as well as the influence of subjective variables such as attitude and noise sensitivity, were also assessed. A cross-sectional study was performed in Sweden in 2000. Responses were obtained through questionnaires (n = 351; response rate 68.4%), and doses were calculated as A-weighted sound pressure levels for each respondent. A statistically significant dose–response relationship was found, showing higher proportion of people reporting perception and annoyance than expected from the present dose–response relationships for transportation noise. The unexpected high proportion of annoyance could be due to visual interference, influencing noise annoyance, as well as the presence of intrusive sound characteristics. The respondents' attitude to the visual impact of wind turbines on the landscape scenery was found to influence noise annoyance.

  • 27.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Persson Waye, Kerstin
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University.
    Wind turbine noise, annoyance and self-reported health and well-being in different living environments2007In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 64, no 7, p. 480-486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of perception and annoyance due to wind turbine noise among people living near the turbines, and to study relations between noise and perception/annoyance, with focus on differences between living environments.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in seven areas in Sweden across dissimilar terrain and different degrees of urbanisation. A postal questionnaire regarding living conditions including response to wind turbine noise was completed by 754 subjects. Outdoor A-weighted sound pressure levels (SPLs) were calculated for each respondent. Perception and annoyance due to wind turbine noise in relation to SPLs was analysed with regard to dissimilarities between the areas.

    RESULTS: The odds of perceiving wind turbine noise increased with increasing SPL (OR 1.3; 95% CI 1.25 to 1.40). The odds of being annoyed by wind turbine noise also increased with increasing SPLs (OR 1.1; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.25). Perception and annoyance were associated with terrain and urbanisation: (1) a rural area increased the risk of perception and annoyance in comparison with a suburban area; and (2) in a rural setting, complex ground (hilly or rocky terrain) increased the risk compared with flat ground. Annoyance was associated with both objective and subjective factors of wind turbine visibility, and was further associated with lowered sleep quality and negative emotions.

    CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to take the unique environment into account when planning a new wind farm so that adverse health effects are avoided. The influence of area-related factors should also be considered in future community noise research.

  • 28.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Persson Waye, Kerstin
    Arbets- och miljömedicin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Wind turbine sound – how often is it heard by residents living nearby?2009In: Proceedings of EURONOISE, 8th European conference on noise control, Edinburgh, 26 – 28 October 2009, St Albans: Institute of Acoustics , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sound power levels of wind turbines and consequently also the immission sound pressure levels at nearby residents vary with the wind speed. A standard meteorological situation is therefore commonly used when the immission levels are discussed; wind speed 8 m/s at 10 m height downwind. There is a need for a more comprehensive description of the sound that could be included in the Environmental Impact Assessment. The objectives of this study were to explore if it is possible to measure how often the sound is heard, and if the occurrence could be related to the standardized immission levels or the performance of the wind turbine. Twenty four people living in three wind turbine areas (A-weighted sound pressure levels 29.6 – 45.9 dB) filled in diaries for three weeks, noting when they were at home, when they were outdoors, and when they could hear sound from wind turbines. The incidents when the wind turbines were heard varied largely from 0% to 100% of the times spent outdoors. The percentage increased with increasing standardized immission levels (r = 0.56, p < 0.01). In two of the areas it was possible to get data from the nearest turbines for the study period. The sound was more easily heard at wind speeds above 5 m/s than at lower wind speeds. No indication of a decreased possibility to hear the sound when the wind increased further was found. Possibility to hear the sound was most closely related to the electrical power generation

  • 29.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Persson Waye, Kerstin
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Wind turbines - low level noise sources interfering with restoration?2008In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind turbines generate a low level noise and would thus not be expected to cause annoyance and disturb rest. In a society where people are being exposed to an increasing noise load, moderate and low level noise sources may also be perceived as annoying and hence inhibit restoration. This article presents an analysis of two socio-acoustic studies of wind turbine noise with the emphasis on perception, annoyance and consequences for restoration. It is hypothesized that low and moderate stressors such as wind turbine noise could have an impact on health. The risk seems to be higher if restoration is, or is perceived to be, impaired and also for certain groups of individuals. The observations warrant further studies.

  • 30.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Persson Waye, Kerstin
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University.
    Bengtsson Ryberg, Johanna
    The National Board of Health and Welfare, Socialstyrelsen.
    Response to occupational noise of medium levels at four types of work places2010In: Proceedings of INTERNOISE, 39th International congress of noise control engineering, Lisbon, 13 – 16 June 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Occupational noise exposure at levels below those recognized as causing hearing impairment can cause annoyance and tiredness, and impair work performance. Few studies have addressed these and other responses to occupational noise of medium levels. Furthermore, studies typically explore one type of work place due to the hypothesized influence of situational factors. Our interest was to explore if a dose-response relationship between annoyance and measurements of sound levels in different work places could be derived.  Four categories of occupational environments were studied; education, health care, offices and control rooms, including in total 26 work places. An average sound pressure level for each work place was derived from measurements at different positions in the rooms (range: 28.7 – 59.5 LpAeq dB). A global dose-response relationship between average A-weighted sound pressure levels and proportion of employees annoyed was found, despite disparity in conditions for the different categories of work places. Alternative descriptors of the sound pressure levels did not significantly improve the relationship. The result will be discussed in the view of impact of sound versus that of moderating factors.

  • 31.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    van den Berg, Frits
    GGD Amsterdam.
    Why is wind turbine noise poorly masked by road traffic noise?2010In: Proceedings of INTERNOISE, 39th International congress of noise control engineering, Lisbon, 13 – 16 June 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility of road traffic noise masking noise from wind turbines was explored among residents living close to wind turbines in the Netherlands (n = 725) with different levels of  road traffic noise present. No general masking effect was found, except when levels of wind turbine sound were moderate (35 – 40 dB(A) Lden) and road traffic sound level exceeded that level with at least 20 dB(A). This low masking capacity may be due to the different time patterns of these noise sources, both on a small time scale (car passages/regular blade passing) and a larger time scale (diurnal and weekly patterns). Also, wind turbine sound is relatively easy audible and may be heard upwind more often than road traffic.

  • 32.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    van den Berg, Frits
    GGD Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Bakker, Roel
    University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Bouma, Jelte
    University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Can road traffic mask sound from wind turbines?: Response to wind turbine sound at different levels of road traffic sound2010In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 2520-2527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind turbines are favoured in the switch-over to renewable energy. Suitable sites for further developments could be difficult to find as the sound emitted from the rotor blades calls for a sufficient distance to residents to avoid negative effects. The aim of this study was to explore if road traffic sound could mask wind turbine sound or, in contrast, increases annoyance due to wind turbine noise. Annoyance of road traffic and wind turbine noise was measured in the WINDFARMperception survey in the Netherlands in 2007 (n = 725) and related to calculated levels of sound. The presence of road traffic sound did not in general decrease annoyance with wind turbine noise, except when levels of wind turbine sound were moderate (35-40 dB(A) Lden) and road traffic sound level exceeded that level with at least 20 dB(A). Annoyance with both noises was intercorrelated but this correlation was probably due to the influence of individual factors. Furthermore, visibility and attitude towards wind turbines were significantly related to noise annoyance of modern wind turbines. The results can be used for the selection of suitable sites, possibly favouring already noise exposed areas if wind turbine sound levels are sufficiently low. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 33.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    van den Berg, Frits
    University of Groningen and GGD Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Bakker, Roel
    University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen.
    Bouma, Jelte
    University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen.
    Response to noise from modern wind farms in The Netherlands2009In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 126, no 2, p. 634-643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing number and size of wind farms call for more data on human response to wind turbine noise, so that a generalized dose-response relationship can be modeled and possible adverse health effects avoided. This paper reports the results of a 2007 field study in The Netherlands with 725 respondents. A dose-response relationship between calculated A-weighted sound pressure levels and reported perception and annoyance was found. Wind turbine noise was more annoying than transportation noise or industrial noise at comparable levels, possibly due to specific sound properties such as a "swishing" quality, temporal variability, and lack of nighttime abatement. High turbine visibility enhances negative response, and having wind turbines visible from the dwelling significantly increased the risk of annoyance. Annoyance was strongly correlated with a negative attitude toward the visual impact of wind turbines on the landscape. The study further demonstrates that people who benefit economically from wind turbines have a significantly decreased risk of annoyance, despite exposure to similar sound levels. Response to wind turbine noise was similar to that found in Sweden so the dose-response relationship should be generalizable.

  • 34.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, LTH, Lund University, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Johansson, Maria
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, LTH, Lund University, Sweden.
    Wetland areas' direct contributions to residents' well-being entitle them to high cultural ecosystem values2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 646, p. 1315-1326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wetlands in urban areas will be crucial to counteract the effects of climate change, for example, by improving flood protection and regulating local climate. To gain acceptance for larger-scale creation of wetlands, total values must be identified and revealed. Provisioning and regulating ecosystem services can be described as the quantitative effect, but cultural ecosystem services require other assessments. This study sought to determine whether peri-urban and urban wetland areas contribute to the well-being and quality of life of nearby residents, and to capture their value relative to two other types of green areas (i.e., parks and urban forests). A postal questionnaire survey, based on validated environmental psychology instruments, was distributed to residents in three municipalities with wetland areas of different structures and locations. In these municipalities, respondents (n = 474; response rate = 40%) reported that the wetland area contributed to several quality-of-life aspects, such as encountering nature and experiencing beauty. The areas also facilitated activities that support well-being, were perceived to have high restorative qualities, and evoked positive affective responses. All wetland areas were rated high on most of the measured concepts, but their value relative to other green areas differed possibly depending on the accessibility of the wetland and the availability of other green areas. The location and extent to which the wetland area was integrated in the residential area determined what quality-of-life aspects were most satisfied. Wetland areas can be ascribed cultural ecosystem service values based on how residents perceive their contribution to their quality of life. These values can be added to those of provisioning and regulating ecosystem services, forming the basis for planning urban environments. © 2018 The Authors

  • 35.
    van den Berg, Frits
    et al.
    University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Bakker, Roel
    Northern Centre for Healthcare Research, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Bouma, Jelte
    Northern Centre for Healthcare Research, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Wind farm aural and visual impact in the Netherlands2008In: Proceedings of the 7th European conference on noise control, EURONOISE, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The WINDFARMperception project, carried out in 2007/08 in the Netherlands, aimed to explore the impact of wind turbines on people living close to wind farms. The study group was selected in three types of area (countryside, countryside with major road, built up area) by means of a Geographic Information System (GIS). Each selected address was sithin 2.5 km of a wind turbine of at least 500 kW electric power and a similar turbine within 500 m of the first. Aural impact was calculated according to three different sound propagation models: the international ISO-9613 standard, the model legally required in the Netherlands, and a simplified model as in the New Zealand Standard NZS-6808. Visual impact was quantified in two ways: the vertical angle determined by the height of the apparently tallest turbine, and the solid angle determined by all turbines where each turbine was replaced by a vertical rectangle just enclosing the turbine. Immission sound levels from the wind farms at 1948 receiver locations varied from 21 to 54 dB(A), relative size from 0.01% to 30% of the total field of view. Results show that all impact measures are highly correlated with distance to the nearest wind turbine.

  • 36.
    van den Berg, Frits
    et al.
    Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Bouma, Jelte
    Science Shop for Medicine & Public Health, University Medical Centre Groningen, Netherlands.
    Bakker, Roel
    Northern Centre for Health Care Research, University Medical Centre Groningen, Netherlands.
    Visual and acoustic impact of wind turbine farms on residents: Final report.2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report gives the results of the EU financed study WINDFARMpertception on how residents perceive a wind farm in their living environment as far as sound and sight are concerned. The study includes a postal survey among Dutch residents (n = 725, response rate: 37%) and an assessment of their aural and visual exposure due to wind farms in their vicinity.

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