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  • 1.
    Deraz, Hossam
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Assessments of Advertisements on Social Networking Sites2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Advertisements (ads) in social networking sites (SNSAs) have been considered by many researchers as a crucial area of research. However, the scope of the existing studies on consumers’ assessments of SNSAs has been very limited. Most of the existing studies on assessing SNSAs have focused on Ducoffe’s (1996) model with its three variables, and they have ignored other related variables like the credibility value and interactivity value of the advertisement, which are more logically related to SNSAs than the traditional ads. Moreover, most of these studies have been skewed towards younger users and have ignored the social networking site (SNS) users from other age categories. Finally, previous studies about the assessment of SNSAs have depended on data collected from users of popular SNSs and ignored active users from the brand communities (fans of brands on SNSs). In this thesis, the present author has emphasized these three points as the major gaps in the literature about assessing SNSAs. Moreover, to deepen our understanding of how SNS users assess SNSAs this study presents the research findings of three published papers with three different purposes and with different levels of analysis.

    The first article aimed to extend Ducoffe’s (1996) model – which was used in the previous literature in assessing SNSAs – by considering the ads’ credibility and interactivity values in addition to Ducoffe’s (1996) three variables of information value, entertainment value, and irritation value. A multiple regression analysis was used to test the modified model, and based on the regression analysis of testing the five predictors, the model without the irritation value had the best coefficient of determination (R2). Moreover, coefficient analysis to test the given hypothesis and to determine the coefficients of the predictors was used. According to this survey study, the four primary variables that predicted the consumers’ assessment of the SNSAs were the information value, entertainment value, credibility value, and interactivity value. As perceived by the SNS users, the interactivity value was the strongest among the four predictors.

    Based on the unexpected result ofthe irritation value of the first paper, the second paper focused on testing the extended model of the assessments of SNSAs as perceived by a different research population, in this case, brand communities’ consumers (BCCs). Based on the regression analysis of testing the five predictors, the model with the five predictors had the best coefficient of determination (R2). The coefficient analysis was used to test the given hypothesis, to determine the coefficients of the five predictors, and to form a construct equation for assessing the SNSAs. Based on this survey study, the four variables with significant positive effects on the consumers’ assessment of SNSAs were informativeness, entertainment value, credibility value, and interactivity value, while the fifth dimension (irritation value) had a significant negative coefficient on the consumers’ assessment of SNSAs. Moreover, that study provided a deeper understanding of how the BCCs assess SNSAs, and it contributed to identifying the main characteristics ofthe BCCs on an SNS.

    The third paper focused on exploring the effect of national culture on the consumers’ assessment of SNSAs. The cultural features of the respondents in that study gave additional evidence about how a nation’s cultural characteristics can influence the consumers’ assessment of SNSAs. This study helped to identify how SNS users from Egypt, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom assess SNSAs. In this study, one-way analysis of variance with post hoc tests was used to compare the assessments of the three nations. Based on the empirical findings of this survey study, the three groups had significant difference F-ratios for their perception of four of the five variables for assessing SNSAs. Their perceptions of the entertainment value did not significantly differ between the three groups while the interactivity value had the strongest F-ratio.

    The overall purpose of this study was to deepen our understanding of how SNS users are assessing SNSAs in different settings by considering SNS users, BCCs, and others from various nations. All of the studies presented here have focused on variables for assessing the ads that have been used by other researchers in different research contexts.

  • 2.
    Deraz, Hossam
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Consumers’ responses to ads on Social Networking sites: A Systematic Literature Review (SLR)In: International Journal of Electronic Marketing and Retailing, ISSN 1741-1025, E-ISSN 1741-1033Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Deraz, Hossam
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Consumers’ Responses to Ads on Social Networking Sites: A Systematic Literature Review (SLR)2019In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference e-Society 2019: Utrecht, The Netherlands 11 - 13 April, 2019 / [ed] Piet Kommers, Pascal Ravesteijn, Guido Ongena & Pedro Isaías, Utrecht: IADIS Press, 2019, p. 61-72Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A consequence of the growing number of the studies concerning ads on social networking sites, and the failure to provide an in-depth analysis of that stream of research is the need to adopt systematic approaches to assess and aggregate research outcomes. This article presents an up-to-date review of peer-reviewed relevant articles to consumers’ responses to advertisements on SNSs. It helps to identify 100 relevant studies published in the period 2009–2017 from different management and social science fields; including marketing, advertising, communication, social science, and relationship management. It reflects six predominate research trends; 1) Antecedents of acceptance or avoidance of ads 2) Consumers’ perception and assessment of ads’ value 3) consumers’ attitude towards ads 4) Consumers’ purchase intention  5) Consumers’ referral mechanism, and 6) Benefits gained. Also, the topics researched and major results, year of publication, journal, theoretical framework, research method, sampling, and means of analysis were examined for each article. It helps to provide an objective summary of research evidence on the antecedents of consumers’ responses to ads on social networking sites. It concludes by offering an agenda for future studies.

  • 4.
    Deraz, Hossam
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Factors Contributing to Consumers’ Assessment of Advertisement Value on Social networking sites: A Cross-Cultural Focus Group Study2019In: International Review of Management and Marketing, ISSN 2146-4405, E-ISSN 2146-4405, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 13-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The way online consumers assess the value of advertisements on social networking sites (SNSs) is important to know, because it has been shown that value of these advertisements can influence consumers’ behavior toward advertised products and brands. In that regard, this study aimed to provide insights into how online consumers think about and assess the value of advertisements on SNSs by using a focus group method. Two focus groups were conducted with two groups from the different cultural background (Indian and Swedish). By using Krueger and Casey’s (2000) five weighting factors, the participants revealed different weights for the tested factors. The Indian participants were more information-oriented, and the presented factors seemed applicable to them. In comparison, the Swedish participants were more focused on credibility, and factors like interactivity seemed not applicable to them. This is the first study that empirically examines online consumers’ assessment of advertisement value on SNSs by using a focus group approach. It helps to gain a deeper insight into that research phenomenon. In the future, researchers need to carry sequential exploratory studies to confirm the effects of social influence and pre-purchase search motivation.

  • 5.
    Deraz, Hossam
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Social Networking Sites – Consumers’ assessment of the value of advertisements (Extended Model)2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In light of the identified shortcomings in the earlier studies of consumers’ assessment of advertisement value on social networking sites, and the relative importance of explaining advertisement value, the overall purpose of this dissertation is to develop and empirically test a conceptual framework that can advance knowledge and increase our understanding of how online consumers assess the value of advertisements on social networking sites. In reference to this purpose, this doctoral dissertation has sought to answer the following overarching research question: What are the relevant variables that predict online consumers’ assessment of advertisement value on social networking sites, and how do these variables affect their assessment?

    To achieve the purpose of this study and to answer its overarching research question, a mixed method approach was used, adapting both quantitative and qualitative methods. A sequential explanatory strategy using mixed methods was the primary approach used to explain and interpret the quantitative results, by collecting and analyzing follow-up qualitative data. Consequently, this study started by doing a systematic literature review to identify the related factors, followed by a conceptual study to provide an extended conceptual framework that connected consumer beliefs to their sources of gratifications from using SNSs. That conceptual framework was partially examined in three survey papers to test the effects of its five belief factors (information value, entertainment value, irritation value, interactivity value, and credibility value) on assesments of advertisement value on SNSs. The three survey papers found that these five belief factors have significant effects on assessments of advertisement value on social networking sites. However, those effects varied according to consumers’ cultural backgrounds. The three survey papers were then followed by a qualitative focus group study to give a deeper explanation, and to discover the underlying reasons behind consumers’ assessment of advertisement value. That focus group study confirmed the role of culture in assessing the value of advertisements, and it gave deeper explanations behind the reasons for that variance in assessments of advertisement value within the context of social networking sites from one research population to another. In general, this study contributes to the understanding of consumers’ assessments of advertisements on social networking sites. It offers a new approach by connecting consumers’ gratifications from using social networking sites to their assessment of advertisement value. In turn, it helps to reflect a number of valuable insights that can be utilized by both researchers and marketers in order to understand how the addressed factors enhance consumers’ assessments by testing the contribution of credibility, interactivity value, social influence, pre-purchase search motivation, and cultural backgrounds, in addition to previously tested variables: information value, entertainment value, and irritation value.

  • 6.
    Deraz, Hossam
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Users’ Assessment of the Value of Advertisements on Social Networking Sites: A Conceptual Study2018In: International Review of Management and Marketing, ISSN 2146-4405, E-ISSN 2146-4405, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 32-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to propose a conceptual framework addressing factors that predict users’ assessment of the value of ads on social networking sites (SNSs). The basic unit of analysis is the SNSs’ user. The action scene is composed of a set of components that together shape the outcomes of the model to identify these factors. The suggested framework consists of five belief factors (information value, entertainment value, credibility value, irritation value, and interactivity value), one motive factor (individuals’ pre-purchase search motivation), in addition to two social factors (social influence, and national culture). The study aimed to characterize these key elements of the framework, their relationship, and interactions with the perceived value of advertisements. This paper intends to create a common understanding of the basic concepts and a shared conceptual model among scholars researching advertisements on online social networks.

  • 7.
    Deraz, Hossam
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Abraha, Desalegn
    School of Technology and Society at Skövde University, Skövde, Sweden.
    The Effect of Culture on the Consumers’ Assessment of Advertisements on Social Networking Sites: Cross-cultural analysis2015In: 2015 Fifth International Conference on Digital Information Processing and Communications (ICDIPC), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2015, p. 127-135Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do consumers of the same brand from different culture have the same perceptions while assessing the advertisements on Social Networking Sites’ (SNSAs)? To answer this question, the data for this study were collected from brand communities’ consumers (BCCs) on SNSs. 278 respondents from three different cultural backgrounds (Egyptians, Dutch and British) answered the questionnaires. Five main variables to collect the consumers’ assessment of SNSAs were tested (information value, entertainment value, credibility value, interactivity value, and irritation value). Based on the empirical findings, the three groups perceived five of the six variables with significant difference F ratios. Consequently, their perception of the entertainment value of SNSAs has no significant differences between the three groups. Based on the cross-cultural theory, the findings of this study have some agreements and some contradictions, especially the influences of power distance and uncertainly avoidance. Moreover, the researchers used the One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Post Hoc tests to compare between the assessments of the three groups. ©2015 IEEE

  • 8.
    Deraz, Hossam
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    The assessments of social networking advertisements; as perceived by brand communities consumers2015In: International Journal of Current Research, ISSN 0975-833X, E-ISSN 0975-833X, Vol. 7, no 8, p. 19787-19796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the extensive research in the context of brand communities on social networking sites (SNSs), the theoretical foundations underlying consumers’ assessment of advertisements on SNSs’ brand communities was not yet explored. The present study consequently aimed to explore how SNSs’ brand communities’ consumers assess social networks’ advertisements (SNAs). Regression analysis was used to identify the best fit model, and the most effective predictors on the assessment of SNAs. From the collected data, four dimensions had positive significant effects on the consumers’ assessment (informativeness, entertainment value, credibility value and interactivity value), while the fifth dimension (irritation value) had a significant negative effect. The results of this study had some contradictions with some results on previous studies, and confirmed other results. Moreover, the researchers used the descriptive analysis to gain deeper understanding of how the brand communities’ consumers (BCCs) on SNSs assess SNAs, and to identify the main characteristics of the BCCs on SNSs.

  • 9.
    Deraz, Hossam
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Gebrekidan, Desalegn Abraha
    Skövde University, Skövde, Sweden.
    Assessing the Value of Social Network Sites’ Advertisements2015In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on E-Technologies and Business on the Web, Paris, France 2015 / [ed] Jean-Marc Lehu, Paris: Society of Digital Information and Wireless Communications (SDIWC) , 2015, p. 89-101Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marketers use social network sites (SNSs) to merchandise their products and services more efficiently. However, the scope of the published studies about assessing social network sites advertisements’ value (SNSAV) is limited. The present study consequently aims to include credibility and interactivity in addition to informativeness and entertainment and irritation values as variables for the assessment of SNSAV, as perceived by SNS users.

    The data analysis supports the central concepts of this study that informativeness, credibility, interactivity and entertainment values are the main variables of assessing SNSAV, while irritation value has no significant effect on the assessment of SNSAV. Moreover, according to the beta coefficient, informativeness and entertainment values, in conjunction with credibility and interactivity values, have different effects on consumers’ assessment of SNSAV compared to the results of the previous studies.

    This study is successful in terms of introducing advertisements’ credibility and interactivity as crucial variables in the assessment of SNSAV. It is also successful with regard to offering a new construct model for assessing SNSAV based on four main dimensions: informativeness, entertainment and credibility and interactivity values. According to the data analysis, interactivity value has the highest significant effect with regard to the assessment of SNSAs.

  • 10.
    Deraz, Hossam
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Gebrekidan, Desalegn Abraha
    Skövde University, Skövde, Sweden.
    Factors Predicting Consumers’ Assessment of Advertisements on Social Networking Sites2015In: International Journal of Digital Information and Wireless Communications (IJDIWC), ISSN 2225-658X, E-ISSN 2225-658X, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 111-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marketers act on social networking sites (SNSs) in order to be more efficient in merchandising their products and/or services. Even so, the scope of the published studies regarding the assessment of advertisements on social networking sites (SNAs) is limited. Consequently, the present study aimed to consider credibility and interactivity, in addition to information, entertainment and irritation values, as main factors for consumers’ assessment of SNAs, as perceived by SNSs’ users.An analysis of empirical data helped to identify four main factors for assessing SNAs. These were: information value, entertainment value, credibility value and interactivity value. Irritation value was the only factor that had no significant effect on the assessment of SNAs. Furthermore, based on the beta coefficients, the information and entertainment values of SNAs, in conjunction with credibility and interactivity values, had different outcomes from previous studies. Consequently, the interactivity value was the strongest among the four predictors for assessing SNAs.

  • 11.
    Deraz, Hossam
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Iddris, Faisal
    Department of Management Studies, University of Education, Winneba, Kumasi, Ghana.
    Customers Satisfaction in Internet Banking: A Review (2008–2017)2019In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference e-Society 2019: Utrecht, The Netherlands 11 - 13 April, 2019 / [ed] Piet Kommers, Pascal Ravesteijn, Guido Ongena & Pedro Isaías, Utrecht: IADIS Press, 2019, p. 3-13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a systematic review of the literature of 44 research articles published customers’ satisfaction in Internet banking between (2008 and 2017). This review aims to address this gap in the literature by identifying the antecedents predicting customer satisfaction in Internet banking literature. Achieving our aims will bring together fragmented literature to serve as a foundation for research into customer satisfaction in Internet banking involving the use of Internet banking and other related digital platforms such as the mobile-banking. The results show that Asian countries recorded the highest number of publications. Also, we identified limited research from specific regions. For example, we could not identify any peer-reviewed articles from some of the European countries such as Sweden, The Netherlands, Germany, Belgium, Denmark, and Norway. Also, there are limited studies identified from the Middle East. And even countries that have  well-developed e-commerce systems from the Middle East and Africa such as Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, Lebanon, Israel, and South Africa have no published papers. Secondly, the study identified SERVEQUAL & e-SERVEQUAL as the main theoretical framework. Third, the result shows that the main predictors of satisfaction in Internet banking are service quality, information quality, and product quality. Finally, this study confirmed the mediating role of customer satisfaction on customer loyalty toward those banks offering the Internet banking service. A comprehensive list of references is presented, along with an agenda for future research to cover the identified gaps.

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