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  • 1. Andreasson, Mats
    et al.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Borgström, Margaretha
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Värmeanvändning i flerbostadshus och lokaler2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi­family houses and service sector premises constitute 80 % of the customer stock in the Swedish district heating systems. The level of future heat use in these buildings will then have a strong influence on the future district heating economy and the cor­ responding investment demand. As a foundation for a planned study of future heat use, we have per­formed an extensive study of the current heat use for large buildings in Sweden. The input information for this study was the anonymous answers to the an­ nual enquiry of energy use in multi­family houses and service sector premises regarding 2006. Answers were available from 11253 buildings having 77.6 million square meters of residential areas and premises. By using scale factors, estimations could be made for the whole country having 310 million square meters of multi­family houses and premi­ ses. Hence, the enquiry sample constituted a large share of the whole building stock.The specific heat use was analysed by distribution, degree­days, construction year, ventila­tion system, performed conservation measures, and co­operation with other heat supply. A separate study was performed concerning high and low heat use buildings. The use of cold for cooling and water were also analysed.The results show that the individual variations are much larger than the systematic explana­tions for the parameters analysed. Just above 10% of the building spaces were high users of heat (above 200 kWh/m2). The average difference between Northern and Southern Sweden was small, implying a small climatic impact in heat use. The time period between 1965 and 1974 containing the national million dwelling program did not show dramatically higher heat use in the construction year analysis. Installed heat recovery in the ventilation gave a reduction in heat use with 11 kWh/m2 for multi­family houses. This small difference im­plies that the recovery efficiencies were only in average 20­30%. However, the heat recov­ery in service sector buildings was in average more efficient: About 50% in recovery effi­ciency. The conclusion from the conservation analysis is that the measures performed dur­ing the 10 years were done by late­comers rather than by early adopters, since the heat uses after measures in general correspond to the average level for all buildings. Out of 34000 heat pumps installed in the buil­ dings, about half of them were installed in buildings con­nected to district heating.But when more the one heat supply exists, district heat supply dominates, especially in multi­family houses.Typical users with high demands were buildings in the Västmanland and Norrbot­ ten coun­ties, fuel users, certain co­use with electricity, municipal premises, and small buildings. Typical users with low demands were buildings in the Halland county, heat pumps (but due to the systematic error of just accounting for the electricity supply to the heat pumps), state­owned buildings, and large buildings.The district heating companies can help their customers by identification of them as users with high, normal or low demands. This can be accomplished by adding infor­ mation about building space surfaces in the customer files. The heat use above the level 150 kWh/m2 was only 13 % for the multi­family houses and 14 % for the premises. Complete elimination of high use of district heat would then only give a limited, but significant reduction of the total district heat supply.

    Our 6 major conclusions from the project became: • Individual variations dominate compared to systematic causes considering heatuse in multi­family and service sector buildings. • Some systematic causes were identified. • A demand exists for more local measurements of electricity used for heating, thevolume of water use for hot water. • The district heating companies can help their customers to identify them as high,medium or low users of heat. • On short term, a significant potential exists for lower heat use in the Swedishmulti­family and service sector buildings. • More efficient heat use in building will probably be the most important competi­tor to district heat supply in the future.

  • 2.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Hansson, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Niklas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Klimatgaser i Halland – en målinriktad analys med framtidsperspektiv2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten innehåller en analys av utsläppen av de sex klimatgaserna i Halland mellan 1990 och 2011, en skattning vad som kommer att genomföras till 2020 och förslag till åtgärder för att kunna leverera utsläppsreduktioner efter 2020. Resultaten visar att de halländska utsläppen har minskat med 20 procent sedan 1990, målet om 27 procent lägre utsläpp till 2020 kommer troligen att uppnås, transporter och jordbruk måste kunna leverera utsläppsreduktioner efter 2020, regionala plan- och styrdokument måste i större utsträckning kunna kvantifiera framtida utsläppsreduktioner samt att det behövs ett regionalt kompetenscenter i Halland för att länet ska kunna leverera utsläppsreduktioner i framtiden.

  • 3.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Ingvarsson, Paul
    ÅF, Division Industry, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Gong, Mei
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Large heat pumps in Swedish district heating systems2017In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 79, p. 1275-1284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Power-to-heat solutions like heat pumps and electric boilers are foreseen to be possible future tools to stabilise international power markets with high proportions of variable power supply. Temporary low cost electricity can be used for heat generation at times with high availability of wind and solar power through substitution of ordinary heat supply, hence contributing to increased energy system sustainability. Power-to-heat installations in district heating systems are competitive due to low specific investment and installation costs for large electric boilers, heat pumps, and heat storages. Several large-scale heat pumps were installed in Swedish district heating systems during the 1980s, since a national electricity surplus from new nuclear power existed for some years. The aim of this paper is to summarise the accumulated operation experiences from these large Swedish heat pumps to support and facilitate planning of future power-to-heat solutions with heat pumps in district heating systems. Gained experiences consider; installed capacities, capacity utilisation, heat sources used, refrigerant replacements, refrigerant leakages, and wear of mechanical components. The major conclusion is that many of the large thirty-year-old heat pumps are still in operation, but with reduced capacity utilisation due to internal competition from waste and biomass cogeneration plants in the district heating systems.

  • 4.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Ingvarsson, Paul
    ÅF, Division Industry, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    On the use of surplus electricity in district heating systems2014In: Proceedings from the 14th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling: September, 6-10, 2014: Stockholm, Sweden / [ed] Anna Land, Stockholm: Swedish District Heating Association , 2014, p. 469-474Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintained balance between supply and demand is a fundamental prerequisite for proper operation of electric power grids. For this end, power systems rely on accessibility to various balancing technologies and solutions by which fluctuations in supply and demand can be promptly met. In this paper, balancing approaches in the case of surplus electricity supply, due to long-term, seasonal, or short-term causes, are discussed on the basis mainly of compiled experiences from the Swedish national power grid. In Sweden, a structural long-term electricity surplus was created in the 1980s when several new nuclear plants were commissioned and built. One of four explicit domestic power-to-heat solutions initiated to maximize the utilization of this surplus electricity, as export capacities were limited, was the introduction of large scale electric boilers and compressor heat pumps in district heating systems. In retrospective, this solution not only satisfied the primary objective by providing additional electricity demand to balance the power grid, but represents today – from an energy systems perspective – a contemporary example of increased system flexibility by the attainment of higher integration levels between power and heat sectors. As European power supply will be reshaped to include higher proportions of fluctuating supply technologies (e.g. wind and solar), causing occasional but recurring short-term electricity surpluses, the unique Swedish experiences may provide valuable input in the development of rational responses to future balancing challenges. The main conclusions from this study are that district heating systems can add additional balancing capabilities to power systems, if equipped with electrical heat supply technologies, hereby contributing to higher energy system flexibility. Consequently, district heating systems also have a discrete but key role in the continued integration of renewable intermittent power supply technologies in the future European energy system.

  • 5.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Efficient heat distribution in solar district heating systems2018In: SDH Solar District Heating: Proceeding, 2018, p. 63-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contains a short analysis showing the main benefit for solar district heating when a novel heat distribution concept with low temperatures is applied. The analysis is performed by comparing the annual solar heat output from a solar collector field for current heat distribution temperatures in Sweden with the corresponding output for the novel heat distribution concept. The results show that the new low temperature concept provides 66% more solar heat for a typical solar collector. Hereby, the solar collector field can be reduced with 40%, giving a corresponding cost reduction for solar heat generated. Another result is that the cost gradient for lower costs from lower return temperatures is five times higher for solar district heating compared to current heat supply in Swedish district heating systems. One major conclusion is that high heat distribution temperatures in current European district heating systems are a major barrier for the competitiveness of solar district heating.

  • 6.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Essential Improvements in Future District Heating Systems2016In: Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling: September 4th - 7th, 2016, Seoul, South Korea / [ed] Rolf Ulseth & Kyung Min Kim, 2016, p. 194-200Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The major common denominator for future efficient fourth generation district heating systems is lower temperature levels in the distribution networks. Higher efficiencies are then obtained in both heat supply and heat distribution. Heat supply becomes more efficient with respect to combined heat and power, flue gas condensation, heat pumps, geothermal extraction, low temperature excess heat, and heat storage. Heat distribution becomes more efficient from lower distribution losses, less pipe expansion, lower scalding risks, and plastic pipes. The lower temperature levels will be possible since future buildings will have lower temperature demands when requiring lower heat demands. This paper aims at providing seven essential recommendations concerning design and construction strategies for future fourth generation systems. The method used is based on a critical examination of the barriers for lower temperature levels and the origins of high return temperatures in contemporary third generation systems. The two main research questions applied are: Which parts of contemporary system design are undesirable? Which possible improvements are desirable? Key results and the corresponding recommendations include temperature levels for heat distribution, recirculation, metering, supervision, thermal lengths for heat exchangers and heat sinks, hydronic balancing, and legionella. The main conclusion is that it should be possible to construct new fourth generation district heating networks according to these seven essential recommendations presented in this paper.

  • 7.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Essential improvements in future district heating systems2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 116, p. 217-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The major common denominator for future efficient fourth generation district heating systems is lower temperature levels in the distribution networks. Higher efficiencies are then obtained in both heat supply and heat distribution. Heat supply becomes more efficient with respect to combined heat and power, flue gas condensation, heat pumps, geothermal extraction, low temperature excess heat, and heat storage. Heat distribution becomes more efficient from lower distribution losses, less pipe expansion, lower scalding risks, and plastic pipes. The lower temperature levels will be possible since future buildings will have lower temperature demands when requiring lower heat demands. This paper aims at providing seven essential recommendations concerning design and construction strategies for future fourth generation systems. The method used is based on a critical examination of the barriers for lower temperature levels and the origins of high return temperatures in contemporary third generation systems. The two main research questions applied are: Which parts of contemporary system design are undesirable? Which possible improvements are desirable? Key results and the corresponding recommendations include temperature levels for heat distribution, recirculation, metering, supervision, thermal lengths for heat exchangers and heat sinks, hydronic balancing, and legionella. The main conclusion is that it should be possible to construct new fourth generation district heating networks according to these seven essential recommendations presented in this paper. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  • 8.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Framtida fjärrvärmeteknik: Möjligheter med en fjärde teknikgeneration2017Report (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Novel low temperature heat distribution technology2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 145, p. 526-539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lower future heat demands and lower availability of non-fossil high temperature heat supply are expected future market conditions that restrain the long-term viability of contemporary district heating systems. Hence, current district heating technology should be enhanced to increase system performance in new heat distribution areas. This paper aims to outline a proposal for technical improvements required to achieve lower annual average return temperatures in new residential buildings to improve viability in future market conditions. The proposed technical solution consists of three principle changes: three-pipe distribution networks, apartment substations, and longer thermal lengths for heat exchangers. The three technical modifications aims at addressing system embedded temperature errors. Furthermore, a simulation model was developed to assess the proposed technical solution concerning different energy performances of buildings and different thermal lengths in heat exchangers. The results show that implementation of the three technical modifications reaches time-weighted annual average return temperatures of 17–21 °C with supply temperatures of about 50 °C. The results also verify the increased necessity to separate the network return flows into delivery and recirculation flows in residential substations as energy performance in buildings increase.

  • 10.
    Averfalk, Helge
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Felsmann, Clemens
    Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
    Rühling, Karin
    Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
    Wiltshire, Robin
    Building Research Establishment (BRE), Garston, Watford, United Kingdom.
    Svendsen, Svend
    Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Li, Hongwei
    Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Faessler, Jérôme
    University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Floriane, Mermoud
    University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Quiquerez, Loïc
    University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Transformation Roadmap from High to Low Temperature District Heating Systems: Annex XI final report2017Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Borgström, Karin Margaretha
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Distribution of heat use in Sweden2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current heat use refers normally to the average heat use in a country or a sector during the course of a year. But it is also important to be aware of the distribution of high to low use when estimating the potential for reducing total heat use.Energy statistical data published in the annual report from Statistics Sweden have been supplemented by a deeper analysis of distribution of heat use and systematic causes regarding high heat use.The aim of this paper is to explain the variation in heat use with respect to construction year, degree days and energy efficiency measures.In the Swedish energy efficiency debate, many voices refer to systematic causes for high heat use. However, the results from this study do not support this opinion, since the use distribution mostly comes from individual causes. The most important implication of the study results is that systematic policy measures will have a low impact on the total national energy efficiency.

  • 12.
    Connolly, David
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Lund, Henrik
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Mathiesen, Brian Vad
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Möller, Bernd
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Boermans, Thomas
    Ecofys, Köln, Germany.
    Trier, Daniel
    PlanEnergi, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Østergaard, Poul Alberg
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Steffen
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Heat Roadmap Europe: Combining district heating with heat savings to decarbonise the EU energy system2014In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 65, p. 475-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Six different strategies have recently been proposed for the European Union (EU) energy system in the European Commission’s report, Energy Roadmap 2050. The objective for these strategies is to identify how the EU can reach its target of an 80% reduction in annual greenhouse gas emissions in 2050 compared to 1990 levels. None of these scenarios involve the large-scale implementation of district heating, but instead they focus on the electrification of the heating sector (primarily using heat pumps) and/or the large-scale implementation of electricity and heat savings. In this paper, the potential for district heating in the EU between now and 2050 is identified, based on extensive and detailed mapping of the EU heat demand and various supply options. Subsequently, a new ‘district heating plus heat savings’ scenario is technically and economically assessed from an energy systems perspective. The results indicate that with district heating, the EU energy system will be able to achieve the same reductions in primary energy supply and carbon dioxide emissions as the existing alternatives proposed. However, with district heating, these goals can be achieved at a lower cost, with heating and cooling costs reduced by approximately 15%. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 13.
    Connolly, David
    et al.
    Department of Development and Planning Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Lund, Henrik
    Department of Development and Planning Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Vad Mathiesen, Brian
    Department of Development and Planning Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Möller, Bernd
    Department of Development and Planning Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Østergaard, Poul Alberg
    Department of Development and Planning Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Steffen
    Department of Development and Planning Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Trier, Daniel
    PlanEnergi, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    The role of district heating in decarbonising the EU energy system and a comparison with existing strategies2013In: Book of Abstracts: 8th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many strategies have already been proposed for the decarbonisation of the EU energy system by the year 2050. These typically focus on the expansion of renewable energy in the electricity sector and subsequently, electrifying both the heat and transport sectors as much as possible. In these strategies, the role of district heating has never been fully explored system, nor have the benefits of district heating been quantified at the EU level. This study combines the mapping of local heat demands and local heat supplies across the EU27. Using this local knowledge, new district heating potentials are identified and then, the EU27 energy system is modelled to investigate the impact of district heating. The results indicate that a combination of heat savings, district heating in urban areas, and individual heat pumps in rural areas will enable the EU27 to reach its greenhouse gas emissions targets by 2050, but at a cheaper price than a scenario which focuses primarily on the implementation of heat savings.

  • 14.
    Connolly, David
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Mathiesen, Brian Vad
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Østergaard, Poul Alberg
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Möller, Bernd
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Steffen
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Lund, Henrik
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Trier, Daniel
    PlanEnergi, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Heat Roadmap Europe 2050: First Pre-study for the EU272012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This pre-study presents the findings concerning a considerable outlined expansion of the district heating sector within the current EU27 member states until 2050. Heat deliveries are presumed to grow by a factor of 2.1 until 2030 and by a factor of 3.3 until 2050.

    The current energy policy context is that the latest energy communication from the European Commission (Energy Roadmap 2050) contains only a very modest growth in the future for district heating systems and additional industrial heat use from industrial CHP plants. A small increase is foreseen for industrial demands, while heat deliveries to the residential and service sectors are expected to decrease. In total, the heat delivered is expected to increase by less than one per cent per year, giving a total increase of 20% until 2030 and of 40% until 2050.

    In this prestudy, more ambitious growth rates are assessed for district heating in the EU27 between 2010 and 2050. The chosen methodology in this pre-study contains a combination of hour-by-hour energy modelling of the EU27 energy system and mapping of local conditions, which is essential for district heating analysis. However, the link between these two actions has not been fully utilised in this pre-study due to the limited working time available: The mapping action has only indicated the input to the energy modelling action.

  • 15.
    Connolly, David
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Mathiesen, Brian Vad
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Østergaard, Poul Alberg
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Möller, Bernd
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Steffen
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Lund, Henrik
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Grözinger, Jan
    Ecofys Germany GmbH, Cologne, Germany.
    Boermans, Thomas
    Ecofys Germany GmbH, Cologne, Germany.
    Bosquet, Michelle
    Ecofys Germany GmbH, Cologne, Germany.
    Trier, Daniel
    PlanEnergi, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Heat Roadmap Europe 2050: Second Pre-study for the EU272013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many strategies have already been proposed for the decarbonisation of the EU energy system by the year 2050. These typically focus on the expansion of renewable energy in the electricity sector and subsequently, electrifying both the heat and transport sectors as much as possible. In these strategies, the role of district heating has never been fully explored system, nor have the benefits of district heating been quantified at the EU level. This study combines the mapping of local heat demands and local heat supplies across the EU27. Using this local knowledge, new district heating potentials are identified and then, the EU27 energy system is modelled to investigate the impact of district heating. The results indicate that a combination of heat savings, district heating in urban areas, and individual heat pumps in rural areas will enable the EU27 to reach its greenhouse gas emission targets by 2050, but at a cheaper price than a scenario which focuses primarily on the implementation of heat savings.

  • 16.
    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Li, Hongwei
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Svendsen, Svend
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Persson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Rühling, Karin
    Dresden University of Technology, Dresden, Germany.
    Felsmann, Clemens
    Dresden University of Technology, Dresden, Germany.
    Crane, Martin
    Scottish & Southern Energy, Perthshire, United Kingdom.
    Burzynski, Robert
    Scottish & Southern Energy, Perthshire, United Kingdom.
    Bevilacqua, Ciro
    Building Research Establishment, Watford, United Kingdom.
    Annex X Final report: Toward 4th Generation District Heating: Experience and Potential of Low-Temperature District Heating2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objective

    The evolution of district heating (DH) has gone through three generations since the first introduction of distirct heating. It is characterized by the type of transport media and the network temperature levels: the 1st generation DH system is steam-based system, the 2nd generation DH uses high network supply temperature above 100oC, and the 3rd generation DH represents the current DH system with medium network supply temperature between 80oC to 100oC. Up until now, the 4th generation DH as the low-temperature district heating (LTDH) is emerging as a new system which is going to replace the existing 3rd generation DH system. Comparing with the existing DH system, the LTDH reduces the network supply temperature down to consumer required temperature level, thus greatly improves the quality match between the energy supply and the energy demand. Meanwhile, LTDH coupling with reduced network temperature and well-designed DH network can reduce network heat loss by up to 75% comparing with the current system. This makes DH economically competitive comparing with local heat generation units in the areas with low heat density or with low-energy buildings.

    The traditional approach to evaluating a DH system often focuses on the production/supply aspect and only afterwards on the final users. The LTDH concept switches the perspective, starting from end-user thermal comfort and a quality match between energy supply and energy consumption, and aiming to find the best and most economical way to satisfy the heat demand through efficient distribution networks and supply systems based on waste heat and RE. The new concept therefore starts by identifying suitable in-house substations for low-energy-demand buildings at low supply temperature, goes back to design efficient and reliable networks, and finally considers environmentally-friendly heat production units.

    This report describes the concept of LTDH, collects and discusses successful examples of implementation LTDH in the building heating sector. The objective of this report is to raise awareness and provide insights that will stimulate the research, development and implementation of LTDH systems. It will help to increase public recognition and assist policy makers and energy planners, both at local and governmental level, in promoting cost-effective and environmentally friendly DH systems, and in planning and realizing long-term sustainable urban area development. To this end, the report addresses the following research issues:

    1. What are the main advantages of LTDH?

    2. What technology options are available for LTDH, and what are the associated challenges to consider?

    3. How can the risk of Legionella be mitigated in LTDH?

    4. What lessons can be learned from early LTDH projects?

    5. What heat distribution costs are associated with LTDH?

  • 17.
    David, Andrei
    et al.
    Aalborg Univ, Dept Planning, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Vad Mathiesen, Brian
    Aalborg Univ, Dept Planning, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Averfalk, Helge
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Lund, Henrik
    Aalborg Univ, Dept Planning, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Heat Roadmap Europe: Large-Scale Electric Heat Pumps in District Heating Systems2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Heat Roadmap Europe (HRE) studies estimated a potential increase of the district heating (DH) share to 50% of the entire heat demand by 2050, with approximately 25–30% of it being supplied using large-scale electric heat pumps. This study builds on this potential and aims to document that such developments can begin now with technologies currently available. We present a database and the status of the technology and its ability of expansion to other European locations by reviewing experiences aimed at further research or application in the heating industry. This is based on a survey of the existing capacity of electric large-scale heat pumps with more than 1 MW thermal output, operating in European DH systems. The survey is the first database of its kind containing the technical characteristics of these heat pumps, and provides the basis for the analysis of this paper. By quantifying the heat sources, refrigerants, efficiency and types of operation of 149 units with 1580 MW of thermal output, the study further uses this data to analyze if the deployment of this technology on a large-scale is possible in other locations in Europe. It finally demonstrates that the technical level of the existing heat pumps is mature enough to make them suitable for replication in other locations in Europe.

  • 18.
    Egeskog, Andrea
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hansson, Julia
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Co-generation of biofuels for transportation and heat for district heating systems: An assessment of the national possibilities in the EU2009In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 37, no 12, p. 5260-5272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass gasification with subsequent synthesis to liquid or gaseous biofuels generates heat possible to use in district heating (DH) systems. The purpose here is to estimate the heat sink capacity of DH systems in the individual EU nations and assess the possibilities for biomass-gasification-based co-generation of synthetic biofuels for transportation and heat (CBH) for DH systems in the EU countries. The possibilities are assessed (i) assuming different levels of competiveness relative to other heat supply options of CBH corresponding to the EU target for renewable energy for transportation for 2020 and (ii) assuming that the potential expansion of the DH systems by 2020 is met with CBH. In general, the size of the DH heat sinks represented by the existing national aggregated DH systems can accommodate CBH at a scale that is significant compared to the 2020 renewable transportation target. The possibilities for CBH also depend on its cost-competitiveness compared to, e.g., fossil-fuel-based CHP. The possible expansion of the DH systems by 2020 represents an important opportunity for CBH and is also influenced by the potential increase in the use of other heat supply options, such as, industrial waste heat, waste incineration, and CHP. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 19.
    Egeskog, Andrea
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sverige.
    Hansson, Julia
    Chalmers, Sverige.
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers, Sverige.
    Werner, Sven
    Institutionen för energi och miljö, Energiteknik, Chalmers, Sverige.
    On the possibility for cogeneration of biofuels for transport and heat for district heating systems in EU252008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gasification of biomass with subsequent conversion to liquid biofuels (BtL) results in considerable amounts of surplus heat. Some of this heat could be used in district heating (DH) systems. The aim of this study is to assess the potential for integration of BtL plants with the EU’s DH systems. The major parts of the DH systems are presently based on the use of fossil fuels. The fossil fuels are also dominating the EU transport sector. Thus, integration of BtL plants with the EU’s DH systems could contribute to EU goals of increasing the use of biomass for both heat and transport. The heat sink represented by the aggregated national DH systems is large enough to produce substantial amounts of biofuels for transport by co-generation. However, the potential contribution of the assessed option for meeting the EU target for biofuels for transport for 2020 is highly dependent on BtL plant configuration and competitiveness vs. other heat sources in the DH systems, e.g., CHP. It is found that integration of BtL with DH offers a substantial opportunity, but the attractiveness and possible impacts of expanding such systems need to be further analyzed.

  • 20.
    Ericsson, Karin
    et al.
    Environmental and Energy Systems Studies, Department of Technology and Society, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    The introduction and expansion of biomass use in Swedish district heating systems2016In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 94, p. 57-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating satisfies about 60% of the heat demand in Swedish buildings. Today, more than two thirds of the heat supply to the district heating systems is based on biomass and waste, and biomass alone accounts for about half of the heat supply. The purpose of this paper is to present the Swedish experiences of introducing and expanding the use of biomass in the district heating systems and to identify the main drivers behind this development. Our five research questions and the corresponding conclusions consider the driving forces from energy policy tools and local initiatives, the biomass prices, the established infrastructures in forestry and district heating, the technology paths for biomass conversion, and finally the future challenge of competing uses of biomass. © 2016 The Authors

  • 21.
    Frederiksen, Svend
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    District Heating and Cooling2013 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Gadd, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Achieving low return temperature from district heating substations2014In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 136, p. 59-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating systems contribute with low primary energy supply in the energy system by providing heat from heat assets like combined heat and power, waste incineration, geothermal heat, wood waste, and industrial excess heat. These heat assets would otherwise be wasted or not used. Still, there are several reasons to use these assets as efficiently as possible, i.e., ability to compete, further reduced use of primary energy resources, and less environmental impact. Low supply and return temperatures in the distribution networks are important operational factors for obtaining an efficient district heating system. In order to achieve low return temperatures, customer substations and secondary heating systems must perform without temperature faults. In future fourth generation district heating systems, lower distribution temperatures will be required. To be able to have well-performing substations and customer secondary systems, continuous commissioning will be necessary to be able to detect temperature faults without any delays. It is also of great importance to be able to have quality control of eliminated faults. Automatic meter reading systems, recently introduced into district heating systems, have paved the way for developing new methods to be used in continuous commissioning of substations. This paper presents a novel method using the temperature difference signature for temperature difference fault detection and quality assurance of eliminated faults. Annual hourly datasets from 140 substations have been analysed for temperature difference faults. From these 140 substations, 14 were identified with temperature difference appearing or eliminated during the analysed year. Nine appeared during the year, indicating an annual temperature difference fault frequency of more than 6%. © 2014 The Authors.

  • 23.
    Gadd, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Daily Heat Load Variation in Swedish District Heating Systems2010In: 12th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling, Tallinn, Estonia: Tallinn University of Technology , 2010, p. 199-201Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    If daily heat load variations could be eliminated in district heating-systems, it would make the operation of the district heating system less costly and more competitive . There would be several advantages in the operation such as:

    • Less use of expensive peak load power where often expensive fuels are used.
    • Less need for peak load power capacity.
    • Easier to optimize the operation that leads to higher conversion efficiencies.
    • Less need for maintenance because of more smooth operation of the plants

    There are a number of ways to handle the daily variations of the heat load. Two often used are large heat storages or using the district heating network as temporary storage. If it would be possible to centrally control the customer substations, it would also be possible to use heavy buildings connected to the district heating system as heat storages.

    To be able to find the best way to reduce or even eliminate the daily heat load variations, you need to understand the characteristics of the daily variations. This paper will describe a way of characterizing daily heat load variations in some Swedish district heating-systems.

  • 24.
    Gadd, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Daily heat load variations in Swedish district heating systems2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 106, p. 47-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat load variations in district heating systems are both seasonal and daily. Seasonal variations have mainly its origin from variations in outdoor temperature over the year. The origin of daily variations is mainly induced by social patterns due to customer social behaviours. Heat load variations cause increased costs because of increased peak heat load capacity and expensive peak fuels. Seasonal heat load variations are well-documented and analysed, but analyses of daily heat load variations are scarce. Published analyses are either case studies or models that try to predict daily heat load variations. There is a dearth of suitable assessment methods for more general analyses of existing daily load variations. In this paper, a novel assessment method for describing daily variations is presented. It is applied on district heating systems, but the method is generic and can be applied on every kind of activity where daily variations occur. The method was developed from two basic conditions: independent of system size and no use of external parameters other than of the time series analysed. The method consists of three parameters: the annual relative daily variation that is a benchmarking parameter between systems, the relative daily variation that describes the expected heat storage size to eliminate daily variations, and the relative hourly variation that describes the loading and unloading capacity to and from the heat storage. The assessment method could be used either for design purposes or for evaluation of existing storage. The method has been applied on 20 Swedish district heating systems ranging from small to large systems. The three parameters have been estimated for time series of hourly average heat loads for calendar years. The results show that the hourly heat load additions beyond the daily averages, vary between 3% and 6% of the annual volume of heat supplied to the network. Hereby, the daily variations are smaller than the seasonal variations, since the daily heat load additions, beyond the annual average heat load, are between 17% and 28% of the annual volume of heat supplied to the network. The size of short term heat storage to eliminate the daily heat load variations has been estimated to a heat volume corresponding to about 17% of the average daily heat supplied into the network. This conclusion can also be expressed as an average demand of 2.5 m3 of heat storage volume per TJ of heat supplied by assuming a water temperature difference of 40 C. The capacity for loading and unloading the storage should be equal to about half of the annual average heat load for heat supplied into the network. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 25.
    Gadd, Henrik
    et al.
    Oresundskraft AB, S-25106 Helsingborg, Sweden..
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Fault detection in district heating substations2015In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 157, p. 51-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current temperature levels in European district heating networks are still too high with respect to future conditions as customer heat demands decrease and new possible heat source options emerge. A considerable reduction of temperature levels can be accomplished by eliminating current faults in substations and customer heating systems. These faults do not receive proper attention today, because neither substations nor customer heating systems are centrally supervised. The focus of this paper has been to identify these faults by annual series of hourly meter readings obtained from automatic meter reading systems at 135 substations in two Swedish district heating systems. Based on threshold methods, various faults were identified in 74% of the substations. The identified faults were divided into three different fault groups: Unsuitable heat load pattern, low average annual temperature difference, and poor substation control. The most important conclusion from this early study of big data volumes is that automatic meter reading systems can provide proactive fault detection by continuous commissioning of district heating substations in the future. A complete reduction of current faults corresponds to approximately half the required reduction of the current temperature levels in the effort toward future low-temperature district heating networks. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 26.
    Gadd, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Heat load patterns in district heating substations2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 108, p. 176-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future smart energy grids will require more information exchange between interfaces in the energy system. One interface where dearth of information exists is in district heating substations, being the interfaces between the distribution network and the customer building heating systems. Previously, manual meter readings were collected once or a few times a year. Today, automatic meter readings are available resulting in low cost hourly meter reading data. In a district heating system, errors and deviations in customer substations propagates through the network to the heat supply plants. In order to reduce future customer and heat supplier costs, a demand appears for smart functions identifying errors and deviations in the substations. Hereby, also a research demand appears for defining normal and abnormal heat load patterns in customer substations. The main purpose with this article is to perform an introductory analysis of several high resolution measurements in order to provide valuable information about substations for creating future applications in smart heat grids. One year of hourly heat meter readings from 141 substations in two district heating networks were analysed. The connected customer buildings were classified into five different customer categories and four typical heat load patterns were identified. Two descriptive parameters, annual relative daily variation and annual relative seasonal variation, were defined from each 1 year sequence for identifying normal and abnormal heat load patterns. The three major conclusions are associated both with the method used and the objects analysed. First, normal heat load patterns vary with applied control strategy, season, and customer category. Second, it is possible to identify obvious outliers compared to normal heat loads with the two descriptive parameters used in this initial analysis. Third, the developed method can probably be enhanced by redefining the customer categories by their indoor activities.

  • 27.
    Gadd, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Thermal energy storage systems for district heating and cooling2015In: Advances in Thermal Energy Storage Systems: Methods and Applications / [ed] Luisa F. Cabeza, Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2015, 1, p. 467-478Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The context for this chapter is the current use and typical applications of thermal energy storages within contemporary district heating and cooling systems in the Nordic countries. Examples include a new assessment method, distributed heat storages, and hourly, daily, weekly, and seasonal heat and cold storages. Specific sizes have been estimated for 209 heat storages and 9 cold storages.

  • 28.
    Gong, Mei
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Wall, Göran
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Energy and Exergy Analysis of District Heating Systems2012In: 13th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling: 3rd of September – 4th of September: Copenhagen, Denmark, 2012, p. 55-60Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of exergy is defined and applied to district heating systems. The influence from different reference state conditions and system boundaries are explained in some detail. The aim is to show the simplicity and value of using the concept of exergy when analyzing district heating processes. The exergy factor is introduced and applied for a number of Swedish and Danish district heating systems. This varies from 14.2% to 22.5% for Swedish district heating systems. The higher the exergy factor, the more the exergy losses in the passive conversion towards space heating. Large losses revealed in an exergy treatment of a process should be seen as a challenge to achieve technical improvements of the system.

  • 29.
    Gong, Mei
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    An assessment of district heating research in China2015In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 84, p. 97-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent growth of the Chinese district heating sector has been very high. No other country in the world can show the same growth rate during the last decades. The heated building area increased six times between 1995 and 2008. China has also enjoyed strong growth of scientific articles and papers about district heating in recent years. One third of all international scientific journal articles and conference papers about district heating came from Chinese scientists during 2010–2012, while Swedish scientists accounted for one quarter according to the Scopus scientific search engine. It is important to identify the Chinese district heating research to judge the potential for future collaborative research on district heating systems between Sweden/Europe and China. The 205 international publications on district heating by Chinese scientists published until 2013 have been mapped and summarised with respect to demand, supply, technology, market and environment. More diversified heat supply with renewable source was grasping the Chinese interest, since many new systems have been established, having more degrees of freedom when choosing various heat supply and technology options. The Chinese district heating systems were compared with sustainable district heating solutions in Sweden. Both countries would benefit from future research cooperation. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 30.
    Gong, Mei
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Exergy analysis of network temperature levels in Swedish and Danish district heating systems2015In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 84, p. 106-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exergy concept is applied on district heating systems with different network temperature levels in their distribution networks. These district heating systems use a combination of renewables and heat recovery from other primary processes. The aim is to show simplicity and value of using exergy concept when comparing current and future temperature levels. Both the traditional exergy factor and the novel exergy utilisation rate are used in these analyses. Exergy utilisation rate expresses the ratio between the exergy delivered to customer heating systems and the exergy content in heat supply input to the distribution network. The analyses are performed on four different generations of district heating technologies, two national groups of district heating systems in Denmark and Sweden for revealing variations among systems, and two municipal systems for revealing variations within systems. The main conclusions are simplifications can be introduced in order to analyse the network temperature levels, current exergy factors reveal that current temperature levels can be reduced, and that almost two thirds of the exergy content in heat supply input are lost in the heat distribution chain. These conclusion will be vital input in developing the future fourth generation of district heating systems using both renewables and heat recovery. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 31.
    Gong, Mei
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Mapping energy and exergy flows of district heating in Sweden2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 116, p. 119-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating has been available in Sweden since the 1950s and used more than half of the total energy use in dwelling and no-residential premises in 2013. Energy and exergy efficient conversion and energy resources are key factors to reduce the environmental impact. It is important to understand energy and exergy flows from both the supply and demand sides. The exergy method is also a useful tool for exploring the goal of more efficient energy-resource use. Sankey diagrams together with energy and exergy analyses are presented to help policy/decision makers and others to better understand energy and exergy flows from primary energy resource to end use. The results show the most efficient heating method in current district heating systems, and the use of renewable energy resources in Sweden. It is exergy inefficient to use fossil fuels to generate low quality heat. However, renewable energies, such as geothermal and solar heating with relative low quality, make it more exergy efficient. Currently, about 90% of the energy sources in the Swedish district heating sector have an origin from non-fossil fuels. Combined heat and power is an efficient simultaneous generator of electricity and heat as well as heat pump with considering electricity production. Higher temperature distribution networks give more distribution losses, especially in exergy content. An outlook for future efficient district heating systems is also presented.

  • 32.
    Gong, Mei
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Mapping Energy and Exergy Flows of District Heating in Sweden2016In: Proceedings the 15th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling: September 4th - 7th, 2016, Seoul, South Korea / [ed] Rolf Ulseth & Kyung Min Kim, 2016, p. 96-102Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating has been available in Sweden since the 1950s and used more than half of the total energy use in dwelling and no-residential premises in 2013. Energy and exergy efficient conversion and energy resources are key factors to reduce the environmental impact. It is important to understand energy and exergy flows from both the supply and demand sides. The exergy method is also a useful tool for exploring the goal of more efficient energy-resource use. Sankey diagrams together with energy and exergy analyses are presented to help policy/decision makers and others to better understand energy and exergy flows from primary energy resource to end use. The results show the most efficient heating method in current district heating systems, and the use of renewable energy resources in Sweden. It is exergy inefficient to use fossil fuels to generate low quality heat. However, renewable energies, such as geothermal and solar heating with relative low quality, make it more exergy efficient. Currently, about 90% of the energy sources in the Swedish district heating sector have an origin from non-fossil fuels. Combined heat and power is an efficient simultaneous generator of electricity and heat as well as heat pump with considering electricity production. Higher temperature distribution networks give more distribution losses, especially in exergy content. An outlook for future efficient district heating systems is also presented.

  • 33.
    Gong, Mei
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    On district heating and cooling research in China2014In: Proceedings from the 14th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling: September, 6-10, 2014: Stockholm, Sweden, Stockholm: Swedish District Heating Association , 2014, p. 325-332Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growth of the Chinese district heating sector has been very rapid during recent years. No other country in the world can show the same rapid growth of district heating systems during the last decades. Heated building area increased six times between 1995 and 2008 according to the Chinese district heating statistics. China has also enjoyed strong growth of scientific articles and papers published about district heating in recent years. During 2010-2012, one third of all international scientific journal articles and conference papers about district heating came from Chinese scientists, while Swedish researchers accounted for one quarter. It is important to identify the Chinese district heating and cooling research to judge the potential for future collaborative research on district heating systems between Sweden/Europe and China. Until 2013, Chinese district heating and cooling scientists have published 205 international publications on district heating and 36 publications on district cooling. In this paper, these articles are mapped and summarised with respect to topics, active research institutions, and their technology focuses. Another approach is to grasp the Chinese interest for more diversified heat supply, since many new systems are established and thereby have more degrees of freedom when choosing by various heat supply and technology options.

  • 34.
    Hansson, Julia
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sverige.
    Egeskog, Andrea
    Chalmers, Sverige.
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers, Sverige.
    Werner, Sven
    Institutionen för energi och miljö, Energiteknik, Chalmers, Sverige.
    Cogeneration of biofuels and heat in the European district heating systems2008In: Proceedings of the 16th EU BC&E, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union (EU) aims at an increased use of bioenergy in all sectors as well as an increased energy efficiency. The gasification of biomass with subsequent conversion to gaseous and liquid biofuels generates considerable amounts of surplus heat. Given that some of this heat is made useful in district heating systems, the energy efficiency of such biofuel options would increase. Since the district heating systems in the EU to a large extent is based on fossil fuels, CO2 emissions reduction from the district heating systems could be an additional benefit. The aim of this study is to assess the potential for integrating biofuel plants generating surplus heat with the district heating systems in the member states of the EU. On a national level, the heat sink represented by the district heating systems is large enough to accommodate a substantial biofuel production. However, the realization of this potential is highly dependent on national conditions and its competitiveness against other heat sources in the district heating systems. The attractiveness and possible impacts need to be further analyzed.

  • 35.
    Lund, Henrik
    et al.
    Ålborgs universitet, Ålborg, Danmark.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Wiltshire, Robin
    Building Research Establishment, Watford, UK.
    Svendsen, Svend
    Danmarks Tekniska Universitet - DTU, Lyngby, Danmark.
    Thorsen, Jan Eric
    Danfoss, Nordborg, Danmark.
    Hvelplund, Frede
    Ålborgs Universitet, Ålborg, Danmark.
    Vad Mathiesen, Brian
    Ålborgs universitet, Köpenhamn, Danmark.
    4th Generation District Heating (4GDH): Integrating smart thermal grids into future sustainable energy systems2014In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 68, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper defines the concept of 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH) including the relations to District Cooling and the concepts of smart energy and smart thermal grids. The motive is to identify the future challenges of reaching a future renewable non-fossil heat supply as part of the implementation of overall sustainable energy systems. The basic assumption is that district heating and cooling has an important role to play in future sustainable energy systems – including 100 percent renewable energy systems – but the present generation of district heating and cooling technologies will have to be developed further into a new generation in order to play such a role. Unlike the first three generations, the development of 4GDH involves meeting the challenge of more energy efficient buildings as well as being an integrated part of the operation of smart energy systems, i.e. integrated smart electricity, gas and thermal grids. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 36.
    Lund, Henrik
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Østergaard, Poul Alberg
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Chang, Miguel
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Svendsen, Svend
    DTU, Denmark Technical University, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Sorknæs, Peter
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Thorsen, Jan Eric
    Danfoss Heating Segment, Nordborg, Denmark.
    Hvelplund, Frede
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Mortensen, Bent Ole Gram
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Mathiesen, Brian Vad
    Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bojesen, Carsten
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Duic, Neven
    University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Zhang, Xiliang
    Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Möller, Bernd
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    The status of 4th generation district heating: Research and results2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 164, p. 147-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review article presents a description of contemporary developments and findings related to the different elements needed in future 4th generation district heating systems (4GDH). Unlike the first three generations of district heating, the development of 4GDH involves meeting the challenge of more energy efficient buildings as well as the integration of district heating into a future smart energy system based on renewable energy sources. Following a review of recent 4GDH research, the article quantifies the costs and benefits of 4GDH in future sustainable energy systems. Costs involve an upgrade of heating systems and of the operation of the distribution grids, while benefits are lower grid losses, a better utilization of low-temperature heat sources and improved efficiency in the production compared to previous district heating systems. It is quantified how benefits exceed costs by a safe margin with the benefits of systems integration being the most important. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 37.
    Lygnerud, Kristina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Risk assessment of industrial excess heat recovery in district heating systems2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 151, p. 430-441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recovery of industrial excess heat for use in district heating systems can be characterised by great political interest, high potential, low utilisation and often high profitability. These characteristics reveal that barriers are present for its greater utilisation. One identified barrier is the risk that industries with excess heat can terminate their activities, resulting in the loss of heat recovery. Excess heat recovery investments are therefore sometimes rejected, despite them being viable investments. The risk of termination of industrial activities has been assessed by a study of 107 excess heat recoveries in Sweden. The analysis verified that terminated industrial activities are one of two major explanations for terminated heat delivery. The other major reason is substitution by another heat supply. These two explanations correspond to approximately 6% of all annual average heat recoveries. The identified risk factors are small annual heat recovery and the use of heat pumps when low-temperature heat was recovered. The main conclusion is that a small proportion of industrial heat recovery has been lost in Sweden because of terminated industrial activities. The risk premium of losing industrial heat recovery for this specific reason should be considered to be lower than often presumed in feasibility studies. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 38.
    Lygnerud, Kristina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science.
    Risk of industrial heat recovery in district heating systems2016In: Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling: September 4th - 7th, 2016, Seoul, South Korea / [ed] Rolf Ulseth & Kyung Min Kim, 2016, p. 144-147Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial heat recovery can be used in district heating systems. It is a possibility to make use of heat that is otherwise lost. Increased usage of industrial heat recovery reduces the need for fuel combustion lowering green-house gas (GHG) emissions, such as CO2. Industrial companies can, however, move or close down industrial activities. This is apprehended as a risk and lowers the interest of district heating companies to invest in industrial heat recovery.

    In Swedish district heating systems, industrial heat recoveries have been undertaken since 1974. Today, the heat recovery is active in about seventy systems. This leads to the question of how risky it is, for district heating companies, to engage in industrial heat recovery.

    Over forty years of operation statistics have been collected and analyzed in order to estimate the risk of industrial heat recovery to district heating companies. Key results show that the risk is not linked to different industrial branches. Recommendations include suggestions to management on how to consider risk and consequence when assessing potential industrial heat recovery investments.

  • 39.
    Lygnerud, Kristina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Risk of industrial heat recovery in district heating systems2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 116, p. 152-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial heat recovery can be used in district heating systems. It is a possibility to make use of heat that is otherwise lost. Increased usage of industrial heat recovery reduces the need for fuel combustion lowering green-house gas (GHG) emissions, such as CO2. Industrial companies can, however, move or close down industrial activities. This is apprehended as a risk and lowers the interest of district heating companies to invest in industrial heat recovery.

    In Swedish district heating systems, industrial heat recoveries have been undertaken since 1974. Today, the heat recovery is active in about seventy systems. This leads to the question of how risky it is, for district heating companies, to engage in industrial heat recovery.

    Over forty years of operation statistics have been collected and analyzed in order to estimate the risk of industrial heat recovery to district heating companies. Key results show that the risk is not linked to different industrial branches. Recommendations include suggestions to management on how to consider risk and consequence when assessing potential industrial heat recovery investments. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 40.
    Olsson Ingvarson, Lena
    et al.
    Göteborg Energi AB, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Building mass used as short term heat storage2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Daily variations of the heat demand in a district heating system increase the heat generation cost due to the marginal use of more expensive fuels. The use of building masses as short term heat storage has been investigated by Göteborg Energi. The possible heat storage and the prevailing conditions have been estimated. Field measurements have been performed for verification. The preliminary results show that the daily load variations at system level can be eliminated with building masses as active short term heat storage.

  • 41.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Möller, Bernd
    Europa-Universität Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Heat Roadmap Europe: Identifying strategic heat synergy regions2014In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 74, p. 663-681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a methodology to assess annual excess heat volumes from fuel combustion activities in energy and industry sector facilities based on carbon dioxide emission data. The aim is to determine regional balances of excess heat relative heat demands for all third level administrative regions in the European Union (EU) and to identify strategic regions suitable for large-scale implementation of district heating. The approach is motivated since the efficiency of current supply structures to meet building heat demands, mainly characterised by direct use of primary energy sources, is low and improvable. District heating is conceived as an urban supply side energy efficiency measure employable to enhance energy system efficiency by increased excess heat recoveries; hereby reducing primary energy demands by fuel substitution. However, the importance of heat has long been underestimated in EU decarbonisation strategies and local heat synergies have often been overlooked in energy models used for such scenarios. Study results indicate that 46% of all excess heat in EU27, corresponding to 31% of total building heat demands, is located within identified strategic regions. Still, a realisation of these rich opportunities will require higher recognition of the heat sector in future EU energy policy. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 42.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Möller, Bernd
    Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Mapping local European heat resources: a spatial approach to identify favourable synergy regions for district heating2012In: / [ed] Morten Hofmeister, 2012, p. 261-270Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major setback in standard generic energy modelling is that national conditions constitute the basis for analysis. By such an approach, heat and energy assets, demands, and distribution structures are viewed from an aggregated perspective not permitting insight into unique local circumstances and conditions. As a consequence, genuinely local synergy opportunities, e.g. recovery and utilisation of excess heat from various activities and sources by distribution in district heating systems, are often ignored or overlooked in generic forecasts.

    The ambitious European targets to increase energy efficiency in future power and heat distribution and use acts as a force to address local conditions in a more systematic and thorough sense than previously elaborated. Increased utilisation of local heat assets and recovered excess heat from local activities, to provide space and tap water heating in residential and service sectors, can replace and thus substitute large shares of natural gas and electricity currently being used to satisfy low temperature heat demands. Spatial screening and identification of local conditions throughout Europe, by use of NUTS3 regions as analytical level of reference, can disclose favourable synergy regions by combining information on local heat assets and demands, and hence provide additional and pivotal information to energy modellers.

    In this study, local conditions such as excess heat from thermal power generation plants, Waste-to-Energy incineration facilities, energy intensive industrial processes, and renewable heat assets (geothermal and solar), are depicted together with heat demand concentrations, using GIS based spatial information, to visualise the possibilities of mapping local European heat resources.

  • 43.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Competitiveness of European district heating systems2011In: European Energy Pathways: Pathways to Sustainable European Energy Systems / [ed] Filip Johnsson, Göteborg: Alliance for Global Sustainability (AGS) , 2011, p. 283-290Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    District heating in sequential energy supply2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 95, p. 123-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased recovery of excess heat from thermal power generation and industrial processes has great potential to reduce primary energy demands in EU27. In this study, current excess heat utilisation levels by means of district heat distribution are assessed and expressed by concepts such as recovery efficiency, heat recovery rate, and heat utilisation rate. For two chosen excess heat activities, current average EU27 heat recovery levels are compared to currently best Member State practices, whereby future potentials of European excess heat recovery and utilisation are estimated. The principle of sequential energy supply is elaborated to capture the conceptual idea of excess heat recovery in district heating systems as a structural and organisational energy efficiency measure. The general conditions discussed concerning expansion of heat recovery into district heating systems include infrastructure investments in district heating networks, collaboration agreements, maintained value chains, policy support, world market energy prices, allocation of synergy benefits, and local initiatives. The main conclusion from this study is that a future fourfold increase of current EU27 excess heat utilisation by means of district heat distribution to residential and service sectors is conceived as plausible if applying best Member State practice. This estimation is higher than the threefold increase with respect to direct feasible distribution costs estimated by the same authors in a previous study. Hence, no direct barriers appear with respect to available heat sources or feasible distribution costs for expansion of district heating within EU27. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 45.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Effective Width: The Relative Demand for District Heating Pipe Lengths in City Areas2010In: 12th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling, Tallinn: Tallinn University of Technology , 2010, p. 128-131Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One key concept when assessing network investment cost levels for district heating systems is the linear heat density. In contrast to a traditional way of expressing this quantity entirely on the basis of empirical data, a recently developed analytical approach has made it possible to estimate linear heat densities on the basis of demographic data categories. A vital complementing quantity in this analytical approach is the concept of effective width.

    Effective width describes the relationship between a given land area and the length of the district heating pipe network within this area. When modelling distribution capital cost levels by use of land area values for plot ratio calculations, there is a potential bias of overestimating distribution capital cost levels in low dense park city areas (e < 0.3). Since these areas often include land area sections without any housing, avoiding overestimations of network investment costs demand some kind of corrective mechanism.

    By use of calculated effective width values, a compensating effect at low plot ratio levels is achieved, and, hence, renders lower anticipated distribution capital cost levels in low dense park city areas.

  • 46.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Evaluating competitiveness of district heating using a distribution capital cost model2011In: Methods and models: used in the project Pathways to Sustainable European Energy Systems, January 2011 / [ed] Filip Johnsson, Göteborg: Alliance for Global Sustainability (AGS) , 2011, p. 157-160Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Heat distribution and the future competitiveness of district heating2011In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 88, no 3, p. 568-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The competitiveness of present and future district heating systems can be at risk when residential and service sector heat demands are expected to decrease in the future. In this study, the future competitiveness of district heating has been examined by an in depth analysis of the distribution capital cost at various city characteristics, city sizes, and heat demands. Hereby, this study explores an important market condition often neglected or badly recognised in traditional comparisons between centralised and decentralised heat supply.

    By a new theoretical approach, the traditional and empirical expression for linear heat density is transformed into an analytical expression that allows modelling of future distribution capital cost levels also in areas where no district heating exists today. The independent variables in this new analytical expression are population density, specific building space, specific heat demand and effective width.

    Model input data has primarily been collected from national and European statistical sources on heat use, city populations, city districts and residential living areas. Study objects were 83 cities in Belgium, Germany, France, and the Netherlands. The average heat market share for district heat within these cities was 21 % during 2006.

    The main conclusion is that the future estimated capital costs for district heat distribution in the study cities are rather low, since the cities are very dense. At the current situation, a market share of 60 % can be reached with a marginal distribution capital cost of only 2.1 €/GJ, corresponding to an average distribution capital cost of 1.6 €/GJ. The most favourable conditions appear in large cities and in inner city areas. In the future, there is a lower risk for reduced competitiveness due to reduced heat demands in these areas, since the increased distribution capital cost is low compared to the typical prices of district heat and competing heat supply. However, district heating will lose competitiveness in low heat density areas. Hence, reduced heat demands in high heat density areas are not a general barrier for district heating in the future. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 48.
    Persson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Quantifying the Heating and Cooling Demand in Europe: Work Package 2, Background Report 4 2015Report (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Rögnvaldsson, Thorsteinn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Brink, Joachim
    Halmstad University.
    Florén, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Gaspes, Veronica
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Holmgren, Noél
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Lutz, Mareike
    Halmstad University.
    Nilsson, Pernilla
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Research on Education and Learning within the Department of Teacher Education (FULL).
    Olsfelt, Jonas
    Halmstad University.
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Ericsson, Claes
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Research on Education and Learning within the Department of Teacher Education (FULL).
    Gustafsson, Linnea
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Contexts and Cultural Boundaries (KK).
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Hylander, Jonny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Nygren, Jens
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK).
    Sandberg, Mikael
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Center for Social Analysis (CESAM).
    Benner, Mats
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Berg, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Center for Social Analysis (CESAM).
    Bergvall, Patrik
    Halmstad University.
    Carlborg, Anna
    Halmstad University.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Hållander, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Olsson, Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Rundquist, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Waara, Sylvia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    ARC13 – Assessment of Research and Coproduction: Reports from the assessment of all research at Halmstad University 20132014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    During 2013, an evaluation of all the research conducted at Halmstad University was carried out. The purpose was to assess the quality of the research, coproduction, and collaboration in research, as well as the impact of the research. The evaluation was dubbed the Assessment of Research and Coproduction 2013, or ARC13. (Extract from Executive Summary)

  • 50.
    Sernhed, Kerstin
    et al.
    Department of Energy Sciences, Lund University, Sweden.
    Lygnerud, Kristina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energy Science. Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Synthesis of recent Swedish district heating research2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 151, p. 126-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, district heating meets currently above half of the heat demands in buildings. District heating research in Sweden has a long tradition dating back to 1975. The latest research program period included 34 projects and was executed between 2013 and 2017. In this paper, a synthesis is performed on the Swedish research frontier by assessing these recent research projects. The three study purposes was to provide an overview over the executed projects, to identify new research questions, and to identify future challenges to the Swedish district heating industry. The assessment was based on six defined key areas, such as demand, resources, system frameworks, technology, cold supply, and international perspective. The subsequent content analysis was performed from three perspectives: the perspective of energy system transition, the customer perspective, and the sustainability perspective. Final conclusions include the three future challenges for the Swedish district heating industry. These are future strategies to communicate the value of district heating, vision for district heating beyond the transition to fossil free supply, and technology development for efficient use of low temperature heat sources. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

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