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  • 1.
    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin
    et al.
    Man-Technology-Environment Research Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Arwidsson, Zandra
    Man-Technology-Environment Research Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden & Sakab AB, Norrtorp, Kumla, Sweden.
    Camdzija, Aida
    Man-Technology-Environment Research Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Ragnar
    Solventic AB, Motala, Sweden.
    Ribé, Veronica
    School for Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Waara, Sylvia
    School for Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Allard, Bert
    Man-Technology-Environment Research Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    von Kronhelm, Thomas
    Sakab AB, Norrtorp, Kumla, Sweden.
    van Hees, Patrick A. W.
    Man-Technology-Environment Research Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden & Eurofins Environment Sweden AB, Lidköping, Sweden.
    Laboratory and pilot scale soil washing of PAH and arsenic from a wood preservation site: Changes in concentration and toxicity2009Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 172, nr 2-3, s. 1033-1040Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil washing of a soil with a mixture of both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and As was evaluated in laboratory and pilot scale, utilizing both single and mixtures of different additives. The highest level of decontamination was achieved with a combination of 0.213 M of the chelating agent MGDA and 3.2 × CMC* of a non-ionic, alkyl glucoside surfactant at pH 12 (Ca(OH)2). This combination managed to reach Swedish threshold values within 10 min of treatment when performed at elevated temperature (50 °C), with initial contaminant concentrations of As = 105 ± 4 mg/kg and US-EPA PAH16 = 46.0 ± 2.3 mg/kg. The main mechanisms behind the removal were the pH effect for As and a combination of SOM ionization as a result of high pH and micellar solubilization for PAHs. Implementation of the laboratory results utilizing a pilot scale equipment did not improve the performance, which may be due to the shorter contact time between the washing solution and the particles, or changes in physical characteristics of the leaching solution due to the elevated pressure utilized. The ecotoxicological evaluation, Microtox®, demonstrated that all soil washing treatments increased the toxicity of soil leachates, possibly due to increased availability of contaminants and toxicity of soil washing solutions to the test organism. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin
    et al.
    Man-Technology-Environment Research Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Arwidsson, Zandra
    Sakab AB, Norrtorp, Kumla, Sweden.
    Ribé, Veronica
    School for Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Waara, Sylvia
    School for Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    von Kronhelm, Thomas
    Sakab AB, Norrtorp, Kumla, Sweden.
    van Hees, Patrick A. W.
    Man-Technology-Environment Research Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden & Eurofins Environment Sweden AB, Lidköping, Sweden.
    Bioremediation of a Soil Industrially Contaminated by Wood Preservatives–Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Monitoring of Coupled Arsenic Translocation2011Inngår i: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 214, nr 1-4, s. 275-285Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two commercially available aerobic bioremediation methods (Daramend® and BioSan) were utilized to study the aerobic biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the effect of the simultaneously present arsenic. The soil was collected at an old wood preservation site, and the initial PAH16-concentration was 46 mg/kg, with mainly high molecular weight congeners. The As concentration was 105 mg/kg with low availability as assessed with sequential extraction. To enhance the availability of PAH, the effect of a nonionic surfactant was evaluated. Degradation of both low and high molecular weight PAH was observed; however, after 30 weeks, the degradation was generally low and no treatment was significantly better than the others. The treatments had, on the other hand, an effect on As remobilization, with increased As concentration in the available fraction after treatment. This may be due to both the microbial activity and the presence of anoxic microsites in the soil. The overall efficiency of the biological treatment was further evaluated using the standardized ecotoxicity test utilizing Vibrio fischeri (Microtox®). The toxicity test demonstrated that the bioremediation led to an increase in toxicity, especially in treatments receiving surfactant. The surfactant implied an increase in contaminant availability but also a decrease in surface tension, which might have contributed to the overall toxicity increase. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  • 3.
    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin
    et al.
    Man–Technology–Environment Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Waara, Sylvia
    School for Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Düker, Anders
    Man–Technology–Environment Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    von Kronhelm, Thomas
    SAKAB AB, Kumla, Sweden.
    van Hees, Patrick A. W.
    Man–Technology–Environment Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Anaerobic Bioremediation of a Soil With Mixed Contaminants: Explosives Degradation and Influence on Heavy Metal Distribution, Monitored as Changes in Concentration and Toxicity2009Inngår i: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 202, nr 1-4, s. 301-313Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two soils with explosives and metals were evaluated for the degradation efficiency of explosives by native microorganisms under anaerobic conditions. The commercially available method Daramend®, amended with zero-valent iron (ZVI), was compared with a horse-manure-amended compost and a treatment with ZVI alone. In a moderately contaminated soil, Daramend® and ZVI treatment gave significantly higher removal rates compared to compost and control treatments (Tukey’s test, P < 0.05). The largest overall decrease in ecotoxicity, measured with bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), was achieved with ZVI treatment. In a more contaminated soil, no degradation of contaminants and no decline in soil toxicity could be distinguished after the same time period. Problems with establishment of anaerobic conditions during parts of the remediation process and low microbial activity due to acute toxicity of contaminants are plausible explanations. Redistribution that could potentially lead to mobilization of the co-contaminant Pb was not observed in either of the soils during the biological treatments. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  • 4.
    Huerta Buitrago, Belinda
    et al.
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Ferrer Munoz, Patricia
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Ribé, Veronica
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Larsson, Maria
    Man-Technology-Environment Research Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Man-Technology-Environment Research Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Wojciechowska, Eva
    Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Gdańsk, Poland .
    Waara, Sylvia
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS). School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Hazard assessment of sediments from a wetland system for treatment of landfill leachate using bioassays2013Inngår i: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 97, s. 255-262Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Four bioassays were used in this study for the hazard assessment of sediments from sediment traps and several ponds in a treatment wetland for landfill leachate at Atleverket, Sweden. In the 6-day solid phase microbiotest with the sediment-dwelling crustacean Heterocypris incongruens both acute and chronic effects were observed with a gradual decrease and loss of toxicity with treatment in the wetland system. Some samples showed a low toxicity in porewater and only one sample was weakly toxic in the whole sediment test when assessed with Aliivibrio fischeri (Vibro fischeri). No genotoxicity was detected in the umu test. The toxicity response in the H4IIE- luc test evaluating the presence of dioxin-like compounds was considerably higher in the samples from the sediment traps. The hazard of the sediment therefore appears to be highest in the sediment traps and pond 1 with the methods employed. The result indicates that the wetland system has a design supporting the concentration and sequestration of toxic substances in the first part of the wetland. Based upon the results we suggest that hazard assessment of sediments from other treatment wetlands for landfill leachate should be conducted. (c) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Khokhotva, Oleksandr
    et al.
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Waara, Sylvia
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    The influence of dissolved organic carbon on sorption of heavy metals on urea-treated pine bark2010Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 173, nr 1-3, s. 689-696Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A previous study showed considerably higher metal adsorption by urea-treated pine bark (UTB) compared to non-treated bark (NTB) at metal adsorption from their individual relatively concentrated solutions. Comparison of the sorption characteristics of the two pine barks at low but environmentally relevant metal concentrations, and investigation of the influence of pH and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on the sorption process are the aims of the present study. Sorption of Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+ on pine bark of the species Pinus sylvestris was measured in multi-metal solutions in the presence and absence of DOC. In the absence of DOC, UTB gave lower residual metal concentrations (2–7 μg/l for copper, 1–5 μg/l for nickel, <0.05 μg/l for zinc and lead) in the range of initial concentrations up to 0.7 mg/l, compared to NTB (6–15 μg/l for copper, 2–24 μg/l for nickel, 2–9 μg/l for zinc, 2–3 μg/l for lead). In the presence of DOC, sorption of Zn, Ni and Pb decreased by up to 75% depending on the DOC concentration. Metal sorption on UTB is less sensitive to pH and more adsorbed metal ions are retained compared to NTB. The potential use of urea-treated bark for treatment of waste water containing DOC and low concentrations of metals is discussed. © 2009 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 6.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Treatment of Landfill Leachate Using Filter Substrates2005Inngår i: Sardinia 2005: Abstracts : Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium / [ed] Raffaello Cossu & Rainer Stegmann, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Three by-products from the steel and paper manufacturing industries have been tested as filter materials for removal of heavy metals in metal solution and in landfill leachate. Laboratory experiments were used to determine the capacity of the materials to remove heavy metals. A column set-up at a landfill site examined the field application possibilities of pine bark, amorphous and crystalline blast furnace slag. All three materials have shown large potential for removal of heavy metals inmetal solution also when the concentrations are low. On-site treatment however was distrurbed by factors not present in batch experiments. Physical parameters such as pH and electric conductivity of the water stream were not significantly affected by the treatment.

  • 7.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    et al.
    Department of Public Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Department of Public Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Department of Public Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Metal retention on pine bark and blast furnace slag – On-site experiment for treatment of low strenght landfill leachate2008Inngår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 99, nr 5, s. 998-1005Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Treatment of landfill leachate using blast furnace slag and pine bark as reactive sorbents was studied in an in situ column experiment at the Lilla Nyby landfill site in Eskilstuna, Sweden. The columns were filled with approximately 10 l of each sorbent and leachate was supplied at three different flow rates during a period of 4 months. Samples of inflow and outflow were collected three times a week and were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters, including concentrations of some metals, and toxicity. It was found that pine bark removed metals more efficiently than did the blast furnace slags; that Zn was most efficiently retained in the filters and that both retention time and initial concentration played an important role in the sorption process. It was also observed that the pine bark column did not release COD. No toxicity of the untreated or the treated leachate was found with the test organisms and test responses used. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 

  • 8.
    Ribé, Veronica
    et al.
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Leaching of contaminants from untreated pine bark in a batch study: Chemical analysis and ecotoxicological evaluation2009Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 163, nr 2-3, s. 1096-1100Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Low cost sorbents have been widely studied in recent years in the search for filter materials that retain contaminants from water. One promising, low cost material is pine bark, a by-product from the forest industry. Many studies have shown that pine bark has great potential for the treatment of metals and organic substances, as a replacement for other commercial sorbents such as active carbon. However, some potential problems are introduced through the use of natural materials and by-products. One such problem that must be addressed is the possibility of leaching of contaminants from the filter material, especially in the initial filtration step or during flushes of lightly contaminated water, e.g. during rainfall for on-site treatment of storm water or landfill leachate. The aim of this preliminary study was therefore to identify potential risks and limitations of using pine bark as a filter material. Leachate from a standardized batch test was analysed for metals, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and phenols. In addition to these chemical analyses, an ecotoxicological test was conducted using the test organism Daphnia magna. The results showed significant leaching of DOC and some metals. Only a small fraction of the DOC was present as phenols. The leachate was however found to be toxic to the test organism without pH adjustment, and the EC50 was established at an approximate leachate concentration of 40%. This was concluded to be related to the low pH in the eluate, since no toxicity was observed after pH adjustment before the toxicity tests. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Ribé, Veronica
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Åke
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Assessment of the safety and performance of a low-cost filter material for treatment of landfill leachate and industrial wastewater using an integrated approach based on ecotoxicological testing and chemical analysis2009Inngår i: ICCE 2009 Stockholm: EuCheMS International conference on Chemistry and the Environment 14-17 June 2009, 12, Stockholm University, Stockholm. Abstracts., Stockholm: Universitetsservice , 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecotoxicological tests are frequently used as a complement to chemical analysis in hazard assessment of contaminated water, as they can detect toxic effects resulting from interactions of contaminants. They are, however, less commonly used in water treatment method development, where they can provide a rapid and low-cost means of evaluating the efficiency and safety of a new treatment method. This is particularly valuable when treating waters with a complex contaminant matrix, such as landfill leachates and industrial wastewaters.

    Pine bark, which is an industrial by-product from the forestry industry, has been extensively investigated as a low-cost filter material and it has been shown to efficiently remove metals from solution, storm water run-off and landfill leachate. Additionally, it has also been demonstrated to retain phosphorous, uranium and organic compounds, such as lindane and pentachlorophenol, from water. Pine bark is therefore an interesting alternative to more expensive methods for treating waters contaminated with a mixture of organic and inorganic pollutants, e.g. activated carbon.

    Although a promising low-cost sorbent, concerns have been raised about using pine bark for water treatment due to the leaching of organic acids and phenols from the unused filter material, particularly during the initial filtration phase. To ensure the environmental benefits and safety of using the filter material it is important to determine the extent and composition of the leaching of organic material from the unused material.

    This study shows how an ecotoxicological test battery in combination with chemical analyses was used to evaluate the safety of using pine bark for water treatment. Leachates from the ISO standardized leaching test 12457-2 was analysed for metals, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and phenols. The toxicity of leachates with and without pH adjustment was assessed using the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. The performance of the filter material when treating low-strength landfill leachate and industrial wastewater was assessed in batch tests followed by chemical analysis and a bioassay test battery consisting of bacteria, aquatic plants and invertebrates.

  • 10.
    Rögnvaldsson, Thorsteinn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Brink, Joachim
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Florén, Henrik
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Gaspes, Veronica
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Holmgren, Noél
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Lutz, Mareike
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Nilsson, Pernilla
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för lärande, humaniora och samhälle, Forskning om utbildning och lärande inom lärarutbildningen (FULL).
    Olsfelt, Jonas
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Svensson, Bertil
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Ericsson, Claes
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för lärande, humaniora och samhälle, Forskning om utbildning och lärande inom lärarutbildningen (FULL).
    Gustafsson, Linnea
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för lärande, humaniora och samhälle, Kontext & kulturgränser (KK).
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Hylander, Jonny
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Nygren, Jens
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Maskinteknisk produktframtagning (MTEK).
    Sandberg, Mikael
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för lärande, humaniora och samhälle, Centrum för samhällsanalys (CESAM).
    Benner, Mats
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Berg, Martin
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för lärande, humaniora och samhälle, Centrum för samhällsanalys (CESAM).
    Bergvall, Patrik
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Carlborg, Anna
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS).
    Hållander, Magnus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Mattsson, Marie
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS).
    Olsson, Charlotte
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS).
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Rundquist, Jonas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Sahlén, Göran
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS).
    Waara, Sylvia
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS).
    Weisner, Stefan
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS).
    Werner, Sven
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS).
    ARC13 – Assessment of Research and Coproduction: Reports from the assessment of all research at Halmstad University 20132014Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    During 2013, an evaluation of all the research conducted at Halmstad University was carried out. The purpose was to assess the quality of the research, coproduction, and collaboration in research, as well as the impact of the research. The evaluation was dubbed the Assessment of Research and Coproduction 2013, or ARC13. (Extract from Executive Summary)

  • 11.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Våtmarkscentrum.
    Dagvattnets sammansättning i Västerås stad - En kunskapssammanställning2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 12.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS).
    Landfill Leachate Ecotoxicity2013Inngår i: Encyclopedia of Aquatic Ecotoxicology / [ed] Jean-François Férard & Christian Blaise, Dordrecht: Springer, 2013, s. 649-670Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Department of Physiological Botany, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Production and characterization of intraspecific somatic hybrids of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)1991Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A culture protocol has been developed for mesophyll protoplasts isolated from various d¡haploid clones of potato. A large number of call¡ was obtained after serial dilution of the cultures w¡th a suitable amount and type of medium at different stages of cell colony development.

    A polyelhylene glycol fusion procedure was developed that yielded up to 12 % heterokaryons. Using this fusion protocol hybrid cells have been manually lsolated, cultured and regenerated into plants. Fus¡on products were identified 2-3 days after fuslon by the dual fluorescence emission from the chloroplasts in mesophyll protoplasts (red) and the fluorescein diacetate stain in l¡ght and norflurazon bleached protoplasts (yellow-green). This fusion and select¡on strategy leads to the recovery of almost 100 % hybr¡d plants as established by isozyme analysls.

    Cytolog¡cal analysis of protoplast-derived plants and somatic hybrid plants revealed genetic changes as a consequence of protoplast culture and protoplast fus¡on. Twenty-three tetraplo¡d somatic hybrid plants were obta¡ned from 6 different calli and 9 of these were euploid.

    Morphological assessments of somatic hybr¡d plants of different ploidy levels demonstrated that tetraploid as well as several hexaploid somatic hybrids showed an increased vigour as compared to the parental plants. Most tetraploid somat¡c hybrids had a similar appearance although not all euploid plants were identical. Loss of vigour was evident in all mixoploid and octoplo¡d plants. These were stunted, weak and had an abnormal leaf morphology.

    The plastid type in hybrid plants was determined by RFLP analysis. All analysed hybrids had a cpDNA restrict¡on fragment pattern ¡dent¡cal to one of the parents wh¡ch contained either S. tuberosum or S. stoloniferum cpDNA. A slight preference for S. tuberosum plastids was observed in hybild plants. No influence on tho assortment of chloroplast by the norflurazon bleaching could be detected.

  • 14.
    Waara, Sylvia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS).
    Bandaruk, Tatsiana
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Metal and Metalloid Sequestration in a Constructed Wetland System for Treatment of Landfill Leachate During 2003–20122014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The treatment of landfill leachate in constructed wetland systems is a common practice in Europe. However, very few studies were made to evaluate their performance over a long period of time. A free surface constructed wetland system consisting of sediment traps followed by 10 ponds connected with overflows was built at Atleverket near Örebro, Sweden in 2001. It receives pre-treated leachate from the municipal landfill. As part of the wetland monitoring programme a large data set on the surface concentrations of 15 metals and 2 metalloids has been collected from different sampling sites within the wetland during the operation period. In this study, the data from inlet and outlet of the wetland were compiled and analysed. The aim of this paper is therefore to estimate the removal efficiency of metals and metalloids using data on concentrations and flow and investigate the effect of wetland age on removal pattern. The elements with the highest removal efficiency were Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, V and Zn ranging from 95% for Pb to 65 % for Ca. The elements with the lowest reduction were B, Co K, Mg, Ni and S ranging from Co 56 % to 40 % for S. It was found that the removal efficiency was not related to inlet concentrations of the elements as the elements with high and low inlet concentrations were found in both groups. Analysis of reduction pattern also revealed that the group with higher removal efficiency showed fairly constant outlet concentrations during the study period, while the elements with lower removal efficiency demonstrated variable outlet concentrations. No statistical difference in removal due to age of the wetland was found. The study results showed that the wetland system has high removal efficiency of metals and metalloids and the removal pattern is not affected by age of the wetland. The influence on reduction due to leachate characteristics, wetland design and retention time will be discussed.

  • 15.
    Waara, Sylvia
    et al.
    Department of Public Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Färm, Carina
    Department of Public Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    An Assessment of the Potential Toxicity of Runoff from an Urban Roadscape During Rain Events2008Inngår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 205-210Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Goal, Scope and Background

    The potential negative impact of urban storm water on aquatic freshwater ecosystems has been demonstrated in various studies with different types of biological methods. There are a number of factors that influence the amount and bioavailability of contaminants in storm water even if it is derived from an area with a fairly homogenous land use such as a roadscape where a variation in toxicity during rain events might be expected. There are only a few previous investigations on the toxicity of highway runoff and they have not explored these issues extensively. The main objective of this study is therefore to characterize the potential toxicity of highway runoff during several rain events before it enters a detention pond in VästerOas, Sweden, using laboratory bioassays with test organisms representing various functional groups in an aquatic ecosystem. The results are to be used for developing a monitoring program, including biological methods.

    Materials and Methods

    The storm water was sampled before the entrance to a detention pond, which receives run-off from a highway with approximately 20,000 vehicles a day. The drainage area, including the roadscape and vegetated areas, is 4.3 ha in size. Samples for toxicity tests were taken with an automatic sampler or manually during storm events. In total, the potential toxicity of 65 samples representing 15 different storm events was determined. The toxicity was assessed with 4 different test organisms; Vibrio fischeri using the Microtox® comparison test, Daphnia magna using Daphtoxkit-F™agna, Thamnocephalus platyurus using the ThamnotoxkitF™ and Lemna minor, duckweed using SS 028313.

    Results and Discussion

    Of the 65 samples, 58 samples were tested with DaphniatoxkitF™agna, 57 samples with the Microtox® comparison test, 48 samples with ThamnotoxkitF™ and 20 samples with Lemna minor, duckweed. None of the storm water samples were toxic.

    No toxicity was detected with the Lemna minor test, but in 5 of the 23 samples tested in comparison to the control a growth stimulation of 22–46% was observed. This is in accordance with the chemical analysis of the storm water, which indicated rather large concentrations of tot-N and tot-P. In addition to the growth stimulation, morphological changes were observed in all the 5 samples from the winter event that was sampled. The lack of toxicity observed in our study might be due to a lower traffic intensity (20,000 vehicles/day) at the site and the trapping of pollutants in the vegetated areas of the roadscape, resulting in much smaller loads of pollutants in the storm water than in some previous studies.

    Conclusions

    Ecotoxicological evaluations of storm water including run off from rain events from urban roadscape studies clearly reveal that toxicity may or may not be detected depending upon site, storm condition and the test organism chosen. However, storm water might not be as polluted as previously reported nor may the first flush be such a widespread phenomenon as we originally expected. In this study, there was also a good correlation between pollutant load measured and the lack of toxicity. The test organisms chosen in this study are commonly used in effluent control programs in Sweden and other countries, which makes it possible to compare the results with those from other effluents. In this study, only acute toxicity tests were used and further studies using chronic toxicity tests, assays for genotoxic compounds or in situ bioassays might reveal biological effects at this site. Furthermore, most of the samples were taken in spring, summer or fall and it is possible that winter conditions might alter the constituents in the storm water and, thus, the toxicity of the samples.

    Recommendations and Perspectives

    Considering the complex nature of run off from urban roadscapes, it will be virtually impossible to evaluate properly the potential hazard of particular storm water and the efficiency of a particular treatment strategy from only physical and chemical characterizations of the effluent. Therefore, despite the lack of toxicity detected in this study, it is recommended that toxicity tests or other biological methods should be included in evaluations of the effects of runoff from roadscapes. © 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  • 16.
    Waara, Sylvia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS).
    Gajewska, Magdalena
    Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Cruz Blázquez, Veronica
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS).
    Alsbro, Roland
    Eskilstuna Energi och Miljö AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Norwald, Pernilla
    Eskilstuna Energi och Miljö AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Waara, Karl-Otto
    Yderängen HB, Båstad, Sweden.
    Long term performance of an FWS wetland for post-tertiary treatment of sewage: the influence of flow, temperature and age on nitrogen removal2015Inngår i: Book of Abstracts: 6th International Symposium on Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control: Annual Conference of the Constructed Wetland Association: 13th to 18th September, 2015, York, United Kingdom / [ed] Gabriela Dotro & Vincent Gagnon, 2015, s. 38-39Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17.
    Waara, Sylvia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Miljövetenskap, Våtmarkscentrum.
    Gajewska, Magdalena
    Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Dvarioniene, Jolanta
    Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Miljövetenskap, Våtmarkscentrum.
    Gajewski, Ryszard
    Gdańska Infrastructura Wodociągowo-Kanalizacyjna, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Grabowski, Pawel
    Grupa Lotos, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Hansson, Anna
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Miljövetenskap, Våtmarkscentrum.
    Kaszubowski, Jacek
    Gdańska Infrastructura Wodociągowo-Kanalizacyjna, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Obarska-Pempkowiak, Hanna
    Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Przewlócka, Maria
    Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Pilecki, Adam
    Grupa Lotos, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Nagórka-Kmiecik, Dagmara
    City Hall of Gdańsk, Environment Department , Gdańsk, Poland.
    Skarbek, Jacek
    Gdańska Infrastructura Wodociągowo-Kanalizacyjna, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Miljövetenskap, Våtmarkscentrum.
    Wojciechowska, Ewa
    Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Towards Recommendations for Design of Wetlands for Post-Tertiary Treatment of Waste Water in the Baltic Sea Region – Gdańsk Case Study2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many challenges that need to be addressed if the far reaching objectives on high environmental status as required in the EU Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive will be met in the Baltic Sea Region within the next decade. For wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) this implies, in spite of the many improvements made during the last decade, development and introduction of new technology to further reduce eutrophying compounds, hazardous chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Constructed wetlands when properly designed and operated have been shown to be robust systems with low energy requirements that may not only reduce many types of pollutants but may also provide many additional ecosystem services beyond requirements generally imposed by authorities. For example, they may support and enhance biodiversity and be used to convert brownfield areas in urban landscapes to recreational areas. Reduced cost is possible if treated water is reused in industry or for irrigation. In a project, supported by the Swedish Institute, a group of scientists, a water company and water using industry has together with local authorities through workshops, field studies and literature studies worked on finding a general first recommendation on design and operation. In this paper we will present the scientific rational and legal constraints for the general design and operation of a wetland system for post-tertiary treatment of waste water from WWTPs using Gdańsk as an example. The proposal includes a first part, which mainly will be focusing on pollutant and pathogen removal using particle traps and a HSSF wetland on land owned by the WWTP and a second part consisting of a FWS wetland which, in addition to further polishing the water, will enhance biodiversity and provide recreational areas on derelict land owned by the city.

  • 18.
    Waara, Sylvia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Våtmarkscentrum.
    Khokhotva, Oleksandr
    National Technical University of Ukraine, Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, Kyiv, Ukraine.
    The effect of environmental conditions on the stability of heavy meltal-filter material complex as assessed by the leaching of adsorbed metal ions2011Inngår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 159, s. 146-1463Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the influence of environmental conditions, most likely prevailing in filter beds used for intermittently discharged pollutant streams such as landfill leachate and storm water, on the stability of the heavy metalefilter complex was investigated for 2 filter materials; non-treated and urea treated pine bark, using leaching experiments. The metalefilter complex stability was higher for urea treated than for non-treated pine bark and dependent on the metal adsorbed. The type of environmental condition applied was of less importance for the extent of leaching.

  • 19.
    Waara, Sylvia
    et al.
    Department of Physiological Botany, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pijnacker, Laas P.
    Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Department of Genetics, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Ferwerda, Margriet A.
    Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Department of Genetics, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Wallin, Anita
    Uppsala Universitet, Department of Physiological Botany, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Tage
    Uppsala Universitet, Department of Physiological Botany, Uppsala, Sweden.
    A cytogenetic and phenotypic characterization of somatic hybrid plants obtained after fusion of two different dihaploid clones of potato (Solatium tuberosum L.)1992Inngår i: Theoretical and Applied Genetics, ISSN 0040-5752, E-ISSN 1432-2242, Vol. 85, nr 4, s. 470-479Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Somatic hybrid plants of various ploidy levels obtained after chemical fusion between two dihaploid clones of potato Solanum tuberosum L. have been analysed by cytological, morphological and molecular methods. The hybrid nature of tetraploid and hexaploid plants and the genome dosage in hexaploid hybrids were confirmed by Giemsa C-banding. Tetraploid and hexaploid hybrids showed numerical as well as structural chromosome mutations. The latter occurred mainly in the nuclear organizing chromosome. The tetraploid hybrids were more vigorous than the dihaploid parents as demonstrated by an increase in height, enlargement of leaves, increase in the number of internodes, restored potential for flowering and increased tuber yield. The grouping of tetraploid somatic hybrids into various classes on the basis of leaf morphology revealed that plants with a full chromosome complement were more uniform than aneuploids. Many hexaploid somatic hybrids were also more vigorous than the dihaploidparents and could be grouped into two different classes on the basis of floral colour and tuber characteristics, the differences being due to their different dosage of parental genomes. Most of the tetraploid somatic hybrids showed pollen development halted at the tetrad stage as one of the parental clones contained a S. Stoloniferum cytoplasm. However, one tetraploid plant produced pollen grains with high viability. The chloroplast genome in the hybrid plants was determined by RFLP analysis. All of the hybrids had a cpDNA pattern identical to one parent, which contained either S. Tuberosum or S. Stoloniferum cpDNA. A slight preference for S. Tuberosum plastids were observed in hybrid plants. No correlation between pollen development and plastid type could be detected. © 1992 Springer-Verlag.

  • 20.
    Waara, Sylvia
    et al.
    Department of Plant Physiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Tegelström, H.
    Department of Plant Physiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wallin, Anita
    Department of Plant Physiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Tage
    Department of Plant Physiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Somatic hybridization between anther-derived dihaploid clones of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and the identification of hybrid plants by isozyme analysis1989Inngår i: Theoretical and Applied Genetics, ISSN 0040-5752, E-ISSN 1432-2242, Vol. 77, nr 1, s. 49-56Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Green mesophyll protoplasts of the dihaploid potato line 198∶2 (Solanum tuberosum L.) were fused with herbicide-bleached mesophyll protoplasts of the dihaploid potato line 67∶9 using a polyethylene glycol protocol. Heterokaryons were identified under a fluorescence microscope using the dual fluorescence of carboxyfluorescein-stained, herbicide-bleached protoplasts and the autofluorescence of green mesophyll protoplasts. About 20% of the protoplasts survived the fusion treatment, and the fusion frequency was 3%-4%. Unfused and fused protoplasts were mass cultured for 6 weeks after which vigorously growing calli were selected and transferred to shoot regeneration medium. Somatic hybrids were identified by a combination of five isozyme markers, and the ploidy level was determined by flow cytometry. Out of 15 calli that regenerated shoots, 6 plants derived from 2 different calli were identified as hexaploid somatic hybrids, while one morphologically deviant plant from a third callus was identified as a mixoploid that had lost some enzyme markers after 4 months of culturing.

  • 21.
    Waara, Sylvia
    et al.
    School for Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Waara, Karl-Otto
    School for Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Åke
    School for Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Fridolfsson, Magnus
    Tekniska förvaltningen, Örebro Kommun, Atleverket, Örebro, Sweden.
    Performance of a Constructed Wetland System for Treatment of Landfill Leachate2008Inngår i: Proceedings Waste 2008: Waste and Resource Management – a Shared Responsibility / [ed] Marie Townshend, Stanton-on-the-Wolds: Waste Conference Ltd. , 2008, s. 655-667Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of a constructed wetland for treatment of landfill leachate has been evaluated based upon data obtained during 4 years (2003-2006). It consists of a series of 10 ponds with a total capacity of 52.000 m3 covering 8 ha. Using univariate and multivariate statistics (PCA) the reduction pattern of a large number of chemical parameters including heavy metals has been investigated in 3 parts of the wetland with equal volume. Analyses show that many parameters are removed to the greatest extent in the first part of the system (e.g. many heavy metals, total suspended solids) or the second part of the system (N-NH4) while other parameters such as total nitrogen are more gradually reduced (10 ton/year removed).  Toxicity testing with 5 bioassays showed that toxicity was sometimes observed at the inlet but no toxicity was observed at the outlet for 4 of the test species. The data presented will be used for optimizing the treatment process as well as to improve the monitoring program.

  • 22.
    Waara, Sylvia
    et al.
    Department of Physiological Botany, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wallin, Anita
    Department of Physiological Botany, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Tage
    Department of Physiological Botany, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Production and analysis of intraspecific somatic hybrids of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)1991Inngår i: Plant Science, ISSN 0168-9452, Vol. 75, nr 1, s. 107-115Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Photoplasts of two dihaploid lines of potato were fused to produce a large number of intraspecific somatic hybrid plants among which plants of the expected tetraploid level might be found. Fusion frequencies up to 12% (mean 7%) were observed using a revised polyethylene glycol fusion protocol. Fusion products were identified by the dual fluorescence emission from the chloroplasts in mesophyll protoplasts (red) and from the fluorescein diacetate stain in light and norflurazon bleached protoplasts (yellow-green). Hybrid cells were isolated 2–3 days after fusion and cultured at a cell density of 2000 cells/ml. From a total of 1363 isolated putative hybrid cells, 258 divided to form calli. Plants were regenerated from 166 of these. Isozyme analysis confirmed the hybrid nature in 57 of 58 analysed plants. Ploidy was determined in 51 plants; 12% were tetraploid, 41% hexaploid, 12% octoploid and 35% were mixoploid. Expression of isocitrate dehydrogenase isozymes indicated that the majority of the hexaploid hybrids contained 2 genomes of the bleached parent and one genome of the mesophyll parent. This study shows that tetraploid somatic hybrid potato plants can be obtained by the fusion and selection method presented.

  • 23.
    Waara, Sylvia
    et al.
    Department of Physiological Botany, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wallin, Anita
    Department of Physiological Botany, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ottosson, Agneta
    Department of Physiological Botany, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Tage
    Department of Physiological Botany, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Factors promoting sustained divisions of mesophyll protoplasts isolated from dihaploid clones of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and a cytological analysis of regenerated plants1991Inngår i: Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, ISSN 0167-6857, E-ISSN 1573-5044, Vol. 27, nr 3, s. 257-265Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A culture protocol has been developed for mesophyll protoplasts isolated from various dihaploid clones of potato. A special effort was made to promote the growth of initially dividing cells to form cell colonies and calli. An increase in plating efficiency in 3 different dihaploid clones and one doubled dihaploid clone was obtained after serial dilution of cultures with a suitable amount and type of medium at different stages of cell colony development. Plating on a refined semi-solid medium after 14 days of culture further improved both the yield and the quality of calli obtained. The refined plating medium also enhanced shoot regeneration ability from 67 to 90% in one of the dihaploid clones (67:9). The refined culture protocol could also be used without causing a decrease in plating efficiency at a low population density adjusted after 3 days of culture. The ploidy level of plants regenerated from dihaploid protoplasts were determined by chromosome counting and DNA analysis by flow cytometry. Most of the plants were aneuploid or tetraploid although, some dihaploid plants were obtained after protoplast culture of 2 dihaploid clones derived from the same cultivar (cv. Stina). 

  • 24.
    Waara, Sylvia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Våtmarkscentrum.
    Wojciechowska, Eva
    Faculty of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Polen.
    Distribution and removal efficiency of heavy metals in two constructed wetlands treating landfill leachate2011Inngår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 64, nr 8, s. 1597-1606Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The results of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd) removal and partitioning between aqueous and solid phases at two treatment wetlands (TWs) treating municipal landfill leachates are presented. One of the TWs is a surface flow facility consisting of 10 ponds. The other TW is a newly constructed pilot-scale facility consisting of three beds with alternately vertical and horizontal sub-surface flow. The metals concentrations were analysed in leachate (both TWs) and bottom sediments (surface flow TW). Very high (90.9-99.9%) removal rates of metals were observed in a mature surface flow TW. The effectiveness of metals removal in a newly constructed pilot-scale sub-surface flow wetland were considerably lower (range 0-73%). This is attributed to young age of the TW, different hydraulic conditions (sub-surface flow system with much shorter retention time, unoxic conditions) and presence of metallic complexes with refractory organic matter

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