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  • 1.
    Andersen, Mark B.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    A methodology of loving kindness: how interpersonal neurobiology, compassion, and transference can inform researcher–participant encounters and storytelling2016In: Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, ISSN 2159-676X, E-ISSN 2159-6778, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article concerns some central aspects of methodology in qualitative research: the participants’ and investigators’ storytelling, and the main instruments in many interview-based qualitative studies, the researchers themselves. We discuss several ethical and interpersonal aspects of qualitative research encounters between investigators and their interviewee participants. Interviewing research participants is a fundamentally exploitative process, and we make suggestions for how we can temper that exploitation by giving something of value back to our participants and to make sure the well-being of the participant is not compromised by our actions. Many research topics in qualitative studies concern experiences of stress, distress and trauma, and interviewees re-telling their stories may become retraumatised. Such retraumatisation constitutes abuse on the part of the researcher. To counter potential abuse and exploitation, we discuss how researchers, as the central instruments in interview-based investigations, can use knowledge of interpersonal neurobiology, psychodynamic theory and mindful practice to enable them to hold their participants (and their participants’ stories) in loving care and maybe even help in healing processes. © 2015 Taylor & Francis

  • 2.
    Back, Jenny
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Achievement goals, motivational climate, perceived sport competence and dropout: a prospective study in adolescent soccer2022Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 3.
    Back, Jenny
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    McCall, Alan
    School of Applied Sciences, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Drop-out from team sport among adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies2022In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 61, article id 102205Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, an increased drop-out rate in adolescents’ team sport participation is observed. Given the potential adverse consequences of drop-out from team sport more information about risk factors for drop-out is warranted. The objectives of this systematic review were to (1) synthesise the literature on factors associated with future drop-out from team sport among adolescents and (2) investigate the strength of associations between drop-out and related factors with meta-analysis. The databases Academic Search Elite, ERIC, PsycINFO, PubMed and SPORTDiscus were searched for relevant publications from the earliest reported date until October 8, 2021. Articles were included if: (1) data about drop-out was collected; (2) the focus was on adolescents; (3) the context was team sport and (4) studies were of prospective design. We used the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Non-randomized Studies (RoBANS) to assess the risk of bias in included studies. A narrative synthesis was conducted according to the reporting guideline of synthesis without meta-analysis. Studies that presented statistical data necessary for the calculation of Hedge’s g effect sizes were included in the meta-analysis. In total, 16 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the narrative synthesis. The meta-analysis included 12 of the studies. Altogether, 6304 adolescent team sport players participated in the selected studies. Of those studies, most had a focus on intrapersonal factors relationship with drop-out. The results showed that constructs related to motivation as well as sport experience had the strongest relationships with drop-out. To prevent drop-out from adolescents’ team sport, organisations and clubs are recommended to focus on developing a high-quality motivation climate that facilitates motivation and enjoyment. © 2022 The Authors

  • 4.
    Back, Jenny
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Josefsson, Torbjörn
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Psychological risk factors for exercise dependence2021In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251X, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 461-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this study was to investigate if exercisers’ personality characteristics were associated with exercise dependence. Specifically, the purpose was to examine if anxiety, obsessive passion, and physical appearance orientation were associated to an increased risk for exercise dependence. Participants were 330 exercisers from exercise groups, sport clubs and university sport science classes in the southwest of Sweden. Data were analysed using CHAID (Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection) analysis. The CHAID analysis indicated that anxiety was the main predictor of exercise dependence. More specifically, 12.7% more exercisers who experienced high levels of anxiety symptoms (i.e. scores above 6), were, in comparison to the exercises experiencing low levels of anxiety, classified as “at risk for exercise dependence”. For exercisers that reported low levels of anxiety symptoms (i.e. scores below 7), obsessive passion for exercise was a positive statistically significant predictor (absolute risk difference = 8.6%). Overall, the results highlight anxiety as a main risk factor behind exercise dependence. Also, the risk of exercise dependence may increase either from obsessive passion or as a coping strategy for anxiety. Furthermore, results may illustrate two types of exercise dependence; “primary” exercise dependence driven mainly by an obsessive passion for exercise and “secondary” exercise dependence where exercise function as a strategy to cope with anxiety. © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 5.
    Back, Jenny
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Solstad, Bård Erlend
    University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway; Norwegian Research Centre of Children and Youth Sports, Oslo, Norway.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Ntoumanis, Nikos
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Psychosocial Predictors of Drop-Out from Organised Sport: A Prospective Study in Adolescent Soccer2022In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 19, no 24, article id 16585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years an increased drop-out rate in adolescents’ soccer participation has been observed. Given the potentially adverse consequences of drop-out from soccer, more information about risk factors for drop-out is warranted. In the current study, Classification and Regression Tree (CRT) analysis was used to investigate demographic and motivational factors associated with an increased risk of drop-out from adolescent soccer. The results of this study indicate that older age, experiencing less autonomy support from the coach, less intrinsic motivation, being female, and lower socioeconomic status are factors associated with an increased risk of drop-out. An interpretation of the results of this study is that coaches play a central part in creating a sports context that facilitates motivation and continued soccer participation. Based on the findings of the current study we propose that soccer clubs implement theoretically informed coach education programs to help coaches adopt autonomy-supportive coaching strategies. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 6.
    Bean, Corliss
    et al.
    School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University British Columbia, Kelowna, Canada.
    Solstad, Bård Erlend
    Department of Coaching and Psychology, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Forneris, Tanya
    School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University British Columbia, Kelowna, Canada.
    Longitudinal associations between perceived programme quality, basic needs support and basic needs satisfaction within youth sport: A person-centred approach2020In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251X, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 76-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acknowledging the importance of longitudinal data to test process-based psychological theories of motivation is critical. The purpose of this study was to use a person-centred approach to identify unique subgroups (i.e. profiles) of youth athletes based on their level of self-reported programme quality (PQ) and basic needs support mid-way through their sport season and investigate potential differences between the subgroups on their self-reported basic needs satisfaction at the end of the sport season. The current study involved 541 Canadian youth athletes (males n = 289; females n = 250; gender-fluid n = 2) within 52 sport programmes over the course of 18 months. Youthathletes ranged in age from 8 through 19 (M = 13.76, SD = 2.61). A latent profile analysis (LPA) in Mplus 8.0 was used to carry out the analyses. The LPA revealed three distinct profiles based on youth athletes’ levels of self-reported PQ and basic needs support. Specifically, athletes who perceived their sport experience to be of higher quality and supported their basic psychological needs midway through the sport season also reported higher levels of basic needs satisfaction at season end. Results from this study contribute to the field of sport psychology through understanding how basic needs theory contributes to the dimensions of programme quality and by informing recommendations for future coach education on how to satisfy youth athletes’ basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness through programmedelivery. © 2018 International Society of Sport Psychology

  • 7.
    Bengtsson, Dennis
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Nygren, Jens M.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Ntoumanis, Nikos
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    The effects of interpersonal development programmes with sport coaches and parents on youth athlete outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis2024In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 70, article id 102558Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interpersonal coach-and parent development programmes (CDP and PDP, respectively), have the goal to foster positive youth sport experiences through high-quality relations between coaches, parents, and youth athletes. In this paper we systematically reviewed the extant literature and estimate the overall magnitude of such programmes and how they can inform future interventions. Specifically, we aimed to: (a) conduct a systematic review on the literature of interpersonal CDPs and PDPs within the youth sport context; (b) examine the effects of such interventions on youth athlete outcomes via a meta-analysis. English written peer-reviewed publications and grey literature was identified through electronic search in databases and manual searches of reference lists. By utilising a priori criteria for inclusion and exclusion, 33 studies describing interpersonal CDPs, and PDPs were identified in the systematic review. Studies that presented required data for estimation of Hedge's g effect sizes were included in the meta-analysis (k = 27). By and large, the included studies used a quasi-experimental design (58%), sampled from team sports (79%), and reported several delivery methods (e.g., workshops, audio feedback, observations, peer group discussions) and outcome measures (e.g., anxiety, autonomous motivation, self-confidence). Some interventions were based on the same delivery protocols (e.g., Coach Effectiveness Training, Mastery Approach to Coaching) or theoretical frameworks (e.g., Achievement Goal Theory, Self-Determination Theory). The meta-analysis showed statistically significant small, and medium, effect sizes on a subsample of youth athlete outcomes (e.g., task-related climate, fun and enjoyment, anxiety), indicating that coach interpersonal skills can contribute to positive youth sport experiences. Theory-based interpersonal CDPs and PDPs are recommended to expand the knowledge in this field of research. © 2023 The Authors

  • 8.
    Bentzen, Marte
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Farholm, Anders
    Østfold University College, Halden, Norway; Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Sörensen, Marit
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Longitudinal relations between needs satisfaction and physical activity among psychiatric patients with dual diagnoses2022In: Advances in Mental Health, ISSN 1838-7357, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 218-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Studies including people with severe mental illness (SMI) have reported beneficial effects from physical activity (PA) on psychiatric symptoms, quality of life, and global functioning. However, it is important to be regularly physically active to obtain these effects. Using the motivational lens of self-determination theory, the aim of the current study was to explore the dynamic interplay between satisfaction of psychological needs (autonomy, competence, relatedness) in PA and the patients' weekly PA level.

    Methods: The study had a longitudinal design, following 10 inpatients with du& diagnoses (SMI and addiction) over 12 weeks at a psychiatric ward offering physical activity as part of treatment Data were collected 14 times with a questionnaire measuring psychological need satisfaction, while an accelerometer was used to objectively count steps to reflect participants average PA-level each week. To analyse the week-to-week relationships between the basic psychological needs and PA-level, the Bayesian dynamic p-technique analysis was used to explore both cross-sectional-, autoregressive- as well as cross-lagged effects between the constructs.

    Results: The results indicated credible and strong positive autoregressive effects for all three psychological needs as well as for PA-level, and positive credible cross-sectional associations between all three psychological needs and PA-level. However, the cross-lagged effects were small and not credible for all three psychological needs in relation to PA-level.

    Conclusions: In total, these results support the established positive relation between basic psychological need satisfaction and PA-level yet failed in finding any predictive effects between need satisfaction and PA-level. © 2021 The Author(s).

  • 9.
    Berntsen, Hedda
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Kristiansen, Elsa
    School of Business, University of South-Eastern Norway, Drammen, Norway.
    Need-supportiveness and athlete well-being: Coaches’ competence-support at risk in the elite sport context throughout the season2019In: Current Issues in Sport Science, E-ISSN 2414-6641, Vol. 4, article id 010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore how perceptions of coaches’ behaviour affected athletes’ wellbeing, by examining: (a) the potential change in perceptions of need-support from the coach (over an academic year), and (b) the within-person relationship between the three aspects of need-supportiveness and subjective vitality at the end of the winter sport season. Elite student athletes (N = 102, M age = 17.04) completed a questionnaire three times. Bayesian growth curve analyses showed that perceptions of relatedness and autonomy support were stable and high throughout the year. In contrast, perceptions of competence support decreased during the season. In addition, the results showed a credible positive within-person relationship between changes in all three facets of needsupportiveness from the coach and vitality measured at the end of the season, which supports SDT tenets. These findings reveal the importance of need-support for athletes’ well-being, and show that competence support needs extra attention in the elite sport context where competence satisfaction is constantly challenged.

  • 10.
    Billsten, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Fridell, Mats
    Department of Psychology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Robert
    Department of Psychology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Organizational Readiness for Change (ORC) test used in the implementation of assessment instruments and treatment methods in a Swedish National study2018In: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, ISSN 0740-5472, E-ISSN 1873-6483, Vol. 84, p. 9-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational climate and related factors are associated with outcome and are as such of vital interest for healthcare organizations. Organizational Readiness for Change (ORC) is the questionnaire used in the present study to assess the influence of organizational factors on implementation success. The respondents were employed in one of 203 Swedish municipalities within social work and psychiatric substance/abuse treatment services. They took part in a nationwide implementation project organized by the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions (SALAR), commissioned by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. Aim The aims were: (a) to identify classes (clusters) of employees with different ORC profiles on the basis of data collected in 2011 and (b) to investigate ORC profiles which predicted the use of assessment instruments, therapy methods and collaborative activities in 2011 and 2013. Design and recruitment The evaluation study applied a naturalistic design with registration of outcome at consecutive assessments. The participants were contacted via official e-mail addresses in their respective healthcare units and were encouraged by their officials to participate on a voluntary basis. Statistics Descriptive statistics were obtained using SPSS version 23. A latent profile analysis (LPA) using Mplus 7.3 was performed with a robust maximum likelihood estimator (MLR) to identify subgroups (clusters) based on the 18 ORC indexes. Results A total of 2402 employees responded to the survey, of whom 1794 (74.7%) completed the ORC scores. Descriptive analysis indicated that the respondents were a homogenous group of employees, where women (72.0%) formed the majority. Cronbach's alpha for the 18 ORC indexes ranged from α = 0.67 to α = 0.78. A principal component analysis yielded a four-factor solution explaining 62% of the variance in total ORC scores. The factors were: motivational readiness (α = 0.64), institutional resources (α = 0.52), staff attributes (α = 0.76), and organizational climate (α = 0.74). An LPA analysis of the four factors with their three distinct profiles provided the best data fit: Profile 3 (n = 614), Profile 2 (n = 934), and Profile 1 (n = 246). Respondents with the most favorable ORC scores (Profile 3) used significantly more instruments and more treatment methods and had a better collaborating network in 2011 as well as in 2013 compared to members in Profile 1, the least successful profile. Conclusion In a large sample of social work and healthcare professionals, ORC scores reflecting higher institutional resources, staff attributes and organizational climate and lower motivational readiness for change were associated with a successful implementation of good practice guidelines for the care and treatment of substance users in Sweden. Low motivational readiness as a construct may indicate satisfaction with the present situation. As ORC proved to be an indicator of successful dissemination of evidence-based guidelines into routine and specialist healthcare, it can be used to tailor interventions to individual employees or services and to improve the dissemination of and compliance with guidelines for the treatment of substance users. © 2017

  • 11.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Sandgren, Anna
    Center for Collaborative Palliative Care, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Health Effects of an Individualized Lifestyle Intervention for People with Psychotic Disorders in Psychiatric Outpatient Services: A Two Year Follow-Up2019In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 839-850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People with psychotic disorders experience to a great extent avoidable physical illnesses and early mortality. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential effects for this group of participating in a lifestyle intervention. A multi-component nurse-led lifestyle intervention using quasi-experimental design was performed. Changes in biomedical and clinical measurements, self-reported health, symptoms of illness and health behavior were investigated. Multilevel modeling was used to statistically test differences in changes over time. Statistically significant changes were found in physical activity, HbA1c and waist circumference. A lifestyle intervention for people with severe mental illness can be beneficial for increasing physical activity. © 2019 Blomqvist et al. Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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  • 12.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Sandgren, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Center for Collaborative Palliative Care , Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Växjö, Sweden.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Health Risks among People with Severe Mental Illness in Psychiatric Outpatient Settings2018In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 585-591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life expectancy is greatly reduced in patients with schizophrenia, and cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of mortality. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and to investigate the relationships between self-rated health, sense of coherence, CVD risk, and body mass index (BMI) among people with severe mental illness (SMI) in psychiatric outpatient settings. Nearly 50% of the participants were exposed to moderate/high risk of CVD and over 50% were obese. The results showed no statistically relationships between the subjective and objective measures (Bayes factor <1) of health. The integration of physical health into clinical psychiatric nursing practice is vital. © 2018 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  • 13.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sandgren, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Relationship between Physical Activity and Health Outcomes in Persons with Psychotic Disorders after Participation in a 2-Year Individualized Lifestyle Intervention2023In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 44, no 7, p. 629-638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People with psychotic disorders have a significantly increased risk of physical diseases and excessive mortality rates. The aim of the study was to investigate relationships between changes in physical activity, levels of salutogenic health, and glycated hemoglobin among people with psychotic disorders after participation in an individualized lifestyle intervention. The results from analyses showed that self-reported increased physical activity was positively associated with the level of salutogenic health and negatively associated with the level of HbA1c on an individual level. The results indicate that coordinated, individualized, holistic and health-promoting nursing care is crucial to enabling enhanced lifestyle within this vulnerable target group. © 2023 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  • 14.
    Burchard Erdvik, Irina
    et al.
    Inland Norway University of Applied Science, Elverum, Norway.
    Haugen, Tommy
    University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Säfvenbom, Reidar
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Development of basic psychological need satisfaction in physical education: Effects of a two-year PE programme2019In: Journal for Research in Arts and Sports Education, E-ISSN 2535-2857, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 4-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that sports-active students experience more basic need satisfaction (autonomy, competence, relatedness) in physical education (PE) than their non-sports-active peers, and thus, reap most of the benefits of PE. This study aimed to investigate the role of a two-year PE programme, referred to as Interest-based PE, in contributing to students’ basic need satisfaction in PE, and in particular, to assess potential basic needs-benefits among students who were not involved in leisure-time sport. Among 693 students, 348 were offered a choice of two different PE approaches (“explorative” vs. “sports” approach) for the next two years, while the remaining students continued to receive traditional PE. Girls, non-sports-active students, and students who experienced less need satisfaction in PE at baseline were more likely to choose the explorative approach, thereby signifying a wish for a less sports-centred PE. However, no significant differences in autonomy, competence, and relatedness need satisfaction were identified between Interest-based PE groups and their respective control groups over the course of the programme. Sports active students experienced more gains in relatedness need satisfaction than non-sports active students over the course of the programme, suggesting that challenges in promoting equal opportunities for learning in PE may require more than “Interest-based PE”.

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  • 15.
    Burchard Erdvik, Irina
    et al.
    Faculty of Social and Health Sciences, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway & Department of Physical Education, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Haugen, Tommy
    Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Säfvenbom, Reidar
    Department of Physical Education, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Global Self-Worth among Adolescents: The Role of Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction in Physical Education2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 64, no 5, p. 768-781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global self-worth is important for healthy development and learning, and is therefore highlighted as a major aim in the Norwegian physical education (PE) curriculum. Based on prior research this study aimed to assess potential differences in global self-worth and contextual basic need satisfaction among 2854 adolescents (47.5% boys, 52.5% girls, ages 13 and 16) participating in different movement contexts, and to determine whether basic need satisfaction in PE relates to global self-worth. Structural equation modeling analyses indicate that basic need satisfaction in PE relates significantly to global self-worth. However, adolescents who do not participate in movement contexts outside school report significantly lower basic need satisfaction in PE compared to their sports-active peers, and could possibly therefore experience reduced global self-worth development through PE. Findings support research showing that sports active youth reap most of the benefits of PE, and thus, that PE violates the principles of equal education. © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

  • 16.
    Byrkjedal, Per T.
    et al.
    University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Bjørnsen, Thomas
    University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Luteberget, Live S.
    University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway; Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Lindberg, Kolbjørn
    University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Haukali, Eirik
    Stavanger Oilers, Stavanger, Norway.
    Spencer, Matt
    University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Association Between Physical Performance Tests and External Load During Scrimmages in Highly Trained Youth Ice Hockey Players2023In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 47-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between physical performance tests and on-ice external load from simulated games (scrimmages) in ice hockey. METHODS: A total of 14 players completed a physical performance test battery consisting of 30-m sprint test-run and 30-m sprint test-skate (including 10-m split times and maximum speed), countermovement jump, standing long jump, bench press, pull-ups, and trap bar deadlift and participated in 4 scrimmages. External load variables from scrimmages included total distance; peak speed; slow (< 11.0 km/h), moderate (11.0-16.9 km/h), high (17.0-23.9 km/h), and sprint (> 24.0 km/h) speed skating distance; number of sprints; PlayerLoad™; number of high-intensity events (> 2.5 m/s); accelerations; decelerations; and changes of direction. Bayesian pairwise correlation analyses were performed to assess the relationship between physical performance tests and external load performance variables. RESULTS: The results showed strong evidence (Bayes factor > 10) for associations between pull-ups and high-intensity events (τ = .61) and between maximum speed skate and peak speed (τ = .55). There was moderate evidence (Bayes factor >3 to <10) for 6 associations: both maximum speed skate (τ = .44) and countermovement jump (τ = .44) with sprint speed skating distance, countermovement jump with number of sprints (τ = .46), pull-ups with changes of direction (τ = .50), trap bar with peak speed (τ = .45), and body mass with total distance (τ = .49). CONCLUSION: This study found physical performance tests to be associated with some of the external load variables from scrimmages. Nevertheless, the majority of correlations did not display meaningful associations, possibly being influenced by the selection of physical performance tests.

  • 17.
    Byrkjedal, Per Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Luteberget, Live Steinsnes
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway; Department of Physical Performance, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Bjørnsen, Thomas
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Spencer, Matt
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Simulated Game-Based Ice Hockey Match Design (Scrimmage) Elicits Greater Intensity in External Load Parameters Compared With Official Matches2022In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 4, article id 822127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: A limited number of studies have explored the external load experienced in indoor sports such as ice hockey, and few the link between training and match performance. As a paucity exists within this topic, this study explored whether a simulated match design (i.e., scrimmage) could be representative of official match demands and elicit similar external loads as in official matches in a group of elite youth male ice hockey players.

    Methods: A total of 26 players were monitored during eight official and four simulation matches using a Local Positioning System. Total distance, max velocity, slow (0–10.9 km/h), moderate (11–16.9 km/h), high (17.0–23.9 km/h), and sprint (>24 km/h) speed skating distance, distance per min, PlayerLoadTM, PlayerLoadTM per min, high-intensity events (HIEs) (>2.5 m/s−2), acceleration (ACCs), decelerations (DECs), and change of directions (CODs) were extracted from the tracking devices. A two-level regression analysis was conducted to compare the difference between match types when controlling for time on ice, match day, and position.

    Results: Between match-type results showed a credible difference in all variables except max velocity and ACCs. Distance per min was 27.3% higher during simulation matches and was explained by a 21.3, 24.1, and 14.8% higher distance in sprint-, high-, and moderate speed skating distance, while slow speed-skating distance was 49.2% lower and total distance only trivially different from official to simulation matches. Total PlayerLoadTM was 11.2% lower, while PlayerLoadTM per min was 8.5% higher during simulation matches. HIEs, CODs, and DECs were 10.0, 11.9, and 22.3% higher during simulation matches.

    Conclusion: The simulated match design is related to official match demands with comparable match-time, playing time, number of shifts, and shift duration. However, simulation matches provoked a higher external load output compared with official matches, possibly explained by a more continuous movement design. A game-based simulation match design can therefore be utilized when match-related actions at high intensity are warranted. © 2022 Byrkjedal, Luteberge, Bjørnsen, Ivarsson and Spencer.

  • 18.
    Byrkjedal, Per Thomas
    et al.
    University Of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Thunshelle, Atle
    Ik Start, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Spencer, Matt
    University Of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Luteberget, Live Steinnes
    University Of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway; Norwegian School Of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. University Of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Vårvik, Fredrik Tonstad
    University Of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Lindberg, Koldbjørn
    University Of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Bjørnsen, Thomas
    University Of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    In-season autoregulation of one weekly strength training session maintains physical and external load match performance in professional male football players2023In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 536-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of autoregulating strength training volume based on an objective (external load match performance) versus a subjective (self-selected) method in professional male football players. Sixteen players completed a 10-week strength training programme where the number of sets was regulated based on football match high-intensity running distance (HIR >19.8 km/h, AUTO, n = 7), or self-selected (SELF, n = 9). In addition to traditional physical performance assessments (30-m sprint, countermovement jump, leg-strength, and body composition), external load match performance was assessed with five matches in the beginning and in the end of the study period. Both groups performed ~ 1 weekly bout of ~ 6 sets in leg extensor exercises during the 10-week period, and maintained physical performance during the competitive season, with no group differences detected after the training period. Non-overlap of all pairs (NAP) analysis showed weak-to-moderate effects in external load match performance from before to after the study period, suggesting that players maintained or improved their performance. In conclusion, no group differences were observed, suggesting that both external load autoregulated and self-selected, low-volume in-season strength training maintained physical, and external load match performance in professional male football players. © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 19.
    Cappelen, Helena
    et al.
    Universiteit Leiden, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    The Effects of an Equine-Assisted Therapeutic Intervention on Well-Being in Persons Diagnosed with Schizophrenia. A Pilot Study2023In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 104-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of personal recovery among persons diagnosed with schizophrenia may be facilitated through innovative health promotion interventions targeting multidimensional aspects of subjective well-being. The current pilot study aims to test the use of self-rated questionnaires as a means of evaluation of the effects of an equine-assisted intervention for persons diagnosed with schizophrenia. Twenty adults diagnosed with schizophrenia were offered a 12-week EAT intervention performed six times once every 14 days by a licenced mental health nurse. Two validated self-rated questionnaires, HSCL-25 and SHIS were used as outcome measurements at baseline and at post-treatment, additionally the self-rated questionnaire PANAS was completed twice a week starting one week before the 12 week - EAT intervention. Only six of the twenty participants managed to complete the validated questionnaires. Despite the low response rate of approximately 30 %, a significant difference was found between pre and post scores for positive affect and well-being. Effect sizes, ranging from small to large for pre-to-post treatment scores indicated less depression and anxiety, more positive affect, less negative affect, and reinforced well-being. Results suggest that EAT interventions may have beneficial effects among persons diagnosed with schizophrenia and that a varied range of research methods is needed to create a solid evidence base for EAT interventions intended for the target group. © 2023 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  • 20.
    Chan, Derwin K. C.
    et al.
    University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong & Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hagger, Martin S.
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Inter-Item Distance Changes the Predictive Power of Motivation on Health Behavior?: A Randomised Controlled Trial2016In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 23, no Suppl. 1, p. S237-S237, article id O730Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Chan, Derwin K. C.
    et al.
    University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong & Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Yang, Sophie X.
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia & Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.
    Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Hagger, Martin S.
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Response-Order Effects in Survey Methods: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Study in the Context of Sport Injury Prevention2015In: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 666-673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consistency tendency is characterized by the propensity for participants responding to subsequent items in a survey consistent with their responses to previous items. This method effect might contaminate the results of sport psychology surveys using cross-sectional design. We present a randomized controlled crossover study examining the effect of consistency tendency on the motivational pathway (i.e., autonomy support → autonomous motivation → intention) of self-determination theory in the context of sport injury prevention. Athletes from Sweden (N = 341) responded to the survey printed in either low inter-item distance (IID; consistency tendency likely) or high IID (consistency tendency suppressed) on two separate occasions, with a one-week interim period. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups, and they received the survey of different IID at each occasion. Bayesian structural equation modeling showed that low IID condition had stronger parameter estimates than high IID condition, but the differences were not statistically significant. © 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.

  • 22.
    Chan, Derwin
    et al.
    Faculty of Education and Human Development, The Education University of Hong Kong, New Territories, Hong Kong, China; The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China & Faculty of Education and Human Development, The Education University of Hong Kong, New Territories, Hong Kong, China & The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China & Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Stenling, Andreas
    University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand & Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Yusainy, Cleoputri
    Department of Psychology, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia.
    Hikmiah, Ziadatul
    Department of Psychology, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Hagger, Martin
    University of California, Merced, CA, United States & Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Rhodes, Ryan
    Health and Physical Education, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada.
    Beauchamp, Mark
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Consistency tendency and the theory of planned behavior: a randomized controlled crossover trial in physical activity2020In: Psychology and Health, ISSN 0887-0446, E-ISSN 1476-8321, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 665-684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study examined the effects of consistency tendency on the predictive power of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in relation to physical activity behavior.

    Methods: In this randomized controlled cross-over trial, we recruited 770 undergraduate students from Indonesia who were randomly assigned into two groups. Participants completed physical activity versions of TPB measures at T1 (baseline) and T2 (post 1 week), and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire at T3 (post 1 month). At T1 and T2, the TPB questions were either presented in ensemble-order (i.e., consistency tendency supressed) or alternate-order (i.e., consistency tendency facilitated).

    Results: The parameter estimates of the model (CFI > .92, TLI > .90, SRMR < .08, RMSEA < .08) aligned with the tenets of TPB. As compared to ensemble-order, a TPB measured in alternate-order yielded stronger cross-sectional relationships, but this pattern did not appear in the prospective relationships in TPB (i.e., intention/perceived behavioral control and behavior).

    Conclusions: Consistency tendency inflated the factor correlations of cross-sectionally measured TPB variables, but the inflation was not observed in the prospective prediction of behavior. Health psychology questionnaires with items presented in ensemble order may represent a viable means of reducing the confounding effect of consistency tendency. © 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 23.
    Clement, Damien
    et al.
    West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, United Kingdom.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Investigating the influence of intra-individual changes in perceived stress symptoms on injury risk in soccer2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 1461-1466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that high levels of stress and stress responsivity can increase the risk of injuries. However, most of the research that has supported this notion has focused on between-person relationships, ignoring the relationships at the within-person level. As a result, the objective of this study was to investigate if within-person changes in perceived stress symptoms over a 1-month time period could predict injury rates during the subsequent 3 months. A prospective design with two measurement points (Time 1—at the beginning of the season and Time 2—1 month into the season) was utilized. A total of 121 competitive soccer players (85 males and 36 females; Mage = 18.39, SD = 3.08) from Sweden and the United States completed the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (KPDS) and a demographic sheet at Time 1. The KPDS was also completed at Time 2, and all acute injuries that occurred during the subsequent 3-month period were recorded. A Bayesian latent change scores model was used to determine whether within-person changes in stress symptoms could predict the risk of injury. Results revealed that there was a credible positive effect of changes in stress symptoms on injury rates, indicating that an increase in reported stress symptoms was related to an increased risk for injury. This finding highlights the importance of creating caring and supportive sporting environments and relationships and teaching stress management techniques, especially during the earlier portion of competitive seasons, to possibly reduce the occurrence of injuries. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  • 24.
    Clement, Damien
    et al.
    West Virginia University, Morgantown, United States.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Profiles of psychosocial factors: Can they be used to predict injury risk?2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 782-788Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The creation of risk profiles using the model of stress and athletic injury1 represents a proposed shift from the reductionism paradigm to the complex sport approach in an attempt to formulate prevention strategies to combat the increasing number of injuries being reported in sporting populations. As a result, the primary purpose of this study was to: a) identify different risk profiles based on psychosocial factors associated with the Williams and Andersen’s model of stress and athletic injury model; and b) examine potential differences in the frequency of injuries across these risk profiles. A prospective research design was utilized with a sample of 117 competitive soccer players (81 males and 36 females) from Sweden and the United States of America. Data was collected at two time points over the course of three months. At time 1 (beginning of the season) - a demographic information sheet, the Life Event Survey for Collegiate Athletes (LESCA), Sport Competitive Anxiety Test (SCAT), and Brief Cope were administered. At time two (T2), three months after the initial data collection, participants’ traumatic injuries were recorded. Latent profile analysis (LPA) showed that 3 profiles solution showed best fit to data. Players in profile 1 and 2 reported fewer injuries compared to players in profile 3. However, whereas individuals in profile 1 had a lower predictive risk of sustaining an injury when compared to those in profile 3, both profiles had similar anxiety levels and use of coping strategies with differing stress levels. These findings suggest that the interaction between different proposed risk factors might influence injury risk. © 2021 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • 25.
    Dunlop, Gordon
    et al.
    Arsenal Football Club, London, United Kingdom; Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Andersen, Thor Einar
    Norwegian School Of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Brown, Susan
    Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    O’Driscoll, Gary
    Manchester United Football Club, Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Lewin, Colin
    Lewin Sports Injury Clinic, London, United Kingdom.
    Dupont, Gregory
    Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Ardern, Clare L.
    University Of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Delecroix, Barthelemy
    Montreal Centre, Montreal, Canada.
    Podlog, Leslie
    Université De Montréal, Montreal, Canada; Chu Sainte-justine, Montreal, Canada.
    McCall, Alan
    Arsenal Football Club, London, United Kingdom; Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Examination of the validity of the Injury-Psychological Readiness to Return to Sport (I-PRRS) scale in male professional football players: A worldwide study of 29 professional teams2024In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceived confidence is an important dimension of an athlete’s psychological readiness to return-to-play. However, there is no established and validated tool to evaluate confidence in professional football. This study aimed to provide preliminary evaluation of the internal structure of the Injury-Psychological Readiness to Return-to-Sport scale (I-PRRS) in a cohort of injured male professional footballers. Over an 18-month period, 29 teams from 17 leagues participated. Players sustaining injuries eliciting (Formula presented.) 3 weeks’ time-loss were recruited. Cross culturally adapted to 4 further languages, the I-PRRS was administered on two occasions: 1) day before returning-to-training and 2) day before returning-to-match-play. In total, 113 injuries were recorded with 96 completed I-PRRS data sets collected. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the I-PRRS was a unidimensional scale, with all items measuring the same construct. The scale demonstrated good internal consistency (ω =.88). When examining longitudinal invariance of the I-PRRS across administration time-points, indices of model fit supported scalar invariance. There was preliminary evidence of good internal structure for the I-PRRS in professional male footballers. However, before further research involving the I-PRRS can be endorsed, efforts to confirm or refute empirical developments pertaining to psychological readiness are necessary. © 2024 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 26.
    Edvardsson, Arne
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Is a cognitive-behavioural biofeedback intervention useful to reduce injury risk in junior football players?2012In: Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (JSSM), ISSN 1303-2968, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 331-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Athletes participating in sport are exposed to a relatively high injury risk. Previous research has suggested that it could be possible to reduce sports injuries through psychological skills training. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which a cognitive behavioural biofeedback intervention could reduce the number of sports injuries in a sample of players in Swedish elite football high schools. Participants from four elite football high schools (16-19 years old) were divided into one experiment (n = 13) and one control group (n = 14). Participants were asked to complete three questionnaires to assess anxiety level (Sport Anxiety Scale), history of stressors (Life Event Scale for Collegiate Athletes) and coping skills (Athletic Coping Skills Inventory - 28) in a baseline measure. Mann-Whitney Utests showed no significant differences in pre-intervention scores based on the questionnaires. The experimental group participated in a nine-week intervention period consisting of seven sessions, including: somatic relaxation, thought stopping, emotions/problem focused coping, goal setting, biofeedback training as well as keeping a critical incident diary. A Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant difference between the control and experimental group U (n1 = 13, n2 = 14) = 51.00, p = 0.054. However, considering the small sample, the statistical power (0.05 for present study), to detect effects was low. The results of the study are discussed from a psychological perspective and proposals for future research are given. © Journal of Sports Science and Medicine.

  • 27.
    Ekelund, Rebecka
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. University Of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Interventions for improving mental health in athletes: a scoping review2023In: International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1750-984X, E-ISSN 1750-9858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this scoping review were to map the current literature on interventions for improving mental health in athletes, identify knowledge gaps, and generate future research questions. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guided this review. A systematic literature search was conducted in SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS and 44 intervention studies met the inclusion criteria. Results showed that 22 studies (50%) implemented cognitive behavioural principles, and the majority of these studies were influenced by various mindfulness programmes. Most studies (93%) included healthy athlete samples, and athletes aged 15–19 were the most examined age group (43%). Only three studies used clinical criteria in their sampling of participants and mediators were examined in two studies. The scarcity of studies examining mediators and subclinical or clinical samples revealed critical knowledge gaps in the literature. Furthermore, the critical appraisal showed that regardless of study design, most studies demonstrated low internal validity. We propose the use of high-quality single-case studies with athletes who experience subclinical or clinical mental health issues, and further investigation of mechanisms of change linking intervention components to outcomes of interest. © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 28.
    Ekengren, Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Schinke, Robert
    School of Human Kinetics, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada.
    Career Assistance to a Team in Crisis-Transition: An Intervention Case Study in Swedish Elite Handball2021In: Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 2470-4849, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 10-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we share how a career assistance program (CAP) was developed, implemented, and evaluated with a Swedish elite handball team. Within this case study the initial version of the CAP’s content was created based on the career-long psychological support services in Swedish handball framework and the first author’s applied experiences. During implementation the head coach terminated unexpectedly and the team appeared in a crisis. This transitional situation led to modification of the CAP to help the players cope with changes. Eighteen players took part in eight workshops dealing with various aspects of their sport and non-sport life (e.g., performance, training, lifestyle, recovery, future planning) with crisis-related issues (e.g., coping with uncertainty) incorporated. Mixed-methods evaluation revealed the players’ perceived increase in personal resources (awareness, skills) and decrease in stress and fatigue. Reflections on working in applied sport psychology from a holistic perspective in a dynamic real-life setting are provided.

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  • 29.
    Elholm Madsen, Esben
    et al.
    Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; University College Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.
    Krustrup, Peter
    University College Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Danish Institute for Advanced Study (DIAS), University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Hvid Larsen, Carsten
    Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.
    Wikman, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Lautenbach, Franziska
    Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany; Humboldt-Universität Zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Resilience as a protective factor for well-being and emotional stability in elite-level football players during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic2021In: Science and medicine in football, ISSN 2473-3938, E-ISSN 2473-4446, Vol. 5, no sup1, p. 62-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Denmark, the first COVID-19 pandemic lockdown resulted in a compact season finisher for elite footballers, potentially impacting their mental health.Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the protective role of resilience and the impeding role of trait anxiety on elite footballers’ level and variability of well-being and emotional stability. Material and Methods: One hundred and twenty-five male elite-level players (Mage = 25.04 ± 4.82) completed baseline measures on trait anxiety and resilience. Additionally, well-being and positive and negative affect were assessed before games (n = 24) over 62 days. Separate two-level regression analysis using Bayesian statistics was conducted to test potential relationships. Results: Results show a credible positive relationship between the average level of well-being and within-person variability over time as well as the average level in positive affect. This indicates that resilience might be a protector for mental health. In addition, higher levels of trait anxiety (i.e., subscale concentration disruption) were associated with higher levels of negative affect and higher variability over time. This indicates that trait anxiety might facilitate negative affect. No other credible relationships were found. Conclusion: High resilience and low trait anxiety are identified as relevant factors for mental health within elite footballers during COVID-19. Implications for practice are discussed. © 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 30.
    Erdvik, Irina Burchard
    et al.
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Hamar, Norway & Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Haugen, Tommy
    University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Säfvenbom, Reidar
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    The Temporal Relations of Adolescents’ Basic Need Satisfaction in Physical Education and Global Self-Worth2020In: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 480-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the temporal relations of adolescents’ basic need satisfaction in physical education (PE) and global self-worth in a sample of 3,398 lower and upper secondary school students (49% boys, 51% girls, average age T1 = 15.00, SD = 1.79). Four models and competing hypotheses were tested, and the model with bidirectional paths specified showed the best fit to the data. The bidirectional effect estimates suggest not only that basic need satisfaction in PE predicts global self-worth development but also that adolescents’ perceptions of global self-worth predict the degree to which they experience basic need satisfaction in PE. Findings could suggest that students with low global self-worth are less sensitive to basic need support in PE. These students may need personally tailored need-supportive initiatives in order to develop basic need satisfaction in PE and, thus, global self-worth through PE. © 2020 Human Kinetics, Inc.

  • 31.
    Fahrenholtz, Ida L.
    et al.
    University Of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Melin, Anna K.
    Linnaeus University, Vaxjo, Sweden.
    Garthe, Ina
    The Norwegian Olympic And Paralympic Committee And Confederation Of Sport, Oslo, Norway.
    Hollekim-Strand, Siri Marte
    Norwegian University Of Science And Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. University Of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Koehler, Karsten
    Department Of Sport And Health Sciences, Munich, Germany.
    Logue, Danielle
    Sport Ireland Institute, Dublin, Ireland.
    Lundström, Petra
    Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Madigan, Sharon
    Sport Ireland Institute, Dublin, Ireland.
    Wasserfurth, Paulina
    Department Of Sport And Health Sciences, Munich, Germany.
    Torstveit, Monica K.
    University Of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Effects of a 16-Week Digital Intervention on Sports Nutrition Knowledge and Behavior in Female Endurance Athletes with Risk of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (REDs)2023In: Nutrients, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 1-15, article id 1296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Female endurance athletes are considered a high-risk group for developing Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (REDs). Due to the lack of educational and behavioral intervention studies, targeting and evaluating the effects of the practical daily management of REDs, we developed the Food and nUtrition for Endurance athletes—a Learning (FUEL) program, consisting of 16 weekly online lectures and individual athlete-centered nutrition counseling every other week. We recruited female endurance athletes from Norway (n = 60), Sweden (n = 84), Ireland (n = 17), and Germany (n = 47). Fifty athletes with symptoms of REDs and with low risk of eating disorders, with no use of hormonal contraceptives and no chronic diseases, were allocated to either the FUEL intervention (n = 32) (FUEL) or a 16-week control period (n = 18) (CON). All but one completed FUEL, while 15 completed CON. We found strong evidence for improvements in sports nutrition knowledge, assessed via interviews, and moderate to strong evidence in the ratings concerning self-perceived sports nutrition knowledge in FUEL versus CON. Analyses of the seven-day prospective weighed food record and questions related to sports nutrition habits, suggested weak evidence for improvements in FUEL versus CON. The FUEL intervention improved sports nutrition knowledge and suggested weak evidence for improved sports nutrition behavior in female endurance athletes with symptoms of REDs. © 2023 by the authors.

  • 32.
    Fallby, Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Hagen, Kjetil
    Lilja, Henric
    Parental support as a predictors to success in adolescent male football2011In: Proceedings of the 13th European Congress of Sport Psychology, Madeira, Portugal. FEPSAC on-line publication, 2011, p. 308-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine if parental support could predict elite academy participation in an adolescent football population. The participants were 767 adolescent male football players, where 443 represented an academy team and 324 represented lower ranked teams, in age between 11 and 18. The participants were classified into three groups; a) children (11-12 years), b) youth (13-15 years) and c) junior (16-18 years). The questionnaire used was the Swedish health survey developed by the Swedish Health Institute with a number of football specific items added. Parental support was measured with six items that all measured emotional support (for example if the player experience that his parents understand, listen to, and treat him fair).One way ANOVA showed that academy players reported significant higher level of parental support then the non–academy players in children (F(1, 196)= 7,071, p = 0,008) and junior ages (F(1,194) = 10,830, p = 0,001). A logistic regression showed that parental support predicted approximately 68% of the players belonging accurate both in the children- (68,2%) and junior (67,9%) sample.The result supports previous findings showing that adaptive coping resources, such as social support seeking, could predict athletic success (Yperen, 2009). One recommendation for football clubs with youth academies is to involve parents in the social support network in order to give the players more adaptive coping resources. Further, educating parents about demands and career transitions that the players are exposed to in an elite academy could be beneficial in a developmental perspective.

  • 33.
    Fallby, Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity. Swedish Football Association, Solna, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Lilja, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Hagen, Kjetil
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Psychosocial predictors of well-being among junior players in Swedish football academies2012In: Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Science and Soccer, 2012, p. 142-142Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Franck, Alina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Swedish athletes' adjustment patterns in the junior-to-senior transition2018In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251X, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 398-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The specific objectives of this study were: (a) to identify adjustment patterns in the JST based on athletes’ dynamics of adjustment during a two-and-a–half-year period, and (b) to describe the athletes’ demographic, personal and transitional characteristics at the beginning of the JST that were related to the different adjustment patterns. This quantitative longitudinal study consisted of five measurements conducted approximately every six months over a two-and-a-half-year period. One instrument was used to measure the transition variables and three instruments to measure personal characteristics. In the first measurement, 101 club-based Swedish athletes with the mean age of 16.51 (SD = 1.32) took part. The latent profile analysis (LPA) on athletes’ perceived degree of adjustment provided three profiles with different patterns in the JST. Profile 1 had a progressive adjustment pattern, whereas the second profile had a regressive adjustment pattern, and the third profile had a sustainable adjustment pattern. The descriptive statistics and Cohen’s d indicated that there were differences (with variation in magnitude) between the three profiles at the first measurement in terms of how athletes perceived different transitional characteristics. Keeping a primary focus on sport (but also having attention to other spheres of life), high athletic identity and motivation to reach senior level were characteristics relevant for both progressive and sustainable adjustment patterns. © 2016 International Society of Sport Psychology

  • 35.
    Fridell, Mats
    et al.
    Dept. of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Billsten, Johan
    Dept. of Psychology, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Robert
    Dept. of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Implementing guidelines for interventions in Swedish substance abuse treatment: A national evaluation of outcomes from 2010 to 20142020In: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, ISSN 0740-5472, E-ISSN 1873-6483, Vol. 119, article id 108123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2009, the Swedish government launched a nationwide dissemination and implementation project regarding substance abuse treatment, Knowledge to Practice (KTP), which was commissioned by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare (SoS). Aim: The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a national project to disseminate and implement evidence-based assessment instruments and treatment methods, and to promote cross-sectional collaboration in substance abuse treatment. Design and recruitment: This study was a naturalistic prospective follow-up study of a sample of 3063 participants in 203 municipalities via five consecutive online surveys. Of the 21 Swedish regions, we included 20. All participants, representing 79.5% of the population, were employed in substance abuse treatment/care within social work and psychiatry. We used individual background variables and factors in the organizational readiness for change (ORC) questionnaire for prediction. Methods: We calculated descriptive statistics using SPSS 24.0. We applied latent profile analysis (LPA) to identify respondents with distinct growth profiles across five assessment points. Next, we calculated multilevel growth curve analyses using full information maximum likelihood analysis (FIML) in Mplus 8.3. In the analyses, we nested “within-person change” (level 1) in “between-persons analysis” (level 2). We, in turn, nested these inmunicipalities/regions (level 3). We included both respondents and organizational predictors in levels 2 and 3. We tested four statistical models in the multilevel analyses to predict the outcome. Results: The annual response rate was 59% on average across the five years. Respondents were a homogenous group with regard to education and years of employment, and two thirds were women. We identified four different trajectories nationwide, which showed different growth profiles for the use of methods and assessment instruments. Our results showed a larger between-region variation than within-region variation in outcome indicators. Some regions were more successful than others over the five years. At the respondent level, the years of employment in treatment work was associated with increased use of assessment instruments, while the ORC factor, institutional resources, predicted decreased use of assessment instruments. Specialist competence and the ORC factors staff attributes (job satisfaction, efficacy, and influence) and institutional resources predicted increased use of psychosocial treatment methods. The ORC factor organizational climate was positively associated with increased cross-sectional collaboration activities. © 2020

  • 36.
    Gledhill, Adam
    et al.
    Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Believe in your ability to create change: Psychosocial factors influencing sports injury rehabilitation adherence2021In: The Psychology of Sports Injury: From Risk to Retirement / [ed] Adam Gledhill; Dale Forsdyke, London: Routledge, 2021, p. 93-106Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Gledhill, Adam
    et al.
    Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Reducing sports injury risk: making a case for psychological intervention2020In: The Sport and Exercise Scientist, ISSN 1754-3444, no 65, p. 26-27Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Gledhill, Adam
    et al.
    Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, United Kingdom; British Association of Sport and Exercise, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hill, Denise
    Swansea University, Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom.
    Davidson, Claire Louise
    English Football Association, London, United Kingdom.
    The BASES expert statement on psychological considerations for injury risk reduction in competitive sport2021In: The Sport and Exercise Scientist, ISSN 1754-3444, no 69, p. 8-9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Gredin, Viktor
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Back, Jenny
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Solstad, Bård
    University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Exploring psychosocial risk factors for dropout in adolescent female soccer2022In: Science and medicine in football, ISSN 2473-3938, E-ISSN 2473-4446, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 668-674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: We examined the manner in which age, participation in other sports, socioeconomic status, perceived sport competence, achievement goal orientations, and perceived motivational climate may interact to predict the risk of dropout among adolescent female soccer players.

    Methods: Self-reported data from 519 female soccer players between 10 and 19 years of age (M = 13.41, SD = 1.77) were analysed using a person-centred approach to uncover the interactions among risk factors and their relative predictability of dropout.

    Results: Perceived motivational climate was identified as the main predictor, where relatively lower levels of mastery climate were associated with a higher dropout tendency (absolute risk reduction [ARR] = 12.2% ±6.1% [95% CL]). If combined with relatively lower levels of mastery climate, then relatively lower levels of perceived sport competence were related to higher dropout risks (ARR = 16.5% ±9.5%), whereas, in combination with relatively higher levels of mastery climate, then relatively lower levels of ego-orientated achievement goals were associated with higher dropout rates (ARR = 10.8% ±12.6%).

    Conclusions: Our findings afford novel insights into the interactions between, and the relative importance of, various risk factors for dropout in adolescent female soccer. This knowledge may be useful for soccer associations, clubs, and coaches when developing guidelines and strategies that aim to foster young females' sustained participation in organised soccer. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 40.
    Gredin, Viktor
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Okholm Kryger, Katrine
    St Mary's University, Twickenham, United Kingdom; Fifa Medical Centre Of Excellence, Zurich, Switzerland.
    McCall, Alan
    Fifa Medical Centre Of Excellence, Zurich, Switzerland; Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Solstad, Bård E.
    University Of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Torstveit, Monica K.
    University Of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Massey, Andrew
    Fifa Medical Centre Of Excellence, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. University Of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Psychology research in women’s soccer: a scoping review2023In: Science and medicine in football, ISSN 2473-3938, E-ISSN 2473-4446Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research suggests that psychological factors play an important role in trying to explain and predict the participation, performance, and health of player and practitioners in soccer. However, most previous works have focused on specific research questions and included samples from male populations. As part of a larger Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) project aiming to steer women’s soccer research, our purpose with this scoping review was to give an overview of the current state of psychology-related research within women’s soccer. We searched five electronic databases up to April 2023, from which 280 original peer-reviewed articles met the inclusion criteria. Included records were inductively coded into 75 specific research topics and nine broader research categories. Population characteristics within each topic and category, and overall publication trends, were identified. The results revealed a growth in research attention, with notable increases in publication rates around the international competitions years, over the last two decades. While a notable number of abstracts did not report sufficient details about population age and/or playing levels, senior elite players were identified as the most common population studied. Most studies examined several topics from different research categories, with research focusing on emotions, moods and/or environmental factors, and the specific the topics of anxiety, stress, and coach behavior, receiving most research attention. Our study provides an informative mapping of all psychology-related research activity within women’s soccer, which will enhance researchers’ understanding of the current quantity of literature within this complex, heterogeneous, and growing area of research. © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 41.
    H. Fosstveit, Sindre
    et al.
    University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Lohne-Seiler, Hilde
    University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Feron, Jack
    University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    Lucas, Samuel J. E.
    University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Berntsen, Sveinung
    University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    The intensity paradox: A systematic review and meta-analysis of its impact on the cardiorespiratory fitness of older adults2024In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 34, no 2, article id e14573Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare the effect of moderate- versus high-intensity aerobic exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in older adults, taking into account the volume of exercise completed. Methods: The databases MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), and CENTRAL (Cochrane Library) were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Two reviewers extracted data and assessed bias. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software calculated overall effect size, intensity differences, and performed meta-regression analyses using pre-to-post intervention or change scores of peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2peak). The review included 23 RCTs with 1332 older adults (intervention group: n = 932; control group: n = 400), divided into moderate-intensity (435 older adults) and high-intensity (476 older adults) groups. Results: Meta-regression analysis showed a moderate, but not significant, relationship between exercise intensity and improvements in V̇O2peak after accounting for the completed exercise volume (β = 0.31, 95% CI = [−0.04; 0.67]). Additionally, studies comparing moderate- versus high-intensity revealed a small, but not significant, effect in favor of high-intensity (Hedges' g = 0.20, 95% CI = [−0.02; 0.41]). Finally, no significant differences in V̇O2peak improvements were found across exercise groups employing various methods, modalities, and intensity monitoring strategies. Conclusion: Findings challenge the notion that high-intensity exercise is inherently superior and indicate that regular aerobic exercise, irrespective of the specific approach and intensity, provides the primary benefits to CRF in older adults. Future RCTs should prioritize valid and reliable methodologies for monitoring and reporting exercise volume and adherence among older adults. © 2024 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • 42.
    Halvari, Anne E. M.
    et al.
    Department of Dental Hygiene Science, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Department of Health, Social and Welfare Studies, University of South‐Eastern Norway, Bakkenteigen, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Halvari, Hallgeir
    Department of Business, Marketing and Law, University of South‐Eastern Norway, Hønefoss, Norway.
    Dahl, Kari E.
    Department of Public Health – and Sport Science Inland Norway, University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway.
    Olafsen, Anja H.
    Department of Business, Marketing and Law, University of South‐Eastern Norway, Hønefoss, Norway.
    Solstad, Bård Erlend
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Deci, Edward L.
    Department of Business, Marketing and Law, University of South‐Eastern Norway, Hønefoss, Norway; Departments of Medicine and of Clinical and Social Psychology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA.
    Williams, Geoffrey
    Department of Business, Marketing and Law, University of South‐Eastern Norway, Hønefoss, Norway; Department of Clinical and Social Sciences in Psychology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA.
    Dental hygienists’ biopsychosocial beliefs and giving autonomy support in treatment of patients: A self‐determination theory perspective2022In: International Journal of Dental Hygiene, ISSN 1601-5029, E-ISSN 1601-5037, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 193-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Self-determination theory posits that managers’ autonomy-supportive behaviour and employees’ autonomy causality orientation are motivation constructs to explain internalization of values, functioning and wellness at work. Hypothesis 1 tested whether profiles comprising perceived dental clinic managers’ autonomy-supportive, as opposed to their controlling interpersonal style, and dental hygienists’ autonomy, as opposed to their control and impersonal, causality orientations at baseline, would be positively related to dental hygienists’ biopsychosocial (BPS) beliefs and giving autonomy support in treatment of patients after 18 months. Hypothesis 2 tested whether dental hygienists’ BPS beliefs in treatment of patients will be positively associated with their autonomy-supportive behaviour given to patients after 18 months.

    Material and methods: A prospective cohort design with 299 (Mage = 42.71; SDage = 12.62) dental hygienists completed an online survey at baseline and after 18 months.

    Results: Latent profile and correlational analyses supported the hypotheses. Effect sizes were moderate to large.

    Conclusions: Both perceived managerial styles and dental hygienists’ causality orientations are important for dental hygienists’ BPS beliefs and autonomy-supportive behaviours when working with dental patients.

  • 43.
    Halvari, Anne E.M.
    et al.
    Universitetet i Oslo, Oslo, Norway; University of South-Eastern Norway, Kongsberg, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Halvari, Hallgeir
    University of South-Eastern Norway, Kongsberg, Norway.
    Olafsen, Anja H.
    University of South-Eastern Norway, Kongsberg, Norway.
    Solstad, Bård
    University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Niemiec, Christopher P.
    University of Rochester, Rochester, United States.
    Deci, Edward L.
    University of South-Eastern Norway, Kongsberg, Norway; University of Rochester, Rochester, United States.
    Williams, Geoffrey
    University of South-Eastern Norway, Kongsberg, Norway; University of Rochester, Rochester, United States.
    A prospective study of knowledge sharing at work based on self-determination theory2021In: Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, E-ISSN 2002-2867, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge sharing involves the provision or receipt of information, know-how, best practices, lessons learned, and/or feedback about a task, product, and/or procedure in order to develop new skills and competencies at work which can improve individual, group, and/or organizational performances. Based on self-determination theory, the study partners hypothesized that people with more self-determined latent profiles will report more knowledge sharing at work over 18 months than people with less self-determined latent profiles. Participants were 299 dental hygienists who completed a national online survey at baseline and at 18 months. Results of a Latent Profile Analysis revealed that dental hygienists with the most self-determined profile (Profile 2) reported a higher level of knowledge sharing at work at 18 months than dental hygienists in: Profile 1, "the controlled profile, " characterized by perceptions of managerial control and relatively high levels of the control orientation - moderate effect size; Profile 3, "the helpless profile, " characterized by the impersonal orientation and an absence of the autonomy orientation - large effect size; and Profile 4, "the mixed profile, " characterized by both the highest levels of fear of failure and control orientation but also by high levels of autonomy orientation and perceived managerial autonomy support - moderate effect size. Applied implications, particularly around ways to maximize managerial autonomy support and minimize managerial control to promote well-being and performance and reduce ill-being and non-effective functioning, are discussed. © 2021 By Author(s).

  • 44.
    Haraldsen, Heidi
    et al.
    Department of Sport and Social Sciences, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway; Department of Sport and Social Sciences, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Solstad, Bård
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway; Norwegian Research Centre of Children and Youth Sports, Oslo, Norway.
    Abrahamsen, Frank
    Department of Sport and Social Sciences, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Halvari, Halgeir
    Department of Sport and Social Sciences, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway; Department of Business, Marketing and Law, University of South-Eastern Norway, Hønefoss, Norway.
    Composites of Perfectionism and Inauthenticity in Relation to Controlled Motivation, Performance Anxiety and Exhaustion among Elite Junior Performers2021In: European Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1746-1391, E-ISSN 1536-7290, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 428-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study identified profiles of perfectionism and inauthenticity at baseline and tested whether they differed in the maladaptive outcomes of controlled motivation, performance anxiety, and exhaustion after a nine-month period. We purposefully selected elite junior performers (NT1 = 219; NT2 = 156), 16–19 years of age, from Norwegian talent development schools in sports and performing arts. The participants completed questionnaires to report their perceptions of the study variables. The results of the latent profile analysis indicated a multidimensionality of perfectionism, thereby identifying four profiles. Although our identified profiles are in line with the 2 × 2 model of perfectionism; however, the results of the mean differences between the identified profiles did not align with the 2 × 2 model’s hypotheses. The elite junior performers who displayed non-perfectionism demonstrated to be the most adaptive profile. They reported the lowest level of inauthenticity and the maladaptive outcomes of controlled motivation, performance anxiety, and exhaustion. The mixed perfectionism profile, displaying high levels of perfectionistic concerns (PC) and perfectionistic strivings (PS), demonstrated to be the least adaptive profile. This profile reported higher levels of inauthenticity and was even more maladaptive than the PC dominated profile contrary to the proposed hypotheses. Findings showed that a heightened vulnerability of perfectionism seems evident in PC, independent of the reported PS levels. Because only one out of five elite junior performers were distributed in the non-perfectionism profile, the vulnerability of perfectionism might be an important risk factor to note in talent development settings. © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 45.
    Haraldsen, Heidi M.
    et al.
    Department of Coaching and Psychology, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway & Norwegian Research Centre of Children and Youth Sports, Oslo, Norway.
    Solstad, Bård Erlend
    Department of Coaching and Psychology, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway & Norwegian Research Centre of Children and Youth Sports, Oslo, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Halvari, Hallgeir
    Department of Coaching and Psychology, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway & Department of Business, Marketing and Law, University of South‐Eastern Norway, Hønefoss, Norway.
    Abrahamsen, Frank E.
    Department of Coaching and Psychology, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Change in basic need frustration in relation to perfectionism, anxiety and performance in elite junior performers2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 754-765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined whether there were different growth profiles in basic need frustration in elite junior performers over a nine‐month period. Subsequently, we examined whether the identified growth profiles differed in their levels of perfectionistic strivings and evaluative concerns measured at baseline and, additionally, whether they were associated with higher or lower levels of anxiety and perceived performance level in the end of the period. A sample of 259 (Mage = 17.31; SDage = 0.97) elite junior performers from sports and performing arts completed an online questionnaire to report their self‐ratings of the study variables. The analyses were conducted using growth mixture modeling in Mplus 8.0. Two main contrasting growth profiles were identified in each of the basic need frustration. Perfectionistic strivings were overall higher than evaluative concerns, but did not differ between the growth profiles. Conversely, evaluative concerns differed significantly between the identified growth profiles. Higher levels of evaluative concerns were associated with the most maladaptive growth profiles. Indeed, elite junior performers, who experienced moderate and increasing levels of competence and autonomy frustration, reported higher levels of anxiety and lower levels of perceived performance level than those who reported low and decreasing levels of competence and autonomy frustration. Based on these findings, evaluative concerns and basic need frustration appear to play key roles in the development of maladaptive motivational processes over time. © 2019 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  • 46.
    Hertting, Krister
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    “Someday it will be better again”: upper-secondary student athletes’ experiences of schoolwork and sport 7 and 14 months after the COVID-19 outbreak2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, educational systems were thoroughly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Upper-secondary students were faced with school closures and distance education. For student-athletes, the COVID-19 pandemic, besides academic stress, also contributed to sports-related stress. In this paper, we explore upper-secondary school student athletes’ experiences of schoolwork and sport during two phases of the pandemic. A qualitative research design was used, and 53 student-athletes participated in focus group interviews. Three themes appeared: Struggling to cope with the new life situation, Reevaluating and longing for social life, and Speeding up the transition to adulthood. The themes were elucidated from temporal perspectives. The students experienced challenges in handling school, sports, and social life, but they also experienced opportunities for personal development. Student-athletes are a common responsibility between schools and sports, and, based on the results, schools and sports in collaboration need to increase readiness for action when major societal challenges, such as pandemics, occur. © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

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  • 47.
    Hinic, Hansi
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Utvärdering av Idrottslyftet, en delrapport2010Report (Other academic)
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  • 48.
    Hjort-Telhede, Eva
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Arvidsson, Susann
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Karlsson, Staffan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Weighted Blankets’ Effect on the Health of Older People Living in Nursing Homes2022In: Geriatrics, E-ISSN 2308-3417, Vol. 7, no 4, article id 79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An increasingly aging population is a global phenomenon. While considered a positive step forward, vulnerability to age-related health problems increases along with the ageing population. The aim of the study was to investigate weighted blankets’ effect on health regarding quality of life (QoL), sleep, nutrition, cognition, activities of daily living ADL and medication in older people living in nursing homes. Methods: In total, 110 older people were involved in an intervention with weighted blankets, and 68 older people completed the intervention. Measures before and after were performed regarding quality of life; QoL-AD, EQ-VAS, sleep; MISS, nutrition; MNA, cognition; S -MMSE (ADL) and medication. Comparative statistical analyses were applied. Results: After intervention with weighted blankets, health in general, such as QoL, improved. Sleep also improved significantly, especially with respect to waking up during the night. Nutrition was enhanced, health as a cognitive ability improved, and medication in the psychoanaleptic group decreased. The effect size varied between small and large. Conclusions: A weighted blanket seems to be an effective and safe intervention for older people in nursing homes, as several improvements were made regarding the health of older people. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 49.
    Hofseth, Erik
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences (NIH), Oslo, Norway.
    Toering, Tynke
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences (NIH), Oslo, Norway.
    Jordet, Geir
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences (NIH), Oslo, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Self-evaluation of skills and performance level in youth elite soccer: Are positive self-evaluations always positive?2017In: Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, ISSN 2157-3905, E-ISSN 2157-3913, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 370-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compared youth elite soccer players’ and their coaches’ evaluations of players’ skill level, and examined how this comparison was related to players' future performance level concerning national team experience. Based on the notions of the self-serving bias, it was predicted that players who overestimated their skill level relative to their coaches’ judgment, would be characterized by a high performance level in the past and a relative low future performance level; due to relatively high levels of performance anxiety and a frequent use of self-protection strategies. Results showed that the players (N= 267, Mage = 17.6, SD = 1.1), in reference to their coach, tended to overestimate their skills. This tendency was negatively related to players’ future performance level. Specifically, when controlling for age, past performance level and current performance level, a multinomial regression analysis (X² 18, N = 238) = 76.95, p ˂ .01) revealed that the players who overestimated their skills to the largest extent (compared to players that underestimated their skills), were less likely to produce a high performance level in the future (OR = .71, 95% CI = .54 - 18 .94). It seems that unrealistically positive self-evaluations can have negative effects in terms of performance development, but not through the mechanism of the self-serving bias, as measured in the current study. Nevertheless, it may be important for players to have a realistic view on their skill-level in order to progress and reach their potential. (PsycINFO Database Record © 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  • 50.
    Ingrell, Joakim
    et al.
    Department of Sport Sciences, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Achivement goals in youth sport and the influence of coach, peers and parents: A longitudinal study2020In: Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, ISSN 1988-5202, E-ISSN 1988-5202, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 570-590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine achievement goals in youth sport. The second purpose was to examine the within-person effects of perceived motivational climates by coaches, peers, and parents on achievement goal orientation. Participants were 78 young student-athletes, representing a variety of sports. The student-athletes completed a multi-section questionnaire, six times over a three-year period, assessing the study variables. Multilevel modelling analysis revealed that both task orientation and ego orientation decreased for this age group over the three-year period. Furthermore, perceived task-involving peer climate was significantly and positively related to task orientation, and perceived ego-involving coach climate was significantly and positively related to ego orientation. The results from this study provides insights regarding developmental changes in achievement goals and the importance of certain social agents in that specific developmental stage.

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