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  • 1.
    Clement, Damien
    et al.
    West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, United Kingdom.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Investigating the influence of intra-individual changes in perceived stress symptoms on injury risk in soccer2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 1461-1466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that high levels of stress and stress responsivity can increase the risk of injuries. However, most of the research that has supported this notion has focused on between-person relationships, ignoring the relationships at the within-person level. As a result, the objective of this study was to investigate if within-person changes in perceived stress symptoms over a 1-month time period could predict injury rates during the subsequent 3 months. A prospective design with two measurement points (Time 1—at the beginning of the season and Time 2—1 month into the season) was utilized. A total of 121 competitive soccer players (85 males and 36 females; Mage = 18.39, SD = 3.08) from Sweden and the United States completed the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (KPDS) and a demographic sheet at Time 1. The KPDS was also completed at Time 2, and all acute injuries that occurred during the subsequent 3-month period were recorded. A Bayesian latent change scores model was used to determine whether within-person changes in stress symptoms could predict the risk of injury. Results revealed that there was a credible positive effect of changes in stress symptoms on injury rates, indicating that an increase in reported stress symptoms was related to an increased risk for injury. This finding highlights the importance of creating caring and supportive sporting environments and relationships and teaching stress management techniques, especially during the earlier portion of competitive seasons, to possibly reduce the occurrence of injuries. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  • 2.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Andersen, Mark B.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Psychosocial predictors of sport injury rates: A meta-analysis2015In: Proceedings: 14th European Congress of Sport Psychology: Sport Psychology: Theories and Applications for Performance, Health and Humanity: 14-19 July 2015, Bern, Switzerland / [ed] Olivier Schmid & Roland Seiler, Bern: University of Bern , 2015, p. 173-174Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sport injury prediction research has traditionally focused on physiological and physical factors. Nevertheless, during the last 30 years there has been increased interest in psychosocial factors related to sport injuries. The most cited theoretical model developed to explain psychosocial variables’ influences on injury risk is the model of stress and athletic injury (Williams & Andersen, 1998). The model, suggests that personality (e.g., anxiety, hardiness), history of stressors (e.g., life event stress, daily hassles), and coping (e.g., social support resources) will influence athletes’ stress responses (e.g., physiological, attentional changes) that, in turn, are related to injury risk. The aim of the study was to examine the past research on the relationships of the psychosocial variables in the model (i.e., personality, history of stressors, coping, stress responses) on sport injury rates. The literature review resulted in 47 published studies and 180 effect sizes. The results showed that stress responses (r = .22, 80% CI = .14 - .30) had the strongest associations with injury rates. Moreover, history of stressors (r = .12, 80% CI = .11 - .13) and coping (r = -.05, 80% CI = -.03 - -.08) had smaller relationships with injury rates. Finally, the associations of positive (r = .01, 80% CI = -.03 - .04), as well as negative (r = .01, 80% CI = -.01-.03) personality variables on injury rates was marginal. The results support the model’s suggestion that stress responses have a direct relationship with injury, whereas other variables potentially have indirect relationships with injury rates. In line with these findings it is suggested that intervention programs should focus on helping athletes decrease the magnitude of their stress responses. © 2015 University of Bern, Institut of Sport Science 

  • 3.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Andersen, Mark B.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Psychosocial Factors and Sport Injuries: Meta-analyses for Prediction and Prevention2017In: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 353-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several studies have suggested that psy- chosocial variables can increase the risk of becoming injured during sport participation.

    Objectives: The main objectives of these meta-analyses were to examine (i) the effect sizes of relationships between the psychosocial variables (suggested as injury predictors in the model of stress and athletic injury) and injury rates, and (ii) the effects of psychological interven- tions aimed at reducing injury occurrence (prevention).

    Methods: Electronic databases as well as specific sport and exercise psychology journals were searched. The literature review resulted in 48 published studies containing 161 effect sizes for injury prediction and seven effect sizes for injury prevention.

    Results: The results showed that stress responses (r = 0.27, 80 % CI [0.20, 0.33]) and history of stressors (r = 0.13, 80 % CI [0.11, 0.15]) had the strongest associations with injury rates. Also, the results from the path analysis showed that the stress response mediated the relationship between history of stressors and injury rates. For injury prevention studies, all studies included (N = 7) showed decreased injury rates in the treatment groups compared to control groups.

    Conclusion: The results support the model’s suggestion that psychosocial variables, as well as psychologically, based interventions, can influence injury risk among athletes. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 

  • 4.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Performance and Training Unit, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), 3Musculoskeletal & Sports Injury Epidemiology Center, IMM, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Negative psychological responses of injury and rehabilitation adherence effects on return to play in competitive athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis2017In: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 1179-1543, E-ISSN 1179-1543, Vol. 8, p. 27-32Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research offers evidence that psychological factors influence an injured athlete during the rehabilitation process. Our first objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the results from all published studies that examined the relationships among negative affective responses after sport injuries, rehabilitation adherence, and return to play (RTP). The second objective was to use a meta-analytic path analysis to investigate whether an indirect effect existed between negative affective responses and RTP through rehabilitation adherence. This literature review resulted in seven studies providing 14 effect sizes. The results from the meta-analysis showed that negative affective responses had a negative effect on successful RTP, whereas rehabilitation adherence had a positive effect on RTP. The results from the meta-analytic path analysis showed a weak and nonsignificant indirect effect of negative affective responses on RTP via rehabilitation adherence. These results underline the importance of providing supportive environments for injured athletes to increase the chances of successful RTP via a decrease in negative affective responses and increase in rehabilitation adherence.

  • 5.
    Johnson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity. Stockholm Sports Trauma Research Center, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity. Department of Psychology, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Current Status and Future Challenges in Psychological Research of Sport Injury Prediction and Prevention: A Methodological Perspective2014In: Revista de Psicología del Deporte, ISSN 1132-239X, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 401-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this critical review was to propose methodological developments in sport injury prediction and prevention research. Altogether, 24 studies (e.g., quantitative, qualitative, and prevention intervention studies) conducted from 2006 forward were analysed, related to the “stress-injury model.” The injury prediction studies were mostly based on prospective designs, using regression analysis, and studied trait anxiety and life stress. The qualitative studies used mainly thematic analysis, and the intervention studies showed some promising effects, but also inconclusive results. We proposed five specific needs for future research: (a) focus on separate research cohorts, (b) variation in preventive intervention designs, including sound protocols conducting experimental studies, (c) focus on behaviours in relation to cognition, (d) application of repeated-measure designs, and (e) use of statistics that could test complex interactions and intraindividual differences. Future research attention should also be oriented towards the psychology of overuse injuries, biopsychosocial perspectives, and health economic evaluations. While progress has been made in research on psychological antecedents of sport injury, prevention, and intervention in the last 10-15 years, several methodological issues still remain to be further developed, as outlined in this article.

  • 6.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Ger mindre stress färre skador?2013In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 20-24Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    How Entrepreneurs within Applied Psychology Can Promote Health in an Innovative Way: Implementation of an Injury Preventive Intervention among Floorball Players in Sweden2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Injured and uninjured Swedish floorball players show psychological similarities2013In: The ISSP 13th World Congress of Sport Psychology  Programme, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Stockholm Sports Trauma Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden & Capio Artro Clinic, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Psychological prevention intervention, a cluster RCT study among elite floorball players2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Karolinska Institutet.
    Psykologisk prevention av idrottsskada2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Karolinska Institutet.
    Sports injuries from a health economic perspective2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12. Tranaeus, Ulrika
    The importance of mental readiness before considering return to sport after injury2014In: Physio therapy programme: PT Symposium: Return to sport, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Stockholm Sports Trauma Research Center, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Götesson, Eva
    Rehab Öppenvård, TioHundra, Norrtälje, Sweden.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Stockholm Sports Trauma Research Center, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden & Capio Artro Clinic, Sophiahemmet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Injury Profile in Swedish Elite Floorball: A Prospective Cohort Study of 12 Teams2016In: Sports Health: a multidisciplinary approach, ISSN 1941-7381, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 224-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Floorball is an indoor team sport with growing popularity worldwide characterized by rapid accelerations, decelerations, and cutting and pivoting movements. While injuries are common, there are few high-quality epidemiological investigations of floorball injuries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the incidence and severity of injuries in male and female elite-level floorball players in Sweden.

    HYPOTHESIS: The incidence of injuries has not decreased; female players are more vulnerable to injury than male players.

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.

    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3.

    METHODS: Twelve floorball teams (6 male, 6 female) in the Swedish premiere leagues were followed for 1 year (preseason, game season, and the entire year). The team medical staff reported injury incidence, location, type (traumatic or overuse), and severity. Differences between male and female players were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test.

    RESULTS: The injury incidence was greater in female players during preseason (22.9 vs 7.4, P = 0.01), game season (39.5 vs 28.3, P = 0.002), as well as the whole year combined (33.9 vs 20.8, P = 0.02). The thigh was the most common injury location in male players and the ankle in female players. Overuse injuries were more common among men and were primarily back problems. Traumatic injuries were more common in women-mainly knee and ankle injuries. Most injuries were of mild severity. A greater number of anterior cruciate ligament injuries occurred in women (n = 11) than in men (n = 2).

    CONCLUSION: The injury incidence was significantly greater in female floorball players throughout the entire floorball year. Male players sustained mostly overuse injuries while female players suffered traumatic injuries. The majority of injuries in floorball were mild, irrespective of player sex.

    CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Knowledge of the incidence and severity of floorball injuries is an essential step in the sequence of injury prevention. Future research should focus on identifying injury mechanisms and risk factors for these injuries to develop injury prevention strategies.

     © 2016, 2016 The Author(s).

  • 14.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Do psychological based intervention programs prevent sport injuries to occur?2015In: Proceedings: 14th European Congress of Sport Psychology, 14-19 July 2015 in Bern, Switzerland / [ed] Olivier Schmid, Roland Seiler, Annemarie Schumacher Dimech & André Klostermann, Bern: University of Bern , 2015, p. 174-174Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Evaluation of the effects of psychological prevention interventions on sport injuries: A meta-analysis2015In: Science & sports, ISSN 0765-1597, E-ISSN 1778-4131, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 305-313Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The purpose was to conduct a systematic review of published articles aiming to prevent sports injuries based on psychological interventions and to perform a meta-analysis of the effects in such interventions.

    News

    Different kinds of sport injury prevention strategies have been accomplished such as neuromuscular and warm-up programs. More recently, psychological intervention studies have been completed with the purpose of preventing sports injuries. The most evident predictor is stress. Consequently, most psychological injury prevention interventions incorporate stress management and other psychological skills training.

    Prospect and projects

    The electronic databases and suitable sport psychology journals were searched for published studies. Out of 560 screened articles, 15 were potentially eligible articles. Seven of these articles, with substantial information in the papers or the authors were able to provide us with data after request, were finally included.

    Conclusion

    The result, using a random effect model, showed a total Hedges’ g effect size of 0.82 (< .001), 95% CI (0.55–1.11). The result indicates that psychological injury prevention interventions have a large effect on reducing the number of injuries in sport population. © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS.

  • 16.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    et al.
    Performance and Training, The Swedish School of Sport and Health, Stockholm, Sweden & Musculoskeletal & Sports Injury Epidemiology Center, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Stress and injuries in elite sport2018In: Handbuch Stressregulation und Sport / [ed] Reinhard Fuchs, Markus Gerber, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2018, p. 451-466Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter begins with an overview of research on psychological risk factors, “predictors”, for injury outcome focusing on competitive and elite sport populations. Based on this presentation, a summary of psychological studies with a special attention on prevention of injury outcome will be highlighted. The final part of the chapter sets the rehabilitation phase in the centre, specifically emphasising personal and situational factors influencing athletes’ injury reactions including return to sport aspects. © 2017 Springer International Publishing AG

  • 17.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    An injured athletes way back from board room to sports ground: a case study2008In: Proceedings of the Nordic Conference: Health, participation and effects of sport and exercise / [ed] Carlsson, B., Johnson,U., Stambulova, N, Halmstad: Högskolan i Halmstad , 2008, p. 23-23Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Psychological factors and overuse injuries in floorball2011In: Proceedings of the 13th European Congress of Sport Psychology, Madeira, Portugal. FEPSAC on-line publication, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that the risk of traumatic and/or overuse injury occurring in competitive floorball is relatively high during a playing season. Most injuries occur because the athletes are exposed to a combination of extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors such as physiological and psychological situations. The aim of this study is to describe athletes' experience of psychosocial risk factors preceding overuse injury. A qualitative study was conducted using a semi-structured interview guide and based on nine diagnosed and presently overuse injured men in the premier league floorball in Sweden during 2010. To uncover the underlying meaning in the transcribed interviews, a thematic content analysis was used. Several themes emerged in the data. Four of the main themes were: a) players experienced pain while competing and faced difficulties to separate normal/daily pain as warnings signals of an injury, b) both key-players and other players feared losing their position during rehabilitation time, c) a number of players stated concerns in the private area (partners) at the time the injury occurred, d) some athletes experienced an understanding communication climate within the team whilst others reported no acceptance from coaches when complaining about pain. The results from this study might explain why overuse injuries were sustained during all phases of the season, including preseason. It is further speculated that periods of rest and/or rehab during the injury period might lead to players experiencing mental pressure. Implications of the results will be discussed with athletes, coaches and sport psychology practitioners.

  • 19.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Karolinska Institutet.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Psychological profile of injured and uninjured floorball players2013In: International week of sport psychology, FEPSAC, Conference Proceedings, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A substantial quantity of research has been focusing on predictors and interventions in the sports injury prevention area. It is suggested that stress and psychosocial factors may predict sports injuries. However, many athletes remain uninjured during their athletic careers. Consequently it is of interest to know more about the psychosocial factors that preserve athletes uninjured. More specific, the objective was to investigate differences in stress and recovery strategies among the uninjured and injured players. In total, 401 non-professional male (n=203, age m=23.8, SD=4.56) and female (n=198, age m=21.5, SD=3.81) high level floorball players in Sweden completed a questionnaire regarding stress, sleep, mood and recovery strategies before the floorball season. The teams’ medical staff reported prospectively injuries during the season. 218 of the players (n=114 males, n=104 females) remained uninjured after the season (54%). The statistical analysis showed no significant differences between the uninjured and injured players regarding stress inside and outside sport, sleep, mood or recovery strategies. Although, previous researches suggest that stress and psychosocial factors may predict sports injuries, this was not shown in this population. Additional intrinsic factors, such as complementary psychosocial factors (e.g. resilient communication skills) might influence the player’s chance to avoid injury. It is of interest to evaluate uninjured players coping strategies and not just focusing on at-risk athletes in the future prevention research. This line of research has the potential to detect factors related to the salutogenesis of injury. Thus, provide important information to physiotherapist in the care of injured athletes. 

  • 20.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm Sports Trauma Research Center, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Psychosocial risk factors preceding overuse injury in floor-ball2011In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 377-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Previous research demonstrates an injury risk of traumatic and overuse injuries in floor-ball which is one of the major sports in Sweden with 1 24 000 licensed players. One important step to prevent overuse injuries to occur is to understand its psychosocial nature. Objective The aim of this study is to describe and structure athletes' experience of psychosocial risk factors preceding overuse injury. Design Elite floor-ball players were interviewed by the first author and based on a semi-structured interview guide. To uncover the underlying meaning in the transcribed interviews, a thematic content analysis was used. Setting Team doctors and physiotherapists in the highest floor-ball leagues (women and men), were contacted and asked to make contact with overuse injured players for interviews regarding their injury. Interviews were recorded at the interviewer's office or the floor-ball arena. The interviews were transcribed verbatim. Participants were informed about the purpose and the method of the study. That participation was voluntary, that their responses would be treated confidentially and that their identities would not be revealed in the reporting of the findings. Participants Nine male and one female elite floor-ball players diagnosed with a present overuse injury were recruited for voluntary participation. Main outcome measurements Psychosocial factors experienced by elite floor-ball players preceding overuse injuries. Assessment of risk factors Assessment is conducted through qualitative analysis. Results Three main themes evolved in the analysis; a) several players experienced pain while competing. However, it is difficult to separate normal/daily pain to warnings signals of an injury, b) many players experienced a culture in the team including not talking about their first symptoms, and, c) time for mental and physical recovery was not given during the season. Conclusion Players experienced a culture where it is not acceptable to talk about non traumatic pain. Periods of rest were limited leading to a need for mental recovery.

  • 21.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Reduction of sport injuries in male elite icehockey in Sweden: A psychological intervention study2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: According to current statistics ice hockey is ranked as a high-risk injury sport. However, recent research shows the possibility of preventing the occurrence of sport-related injury in high-risk sport through psychological intervention.Objective: The objective was to study the potential of reducing injuries among male elite ice hockey players through brief psychological interventions during a season. Design: An experimental prospective intervention study, using a matched pair, experimental control group design was used followed by a pretest–posttest and a qualitative analysis.Setting: One Swedish elite ice hockey team was contacted for psychometric testing. Moreover, brief intervention was performed outside the training facilities of the team. Main Outcome Measurement: Athletic coping skills inventory— 28 and the sports anxiety scale was used to measure coping and anxiety before and after the intervention. A sport injury frequency form was used to record all injuries before and during the study. In addition, a critical incidence diary was used (experimental group) to record situations that were experienced as positive and negative within as well as outside ice hockey.Participants: Altogether 10 players in the experimental group and 14 players in the control group constituted the group of participants in the study. Interventions: Five individual sessions using somatic and cognitive intervention as well as self-confidence and goal-setting training were conducted within the experimental group.Results: The study showed that the experimental group faced fewer injuries compared with the control group (p,0.05). Although no statistical differences emerge using the psychometrics, the qualitative analysis, using citation techniques of the critical incidence diary, showed that the experimental group had moredifficulty finding negative stressful moments at the end of the study compared with the beginning. Conclusion: It seems possible to decrease sport-related injuries through psychological interventions such as stress management in a brief intervention programme for ice hockey players.

  • 22.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Sports injury prevention: A psychological intervention program focusing floorball2012In: Book of Abstracts of the 17th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science: 4-7th July ECSS Bruges 2012 – Belgium / [ed] Meeusen, R., Duchateau, J., Roelands, B., Klass, M., De Geus, B., Baudry, S., Tsolakidis, E., Cologne: European College of Sport Science , 2012, p. 276-276Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sports injuries are an obstacle in most athletes’ strive to achieve their goals. It is of importance to develop rehabilitation programmes and safe return to sport; also preventive intervention programmes are required. The aetiology of sports injuries shows multi-facetted natures. The results of psychological studies shows evidence that psycho-social factors affect the injury-risk exist (e.g. Johnson, 2011). One theoretical framework to intervention programme is Williams and Ander-sen’s stress-injury model (1998). The model provides psychosocial factors which are activated by the athletes’ cognitive and somatic stress-response. Over the years, psychological preventive intervention programmes have been evaluated, aiming to reduce the number of injuries through stress- management (e.g. Johnson et al., 2005). In our recently conducted study, the overall aim was to reduce the stress-response through a psycho-educational intervention and consequently lower the number of injuries. Out of the 22 participating Swedish elite male and female floorball teams, 10 teams were randomized to a preventive intervention programme. This programme was implemented during the first half of the season and consisted of six hour-long sessions with one whole team at a time, based on goal-setting, stress management, concentration, relaxation, self-confidence and emotions. The program was constructed to meet the cognitive and somatic reactions of stress. All sustained injures were recorded at the start of the study and registered as they occurred during the eight months season’s. The intervention-group sustained less injuries compared to the control-group. Reports of past and present research will be given at the seminar. References Johnson, U., Ekengren, J., & Andersen, M., B. (2005). Injury prevention in Swe-den. Helping soccer players at risk. Journal of Sport &. Exercise Psychology, 27, 32- 38. Johnson, U. (2011). Athletes’ experiences of psy-chosocial risk factors preceding injury, Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 3, 99-115. Williams, J. M., & Andersen, M. B. (1998). Psychosocial antecedents of sport injury: Review and critique of the stress and injury model. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 10, 5-25.

  • 23.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity. Stockholm Sports Trauma Research Center, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Engström, Björn
    Stockholm Sports Trauma Research Center, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Capio Artro Clinic, Sophiahemmet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Skillgate, Eva
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden & Scandinavian College of Napraphatic Manual Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Werner, Susanne
    Stockholm Sports Trauma Research Center, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Capio Artro Clinic, Sophiahemmet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Psychological antecedents of overuse injuries in Swedish elite floorball players2014In: Athletic Insight: The Online Journal of Sport Psychology, ISSN 1536-0431, E-ISSN 1947-6299, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 155-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The epidemiology of sport injuries is well documented and the injuries can be divided into either traumatic or overuse injuries. So far, most research aiming to predict and prevent sport injures has focused on physical factors and traumatic sport injuries. The aim of this study was to identify psychological factors preceding overuse injuries. Eleven senior elite floorball players (men: n=9, women: n=2) were interviewed regarding their experiences of potentially stressful events before the onset of an overuse injury. Based on a thematic content analysis, five core themes were developed: history of stressors, person factors, psycho-physiological factors, psychosocial factors and ineffective coping. The results are discussed in the context of related research concerning subthemes and themes, such as stress, motivation, pain and social support; finally, recommendations are given for athletes and coaches. A working model is also suggested for future research. © 2014 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

  • 24.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity. Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Stockholm Sports Trauma Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Engström, Björn
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Stockholm Sports Trauma Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden & Capio Artro Clinic, Sophiahemmet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Skillgate, Eva
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden & Scandinavian College of Naprapathic Manual Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Stockholm Sports Trauma Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden & Capio Artro Clinic, Sophiahemmet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A psychological injury prevention group intervention in Swedish floorball2015In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 3414-3420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The main purpose of the study was to evaluate a psychological skills training intervention at group level aiming to prevent injuries, separated in traumatic and overuse, in male and female elite floorball players.

    Methods

    Twenty-three teams in the premiere leagues for males and females were volunteered, and the teams were allocated to an intervention group (n = 11, males n = 94, females n = 99) and a control group (n = 12, males n = 109, females n = 99). The teams in the intervention group participated in a psychological skills training programme consisting of six meetings with each team. The control group received no substitute. All injuries were registered and documented according to the time-loss definition and classified into either traumatic or overuse.

    Results

    In total, 142 players (35 %) out of the 401 players sustained 197 injuries, 0.49 injury/player: in the intervention group 0.45 injury/player and in the control group 0.53 injury/player. The analyses revealed no significant differences in injuries between intervention groups and control groups. The effect size of the influence of the psychological skills training in overuse injuries was considered to be small, Cohen’s d 0.2.

    Conclusions

    This study comprised the whole team for a group intervention and did not screen for at-risk athletes, e.g. scoring high in anxiety or low in coping skills, which might have influenced the result. A psychological injury prevention intervention forward to a whole team might not influence the injury occurrence significantly. Thus, this psychological intervention decreased the injury incidence which is of clinical interest.

    Level of incidence

    Level II.

    © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

  • 25.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity. Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Stockholm Sports Trauma Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden & Capio Artro Clinic, Sophiahemmet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Engström, Björn
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Stockholm Sports Trauma Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden & Capio Artro Clinic, Sophiahemmet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Skillgate, Eva
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden & Scandinavian College of Naprapathic Manual Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Stockholm Sports Trauma Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden & Capio Artro Clinic, Sophiahemmet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sports injury prevention in Swedish elite floorball players: evaluation of two consecutive floorball seasons2015In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 899-905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of a psychological group-based injury prevention, which was implemented throughout the first season, after the second season, in Swedish elite floorball teams (males and females). The secondary objective was to evaluate the effect of the intervention over the two consecutive floorball seasons as a whole.

    Methods

    Twenty-three teams in the premier leagues for males and females volunteered and were allocated to an intervention group, n = 175 players, and a control group n = 171 players. The intervention group participated in psychological skills training during the first season. The control group did not receive any alternative treatment. Neither of the groups received any intervention during the second season. All injuries were registered and documented according to time-loss definition and classified into either traumatic or overuse injuries.

    Results

    Ninety-three players (27 %) sustained 119 injuries during the second season. The intervention group 0.31 (95 % CI 0.22–0.39) and the control group 0.41 (95 % CI 0.29–0.53) injuries/player. The injury incidence decreased in the intervention group and was lower than the control group. The analysis showed no statistical differences when comparing the intervention group and the control group neither after the second season nor after the two seasons together, Cohen’s d 0.2.

    Conclusion

    This group-based training showed a small effect size after the second year resulting in fewer injuries, especially severe injuries, in the intervention group compared to the control group. It is, therefore, important not to overlook the potential of a group-based psychological injury prevention programme.

    Level of incidence: II.

    © 2014, European Society of Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery, Arthroscopy (ESSKA).

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