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  • 1.
    Amal, Mohamed
    et al.
    FURB, Blumenau, Brazil.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Raboch, Henrique
    FURB, Blumeanu, Brazil.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Differences and similarities of the internationalization processes of multinational companies from developed and emerging countries2013In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 411-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims, by a direct comparison, to address the differences and similarities of the internationalization processes of multinational companies both from developed and emerging countries.

    Design/methodology/approach: This study employed qualitative approach, using an integrated model of internationalization process. Multiple case studies, with two companies with significant involvement in foreign markets and originating in countries with different levels of development, were carried out.

    Findings: The results reveal that the case companies show some differences with regards to their use of ownership advantages to facilitate their internationalization. On the other hand, learning and experience of internationalization, coupled with the use of networks, have been factors that have influenced the pace and the pattern of the case companies' internationalization. An integrated model, which includes variables related to networks and learning/experience, may contribute to the understanding of the case of multinational companies from emerging economies.

    Originality/value: Although the research field of emerging multinationals has been growing lately, very few attempts have been made in the sense of directly comparing the internationalization process of firms from both developed and emerging countries. The authors proposed an integrated analytical model that draws on insights from the eclectic paradigm and the Uppsala internationalization model. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 2.
    Amos, Gideon Jojo
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    In search of competitiveness through innovation-driven corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives in Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) subsidiaries2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Amos, Gideon Jojo
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Baffour Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    In search of competitiveness through innovation-driven CSR initiatives in Multinational Enterprise subsidiaries in developing countries2017In: Journal of Developing Country Studies, ISSN 2224-607X, E-ISSN 2225-0565, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 161-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The objective of the present study is to investigate opportunities for integrating innovation and CSR in the context of firms’ activities. This is explored by investigating the extent to which innovation may complement CSR activities of MNE subsidiaries in developing-countries.

    Method/approach – This paper employs literature study to describe how innovation complements CSR in the search for competitiveness at the level of the firm. In doing so, the competitiveness of firms, which is often driven by the demands for responsible behaviour and innovativeness, is derived from studying the extant literature. By drawing from multiple theoretical lenses (i.e., legitimacy theory, stakeholder theory, CSR literature, firms’ reputation, and innovativeness), we aim at evaluating their collective impact on firms’ competitiveness.

    Findings - The model suggests that firm’s contextual capabilities (e.g. legitimacy, innovation, and stakeholders) can define its CSR activities (e.g. CSR ethical, CSR social, and CSR environmental). The cumulative effects of these, define firm’s reputation, which eventually, produces firm’s own competitiveness. The study has argued that there is more to firms’ stakeholders than ordinary resources required in furtherance of firms’ economic objectives. It therefore follows that stakeholders’ potential to constitute a pool of resources and capabilities that the firm can blend with to realize its strategic objectives ought to be stressed. Consequently, markets and for that matter firms, are subject to CSR and innovation demands through, for example, more socially responsible productive behaviour. This requires that MNE subsidiaries in developing-countries connect different strategies towards improving their own competitiveness. This may be accomplished through, re-packaging CSR into bundles of interrelated activities, collaborating with stakeholders to jointly create and deliver social and economic values, and integrating CSR into productive activities that may lead to bundles of products to suit local market conditions.

    © www.iiste.org

  • 4.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Aagerup, Ulf
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Building Brand Personality in a Business-to-Business Context – the Case of Born Globals2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Branding has for a long time been in focus in strategic decision making for firms in a business-to-consumer context. Brands has been used as a tool to differentiate products and position firms’ offers towards competitors. In a business-to business context branding has not been in focus in the same way. Strategic decisions have more dealt with technology innovation and market expansions. In recent times, a greater interest for brand building in a business to business (B2B) context has emerged, both in practice and academia, especially for globally active B2B firms that strive to create a unified look of their products and firms. The hard global competition has made it difficult to compete on product quality alone, services around the product and intangible features has been important parts of B2B firms’ offers. The B2B firms’ more complex offers can be incorporated under a common brand that differentiates the firms’ offer from competitors. Although that the practical importance of B2B branding has been acknowledge lately, research dealing with B2B branding is still relatively limited. Most studies on B2B branding attempt to describe what brands are, how they affect companies, or vice versa. Research on the process of B2B brand building is however scarce. Also, when B2B brands are in focus of a study, it is usually their tangible characteristics that are examined. In B2C brand literature, intangible aspects and, the metaphor to see the brand as a person is widely discussed (Aaker, 1997). However, there is very little research on brand as a person element in the B2B context. Brand personality is normally defined as the human characteristics associated with a brand, More research into the brand personality building processes in a B2B context are therefore needed. Following the above discussion this study’s aim is to investigate how brand personality is built in B2B companies.

    A qualitative approach has been adopted to enable us to investigate, in-depth, an under-researched area (Ghauri and Gronhaug, 2010; and Yin, 1989) The key factor underpinning the selection of the two cases was conceptual relevance rather than representative grounds, so we used theoretical sampling (Miles and Huberman 1994). We combined secondary data research and field interviews and workshops with the CEOs in the case firms. The researchers constructed an interview-guide based on earlier literature and discussion in a workshop. Our aim and research question served as the basic structure for data analysis.  The study contributes to the literature by integrating theory on brand building from the marketing fields with the research dealing with the born global phenomenon discussed in the international entrepreneurship field.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Born Globals' international growth through networking on institutional distant markets2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to shed light on how a born global can obtain continued growth internationally, in institutionally distant markets. We are seeking a deeper understanding of international growth for born global enterprises by combining theories of networks and institutional perspective. We discuss how institutional distance affects the internationalization processes in born globals. We seek to highlight why and how a born global firm does enter different markets. In this respect, born globals from developed countries and those from emerging markets are compared, leading us to derive some propositions from our discussions. Finally some suggestions for future research are presented.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Aagerup, Ulf
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Customer Value Creation in Mature Born Globals2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION

    Research on firms that already from their inception see the whole world as a market and/or the whole world as a source to access resources, so called born globals (Andersson & Wictor, 2003, Knight & Cavusgil, 2004; Cavusgil & Knight, 2015), has been growing during the last decades  (Servantie, 2016). Born globals are an especially interesting group of firms to study, in regard of value creation, as they have been able to create competitive offers fulfilling the needs of customers on global markets.

     The distinguishing feature of born globals is their international behaviour at birth and soon thereafter. The firms’ behaviour is initiated by the entrepreneurs’ and management’s global mindset and the commitment of resources leading to international growth (Andersson, 2000; Knight & Causgil, 2004). Born globals is, by definition, a born global firm “forever”, as has been characterized by their early years.  We argue that the early years make these firms a special type of firms that will influence their further international development. Firms with a long-term focus on the domestic market must unlearn routines rooted in the domestic context before new, internationally oriented routines can be learned. An early entrance to international markets forces born globals to adopt to new contexts and create new knowledge that leads to new routines and creates a culture in the firms to adapt to new international opportunities (Andersson & Evers, 2015; Autio et al ., 2000, Cavusgil & Knight, 2004).

    There has been extensive research on born globals’ internationalization dealing with which markets, and market channels firms should choose to grow internationally. There has also been extensive research dealing with antecedents and factors influencing these choices. The focus on born global research has also been on the very early stages in the internationalization process. Few studies have captured the long-term behaviour and growth of born globals (2008; Gabrielsson and Gabrielsson, 2013, Melen Hånell, Nordman and Sharma, 2014). A question that has been very little addressed is: what happens to born global firms when they grow up (Cavusgil & Knight, 2015)? In this study we define this grown up born global firms as mature born globals (c. f. Hagen & Zuchella, 2014, maturing born global firms). To succeed with a continued international expansion, the born global firms need to increase sales on international markets. The underlying reason for success on international markets and continuous growth is that the mature born global firms have an offer that gives higher value to the customer than their competitors. However customer value is not explicitly treated in internationalization theories (Axinn & Matthyssen, 2002). To our knowledge there has not been any research that has, in- depth, explored how mature born globals create value for customers to create international growth. In line with the above discussion, the aim of this study is to investigate how mature born global firms create value for customers to create international growth.

    METHOD

    A qualitative approach has been adopted to enable us to investigate, in-depth, an under-researched area (Ghauri and Gronhaug, 2010; and Yin, 1989) “how born global firms create value for customers to create international growth”. In all, the study was conducted with five companies. The key factor underpinning the selection of the five cases was conceptual relevance rather than representative grounds, so we used theoretical sampling (Miles and Huberman 1994). We conducted a review of annual reports, other secondary documentation, and the websites of the case firms. We combined secondary data research and field interviews and workshops with the CEOs in the case firms. The researchers constructed an interview-guide based on earlier literature and discussion on a works-shop. Interviews were carried out with the five CEOs and transcribed. Data analysis included several steps. The information from the interviews, and other sources served as descriptive narratives, which helped us process the large volume of data (Mintzberg and McHugh 1985). This process enabled the unique patterns of each case to emerge before cross-case comparison (Eisenhardt 1989; Yin 1994) was undertaken. Our aim and research question served as the basic structure for data analysis.

    CONCLUSIONS

    We conclude that a strong focus on customer value creation was in focus. To create customer value a combination of proactive and reactive market orientation was implemented built on a competitive offer that was hard to replicate. Depending on the characteristics of the buyer-seller relationship different tools were used to build relationship value. The revenue earned is invested in further international growth, by investing in market driving activities, and entrepreneurial alertness to act on upcoming opportunities was crucial. This study contributes to the international entrepreneurship field by explicitly including marketing literature and empirically investigating how value is created to achieve international growth in born globals. This study also contributes to the industrial marketing field by developing a model that shows how born global firms create value for international customers to generate international growth in a B2B context.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Analyzing Capabilities which Born Global Firms Develop and Implement for their International Growth2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate how born global firms co-operate with local and international network actors to provide innovations for international growth, Consequently, born globals’ use of their own innovation capabilities, stemming from firm-specific advantages, and their access to complementary resources and activities of their network partners, termed here as network capabilities, are analyzed to aid our understanding of the provision of innovative solutions that lead to firms’ international growth. The paper opted for an exploratory study, using a qualitative case study approach of five born global companies. Focus groups, work-shops and interviews with the entrepreneur-CEOs in the companies are used to gain deep insight into innovation and internationalization processes that underlie the case companies’ international growth. The study shows that the entrepreneur-CEOs’ networking and innovation capabilities, have been crucial for the born global firms international growth. A high responsiveness to changes in the environment and incremental rather than radical innovation characterize the firms’ growth. A fruitful relationship between the Born Globals and other actors is crucial for them to be able to get access to resources, which can complement their own to create innovative solutions that will lead to growth. 

  • 8.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Born global's use of innovative solutions to create sustainable competitive advantages as it expands and grows in different international markets2013In: The 16th Annual McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference: Researching New Frontiers: The Conference Program and Collection of Short Summaries, Montreal, Canada: McGill University , 2013, p. 16-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate born global firms’ use of innovative solutions and their networks to create sustainable competitive advantages as they expand and grow in different international markets. Consequently, born globals’ use of their own firm-specific advantages and their access to complementary resources and activities of their network partners are analyzed to aid our understanding of the provision of innovative solutions that lead to growth. For this purpose we use a qualitative case study approach of five born global companies. A focus group  approach with the CEOs in the companies is used to gain deep insight into innovation and internationalization processes that underlie the case companies’ international growth. The study shows that the use of the entrepreneur-CEOs’ personal networks and business networks have been assets that have accorded the firms’ strong position in international markets. It can be concluded that the born global firm has strategies to tap on complementary assets of external network parties.  The Born global firms learn from own experiences and those of others, with whom the firms interact in foreign markets, to create innovative solutions for international growth.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Born Global's Use Of Innovative Solutions To Create Sustainable Competitive Advantages As It Expands And Grows In Different International Markets2013In: / [ed] Helen Lawton Smith, Klaus Nielsen & Carlo Milana, London: Centre for Innovation and Management Research , 2013, p. 1-35Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate born global firms’ use of innovative solutions and their networks to create sustainable competitive advantages as they expand and grow in different international markets. Consequently, born globals’ use of their own firm-specific advantages and their access to complementary resources and activities of their network partners are analyzed to aid our understanding of the provision of innovative solutions that lead to growth. We use a qualitative case study approach of five born global companies. A focus group interview with the CEOs in the companies is used to gain deep insight into innovation and internationalization processes that underlie the case companies’ international growth. The study shows that the use of the entrepreneur-CEOs’ personal networks and business networks have been assets that have accorded the firms’ strong position in international markets. It can be concluded that the born global firm has strategies to tap on complementary assets of external network parties. 

  • 10.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Aagerup, Ulf
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    International growth in born globals – value creation on international markets2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Importance and key contribution

    Research on firm’s that already from inception see the whole world as a market and/or the whole world as a source to access resources, so called born globals (Andersson & Wictor, 2003), have been growing during the last decades (Jones, Coviello and Tang, 2012).  These firms are characterized of innovative business models that are competitive on the global market already from inception (Hennart, 2013). To succeed with a continued international expansion, the born global firms need to adapt their respective business models for a more complex environment; in more institutionally remote markets. The continued growth phase of born globals are scarcely treated in earlier research (Gabrielsson & Gabrielsson, 2013).

    Earlier studies on Born Globals have focused on Born Globals’ development in western, developed countries. Therefore there is a need to examine Born Globals’ activities on emerging markets (Kiss et al, 2012). The attractiveness and growth opportunities in emerging markets are perceived to be higher than what obtains in other conceivable markets of the world (Cavusgil, Knight, and Risenberger, 2012).

    Important in this stage is handle relationship with different stakeholders on a global base. An important tool to handle this relationship is the companies’ branding strategy. Few studies have combined research on born globals’ internationalization and branding (Gabrielsson, 2005) and there is a need to further develop the knowledge about branding and international growth. This study aims to explore how born global companies are using brand management when growing on emerging markets. This study contributes to the international entrepreneurship field by exploring growth on emerging markets, it also contributes by adding knowledge from the brand management field to explore international growth.

    Theoretical base

    In recent studies the “global” part in the BG has been criticized (Lopez, Kundu and Ciravegena, 2009, Rugman and Almodovar, 2011). Some researchers argue that there a very few really Born Global firms with activities in the three economic and political power bases in the world. NAFTA, EU and the largest eight Asia-Pacific economies (Rugman and Almodovar, 2011). Implicit in research on Born Global firms is that distance (geographic, psychic, cultural, and institutional) is no longer an important issue when the international behaviour and international performance in a Born Global is discussed. We argue that the reason for that is a bias in the research treating Born Global firms with focus on companies that both have their origin and target markets in high-developed economies. Peiris, Akoorie and Sinha (2012) showed that most studies on Born Global firm were done on firms originating in developed countries and only a few studies were done on firms from emerging countries. Studies from emerging countries mainly were done on Chinese firms and very few studies has treated firms from Middle east, Africa or South Asia. Another reason why the Born Global research has not focused on institutional differences can partly be explained by the fact that the Born Global studies have looked internally at firm-specific factors (e.g. using resource-based view and knowledge-based view of the firm as a theoretical domain) (Andersson, Evers and Kuivalainen, 2014; Knight and Cavusgil, 2004).

    We argue that institutional differences affect Born Globals’ international behaviour (scope, speed, and entry mode); and to investigate how institutional distances affect Born Global firms, it is important to include nations with a variety of institutional and cultural characteristics. Born Global firms from developed countries entering institutionally distant markets will meet a context that is different from their home markets. Regulations, culture etc. differ and relationships are often fewer and weaker than, the companies’ relationships with western companies.  Born Global companies from developed countries still first focus on other developed countries, followed by emerging markets (e. g China and Brazil). We argue that institutional distance still matters and that firms from developed countries still have more and stronger networks in other developed countries. More research is needed two explore how this influence Born Global firms’ internationalization processes.

    Most studies on born globals have focused on firms in a business-to business context. Also this study is focusing on this sector. Even if most brand management studies have focus on business-to consumer sectors, there is an increasing stream of literature that has shown the importance of brand management also in business-to business settings (Gabrielsson & Gabrielsson, 2005). Brands are used to build relationships with customers. In emerging markets, western companies have fewer and weaker relationships, as the distance is longer (see the discussion above. Research is needed to explore how brand management can be used to create and sustain relationships on emerging markets. The above discussion lead us to the following research questions.

    Research questions

    How do born globals manage the organization’s international growth in in emerging markets?

    Which role has brand management to create and sustain relationships with internal and external stakeholders on emerging markets?

    Method and Findings

    Emprical data will be gathered during the Spring 2015. A case approach is considered as the most appropriate to catch the complexity of value creating process in international network context (Yin, 1994). The case study approach is under-represented in studies about internationalization and has been recommended as a fruitful way to expand the knowledge in this area (e.g Andersson, 2000, Cavusgil, 1980). Eisenhardt (1989) recommends case studies as a fruitful way to give a deeper insight in conflicting literature, as well as sharpening the generalizability of different theoretical standpoints which is an important goal in this study. There is a need to learn more about special types of firms and not only to look for the average firm (Andriani and McKelvey, 2007). The close relationship already established with the firms will make it possible to receive information that is hard to get access to with other methods (Welch et al, 2002).

    The cases will be built built on action research in co-operation with the partner firms, work-shops, personal interviews and observations but complemented with secondary data, such as, annual reports and internal documents. The individuals who have the greatest influence on the internationalization processes will be interviewed. Interviews and observations will lead to the identification of individuals/actors who are central in the international value creating processes. This includes actors outside the focal company, such as customers, suppliers, and co-operation partners. Our long co-operation with the companies has created trustful relationship between the researchers and the company representatives.

    The analysis of the data will include several steps. The information from interviews and other sources will be written down in descriptive narratives. This process allows the researcher to become intimately familiar with each case and allows the unique patterns of each case to emerge before cross-case comparison (Eisenhardt, 1989). The analysis will be carried out together with companies and results will be a base for decisions in each companies as well as part in academic research.

    Patterns will be identified among the cases (Yin, 1994). Earlier theoretical findings will be compared with the international development in the cases. Thereafter, the theory will be revised and the findings examined again. The reasoning is, in other words, not entirely inductive or deductive (Yin 1989). Following Eisenhardt’s (1989) recommendations, the analysis will include several iterations between theory and data.

    Implications

    The study will also give knowledge about pros and cons with different localisation alternatives on emerging markets. It is easy to just follow management trends (everyone should out-source production and buy supplies from China) and “go with the flock” instead of get knowledge of different alternatives. The comparison between the different firms will increase the knowledge about when different alternatives are suitable.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Innovation in Internationalization of Born Global firms2012In: 15th McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization and increased liberalization of markets have made it possible for many firms, large or Small and Medium –Sized Firms (SMEs), to be in many foreign markets, especially those in the global industries (Czinkota and Ronkainen, 2007; Doole and Lowe, 2008, 2004). Since trade barriers among markets have fallen dramatically, due to the effects of globalization, intense competition in many markets, and the spread of technological improvements in almost all sectors of any economy, many firms (small or large) seek to establish their presence in many foreign markets (Awuah, et. al., 2011; Doole and Lowe, 2008; Driffield and Love, 2007). Studies abound to shed light on why and how firms internationalize their business activities (Andersson, 2011; Moen, et al., 2004; Knight and Cavusgil, 1996; Johanson and Vahlne, 1990, 1977; Johanson and Wiedersheim-Paul, 1975). Although increased globalization, trade liberalization, and technological improvements do enable many firms (e.g. “Mininationals” or “Born Globals”) to serve several markets (Doole and Lowe, 2008; Czinkota and Ronkainen, 2007), there has emerged an intense competition among firms in all countries (Peng et al., 2008; Czinkota and Ronkainen, 2007; Beamish and Lu, 2004). For many SMEs, a number of factors (e.g. lower trade barriers, increased competition, rapid technological developments, shrinking market opportunities in domestic market, and firm-specific advantages combine to drive their rapid entry into foreign markets (Andersson, 2011; Peng et al., 2008; Moen, et al., 2004). SMEs that have, from the very inception of their establishment, had the drive to internationalize their business activities are termed “Born Global Firms”, in the subsequent sections to be addressed just as born globals (Andersson, 2011; Rialp et al., 2005; Knight and Cavusgil, 1996; Madsen and Servias, 1997). 

    Previous studies about a firm’s internationalization has predominantly concentrated on big multinational firms, where their motives for internationalization, the pace and pattern of their internationalization have been widely studied (Qian and Delios, 2008; Johanson and Vahlne, 1990, 1977; Johanson and Wiedersheim-Paul, 1975; Cavusgil, 1984; Coviello, 2006). In recent times studies have emerged, which have found out that the pace and pattern of the internationalization of big multinational firms are not in line with the pace and pattern, through which born globals, for example, internationalize their business activities (Andersson, 2011; Andersson and Wictor, 2003; Moen, et al., 2004; Rialp, et. al., 2005; Knight and Cavusgil, 1996; Madsen and Servais, 1997).  

    However, extant literature is virtually silent on what it takes for a born global (a small international player with limited resources, for example) to compete with big and resourceful multinational enterprises in many international markets. Our contention is that born globals’ ability to use innovative solutions to create sustainable competitive advantages as they aspire to expand and grow in international markets will be very crucial. The pace and pattern at which born globals internationalize their businesses, in the face of intense competition in almost all markets, in order to provide innovative solutions that enable them to achieve competitive advantages in the marketplace is under-researched. This has been an important reason for the study of the present phenomenon.   As stressed by Doole and Lowe (2008), products and services offered by firms, these days, are becoming ‘commodities’ (i.e. ‘me too’ products/services), if firms are not able to differentiate the core product benefit or service by offering a bundle of benefits for target customers or users in a target market. For Porter (1985), the competitive advantage of a firm grows fundamentally out of the value the firm can create for its customers, irrespective of the markets in which a firm operates.  Operating across borders, though offers opportunities, dealing with new set of macro-environmental factors (e.g. politics, laws, economics, cultures, and societies) and intense competition, will demand that a born global, for example, differentiates its products and services that will help it to meet similar needs and wants of its transnational customers, while it adapts to meet different market-specific requirements and/or needs of customers (e.g. Doole and Lowe, 2008). And for Doyle and Stern (2006), a firm that is good at satisfying customer needs, better than its competitors can do, has the best opportunities to grow and expand. Hence, Born Globals and their growth and expansion narratives are worth studying.

    In view of the above, the purpose of the present study is to investigate a born global’s use of innovative solutions to create sustainable competitive advantages as it expands and grows in different international markets. To be able to achieve the above purpose, we seek to address the following research questions:

    1. Why and how does a born global firm enter any chosen foreign market?
    2. Which strategies does the firm develop and implement in order to provide innovative solutions that will help achieve sustainable competitive advantages as the firm strives to grow and expand in the marketplace?
    3. Does the firm use ‘go-alone’ strategies or does it use strategies that influence and are influenced by other actors and the effect thereof? 
  • 12.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Baffour Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    International Growth in Born Globals – Continued Growth through Networking on Institutionally Distant Markets2015In: Handbook On International Alliance and Network Research / [ed] Jorma Larimo, Niina Mummela and Tuija Mainela, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 139-154Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this chapter is to shed light on how a born global can obtain continued growth internationally, in institutionally distant markets. We are seeking a deeper understanding of international growth for born global enterprises by combining theories of networks and institutional perspective. We discuss how institutional distance affects the internationalization processes in born globals. We seek to highlight why and how a born global firm does enter different markets. In this respect, born globals from developed countries and those from emerging markets are compared, leading us to derive some propositions from our discussions.

    Finally some suggestions for future research are presented. 

  • 13.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Acting in a Globalized World: Marketing Perspective2012In: Globalization: Education and Management Agendas, Croatia: INTECH, 2012, p. 153-164Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Internationalization processes of firms as a challenge to handle exchange relationships2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Researchers have mostly focused on entry processes and entry forms. What happens to a firm that has been in a foreign market for a long time would be an issue of its ability to handle important exchange relationships. This paper aims to increase our knowledge of what it takes to establish and handle exchange relationships with some actors so as to achieve a win-win and stable exchange in a foreign market.

    Design/methodology/approach – An in-depth case study was used to study the phenomenon, where the conceptual framework, interconnected networks in value creation, was used to analyze the case.

     Findings – It was found out that the multinational company (MNC) has been able to prioritize and/or invest time and resources to closely co-operate with some important customers that have brought about ‘win-win’ and stable exchange relationships between them. It was also found out that mutual orientation and adaptations have helped them to overcome any mismatch resulting from cultural influences.

    Research limitations/implications – The in-depth study with only one case is a stark limitation. Future research should explore the same phenomenon by studying several cases; every effort should be made to also interview customers and not only suppliers.

    Practical implication – Despite limitations, this study’s results have significant implication for a firm in that its internationalization process would also be the ability to establish and handle relationships that enhance the development of competitive capabilities that enable it to compete in any market.

    Originality/value – The major contribution of this study is to emphasize the managerial problems associated with the establishment and handling of business relationships with some important actors (e.g. suppliers and customers) in foreign markets.

  • 15.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The search for foreign direct investment (FDI): The case of Ghana2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    That foreign direct investment (FDI) is a valuable undertaking that all nations strive to attract and sustain is well known and well discussed in the literature. However, a systematic study and/or analysis of how some countries invest much in attracting FDI, but with poor results, is lacking. This paper contributes by analyzing the incessant efforts which countries make to attract FDI with very dissatisfying results. One important conclusion from this study is that while a country uses numerous incentives and alleged macro and micro policies as means to bring in much FDI, potential investors might not respond because they might be thinking about areas where they could profitably and securely put their resources to use. Ghana is a case in point when looking at a country that has not succeeded well, in spite of investments in attracting FDI.

  • 16.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Abraha, Desalegn
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Interactive (Networked) Internationalization: The Case of Swedish Firms2007In: Bringing the country back in: the importance of local knowledge in a global economy : proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Academy of International Business, Indianapolis, June 25-28, 2007, Indianapolis: Academy of International Business , 2007, p. 139-139Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extant literature stresses that having foreign market presence is imperative for most firms these days. However, how firms conceive of which foreign markets to enter, the entry mode to take and the resource commitments to make are not information or decision-making processes solely confined to a firm that internationalizes its activities. The purpose of this study is to provide deeper insights into the extent to which an independent actor (s) actively collaborates with the internationalizing firm so as to jointly determine the choice of market, the mode of entry and the level of investment committed in the market to be entered and even after the entry (i.e. the on-going activities). Based on two multiple case studies, one major finding of the study shows that independent actors, with their interconnected networks, have played and are still playing a major role in influencing the internationalization processes of each of the two firms in this study.

  • 17.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Amal, Mohamed
    Universidade Regional de Blumenau – FURB, Blumenau, Brazil.
    Impact of globalization: The ability of less developed countries' (LDCs') firms to cope with opportunities and challenges2011In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 120-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to contribute to the debate on the impact of globalization on the competitiveness of firms in least developed countries (LDCs). Two main research questions will be addressed. How does globalization affect the competitiveness of small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in LDCs? How can SMEs handle opportunities and challenges emerging from globalization?

    Design/methodology/approach – The methodology for this study is a conceptual attempt to review the existing literature and make some propositions about how SMEs can handle the opportunities and challenges emerging from globalization.

    Findings – Building on a developed operational framework affecting the competitiveness of firms, some of the expected results are that firms' capabilities with regards to innovation, learning, and internationalization, which increase their competitiveness, are enhanced by institutional setups. Second, establishing relationships with governmental and non-governmental institutions is crucial in terms of accessing resources, innovating, and entering into foreign markets.

    Originality/value – The paper represents a contribution to the debate on the impact of globalization on the competitiveness of firms, particularly SMEs, in LDCs. Although globalization has brought considerable benefits to many actors worldwide, its impact on competitiveness of (SMEs) are controversial. We suggest that globalization's effects depend on the capability of firms to learning, to innovate, and also on the institutional setup in LDCs.

  • 18.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Amal, Mohamed
    Raboch, Henrique
    The Internationalization of Multinational Companies (MNCs): An intra-sector comparison among firms from developing and developed countries2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the international statistic data of the United Nations Conference of Trade and Development (Unctad, 2008), the majority of Multinational Companies (MNCs) are from developed countries. However, in the last decade the participation of MNCs from emerging economies in the international flows of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) increased significantly, making them important global players. Although several scholars have addressed the internationalization process of emerging MNCs, no attempt has been made in the sense of directly comparing the internationalization process of firms from both developed and developing countries. To fill this gap, the aim of the present paper is to highlight the differences and similarities of the determinants and patterns of their internationalization. The integrated analytical model used in this study, which draws on insights from the Eclectic Paradigm and the Uppsala Internationalization approaches, has proved useful by helping to shed some light on the literature about MNCs’ internationalization process. The model in question has been structured in order to explore the differences and similarities of the internationalization processes of MNC from a developed and a developing country. This research uses a qualitative method with an exploratory nature, which allows deeper cross- cultural understanding. Multiple case studies of MNCs from countries with different levels of development (Brazil and Sweden) were carried out; this type of research allows addressing questions related to the determinants and patterns of internationalization. The results of the study show that there are strong evidences, which point out differences in term of ownership advantage development. However, the firms did not show substantial differences regarding internalization advantages. On the other hand, learning and experience of internationalization have been factors that have influenced the pattern and structure of the MNCs in both contexts. However, as the MNC from the developed country is more international and has longer experience, location decisions are no longer heavily influenced by these factors. The international network the MNC is part of and access to technology and knowledge partners are nowadays influencing the MNCs internationalization processes more. These findings are in line with earlier research that has pointed out that learning is most important in the early phases of MNCs international development while networks and location advantages are more important in later stages.

  • 19.
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    A professional services firm's competence development2007In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 1068-1081Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conceptualization of a firm's competence development has undergone some developments, as seen from the extant literature. However, studies or explanations of a firm's competence development over time seem to concentrate on firms that manufacture physical goods. The literature is devoid of studies on the competence development of professional services firms (PSFs). With two in-depth case studies, this paper seeks to shed light on factors that impinge on PSFs' competence development over time. An important finding of this study is that all the two PSFs' competence development over time has been influenced, in large measure, by their close and regular interaction with their respective immediate customers as well as with some significant third parties in their network of exchange relationships, where the actors mutually adapt to each other and also learn from each other. Evidences in all the two cases show that each of the firms has won and kept important customers that give them the most and frequent assignments per year, thanks to the factors that have affected their competence to meet customers' demand over time.

  • 20.
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Analyzing Customer-Orientation Practices of Firms from a Wider Perspective2008In: Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, ISSN 1051-712X, E-ISSN 1547-0628, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 45-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to deepen our understanding of the extent to which a firm's customer orientation practice, and the outcome thereof, is affected by its network of exchange relationships.

    METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Building on a network approach, multiple case studies are used to highlight firms' customer-orientation and the effects thereof.

    FINDINGS: Close, regular and extensive interaction and exchanges with customers and third parties have enabled each of the firms in this study to win and retain important customers over the years.

    Research Implications/Limitations : Each of the PSFs' (professional services firms) customer orientation, with its concomitant result, has been facilitated by mutual value creation by the sellers and the buyers plus the sellers' exchange relationships with third parties. However, customers' interconnected relationships and a broader quantitative study incorporating several services firms need be explored in further studies.

    ORIGINALITY/VALUE/CONTRIBUTION: The study provides insights into how a PSF utilizes its own capabilities and complementary capabilities from third parties to create superior value and satisfaction to customers.

  • 21.
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    As I Journey Along: A Ghanaian's Perception Of Life In The Diaspora2005Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The book gives accounts of the forces that drive many young people to migrate from the less Developed World, especially Ghana, to come and live in the Diaspora. Coming to live, work or pursue some goals in the Diaspora is for many young Ghanaians, for example, the ultimate goal worth striving after. In Ghana and in most Third World Countries, many people's perception of better life in the Diaspora is shared by many parents and some respectable people, a fact that also reinforces the drive to migrate to the Diaspora. That alone can help them develop their potentialities. But the journey is tough, full of adventure for all. How many have experienced the life in the Diaspora and how many feel detached from their place of birth, Ghana, are among the major themes discussed in this book. People that have migrated from their countries to seek fortunes or whatever in the Diaspora, Potential travellers and politicians in poor countries stand to gain from the experiences shared in this book.

    (Editorial review from Amazon)

  • 22.
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Development of a Country is a Collective Effort: The Case of Ghana2008Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Our case country Ghana, like many others in Africa, is characterized by, for example, mass poverty, huge foreign debts, poor socio-economic infrasturcture and entrepreneurial base, inability to meet the challenges of the forces of globalization, and heavy reliance on foreign loans and aid. Often times the development of the country has been the sole responsibility of a single entity, a government or a few ruling elites. It is argued in this book that to overcome the problems mentioned above, involving many actors (e.g. industry, government, universities, and the general public)will produce a collective effort, which will enable the actors to leverage their complementary capabilities to bring about a sustainable economic development. In this book we emphasize areas in which Ghana should invest now in order to effect sustainable development, which will translate into, example, poverty reduction, enabling environment for firms to emerge, grow and be competitive.

  • 23.
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Small firms' use of their business relationships to cope with increased competition2012In: International Academy of Business and Economics (IABE) 2012 Venice Summer Conference, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Impact of Globalization and Trade Liberalization on Competitiveness of Firms in Less Developed Countries: A Longitudinal Study2009In: International Journal of Business Research, ISSN 1555-1296, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 7-19Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Abraha, Desalegn Gebrekidan
    School of Technology and Society, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Networked (interactive) position: a new view of developing and sustaining competitive advantage2008In: Competitiveness Review: an international business journal, ISSN 1059-5422, E-ISSN 2051-3143, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 333-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – In the extant literature a firm's development of its competitive advantage is seen to be the task of the firm alone. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new and a broader approach of how competitive advantage can be developed and maintained in today's highly competitive and dynamic markets. To this end, how a firm handles its relationships with significant actors in its network becomes very decisive for the development of its competitive advantage.

    Design/methodology/approach – Drawing on a network approach, case studies have been used to shed lights on the extent to which the development of competitive advantage of firms affect and are affected by their interaction with some actors in a network of exchange relationships.

    Findings – An important conclusion of this study is that a firm's highly valued performance, an indication of its strong position or competitive strength, has its roots in its regular and intensive interaction with some significant actors in its network.

    Research limitations/implications – All firms in this study have demonstrated that competitive advantage can be achieved by building up a strong position through interaction, learning and adaptation with some significant actors in the marketplace. Since the study is based on one setting, extending a similar study to several settings will be very useful.

    Originality/value – The paper provides insights into how a firm, in the effort to build its competitive advantage, draws on its own capabilities and complementary capabilities of its partners in a network.

  • 26.
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Abraha, Desalegn Gebrekidan
    University of Skövde, P.O. Box 408, SE-541 28, Skövde, Sweden.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, SE-801 76, Gävle, Sweden.
    Relationships and Networks in the Processes of Establishment of Firms in Transition Economies: Scandinavian Firms in Central and Eastern Europe2008In: International Journal of Strategic Management, ISSN 1555-2411, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 25-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A focus on the particular entry mode a firm uses to enter a new market, rather than on the process of establishment, dominates in extant literature. To fill this void, we apply an establishment process model developed from the network approach to illuminate the web of relationship forms embedded in the establishment process of two Scandinavian firms as they attempt to establish themselves in transition economies. In one case, the results show that Statoil's process of establishment in Estonia was both less time-consuming and less resource-consuming because the firm drew support from significant actors in their network of exchange relationships. In the second case, a lack of home and host country support for Scania in Croatia resulted in an arduous and costly process and less stable position in the market, with the firm's position changing several times as different problems cropped up. In light of the findings from the two cases, theoretical and practical implications for managing the establishment process are discussed.

  • 27.
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Abraha Gebrekidan, Desalegn
    University of Skövde.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle.
    Relationships and networks in the processes of establishment of firms in transition economies: The case of Scandinavian firms in Central and Eastern Europe2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Gebrekidan, Desalegn Abraha
    School of Technology and Society, University of Skövde.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    Department of Business Studies, University of Gävle.
    Interactive (networked) internationalization: The case of Swedish firms2011In: European Journal of Marketing, ISSN 0309-0566, E-ISSN 1758-7123, Vol. 45, no 7/8, p. 1112-1129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to provide deeper insights into the extent to which an  independent actor(s) actively collaborates with the internationalizing firm so as to jointly determine the choice of market, the mode of entry and the level of investment committed in the market to be entered and even after the entry (i.e. the ongoing activities). Design/methodology/approach – Against the previous purpose section, a qualitative research approach is selected to guide the exploratory nature of this study. Thus qualitative data are used to build the two case studies because case studies are generally a more appropriate approach when “how” and “why” questions are being posed and when the investigator has little control over events. Findings – Based on two multiple case studies, one major finding of the study shows that independent actors, with their interconnected networks, have played and are still playing a major role in influencing the internationalization processes of each of the two firms in this study. Originality/value – This is an original paper developed based on two case studies which have not been published in any journal before. The paper highlights the role of external independent actors in internationalization, which is not mentioned at all or stressed in the extant literature.

  • 29.
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Reinert, Venilton
    Univ of Blumenau, Brazil.
    A communicacäo com consumidores através da Internet: Um estudo da communicacäo - online de hotéls (Brasil, Gana e Suecia)2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Reinert, Venilton
    Univ. of Blumenau, Brazil.
    Place marketing: a cross-country study os a place marketer's use of its network of relationships - Brazil and Sweden2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Reinert, Venilton
    Univ. of Blumenau, Brazil.
    Place marketing: A study of a place marketer's use of its networks of relationships2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Reinert, Venilton
    Universidade Regional de Blumenau.
    Potential tourists’ image of a tourist destination: The case of Brazil2011In: Research on Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management 2009‐2011: Introducing the Research Area of Innovation Science / [ed] Sven-Åke Hörte, Halmstad: Högskolan i Halmstad , 2011, p. 135-148Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This research deals with the image, which potential tourists may have about a tourist destination.Using a quantitative approach and a marketing and communication perspective, we tried to investigate how Brazil is seen by potential tourists who happened to be European students studying at the Halmstad University, Sweden. The research highlighted six categories, upon which the tourists’ image of Brazil is based, namely hospitality of the population, sexuality, tourism infrastructure, environment, economy, protection and safety. The results show that the image held by the studied target group about Brazil as a tourist destination, is an exotic country with a friendly population with an exuberant nature; the main identity icons are football and carnival events. Entertainment and fun are some other positive attributes mentioned by the respondents. However, violence and fragile security are the main concerns for the respondents.

  • 33.
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Reinert, Venilton
    University of Blumenau, Brazil.
    Small firms' use of their business relationships to cope with increased competition2012In: International Journal of Business Strategy, ISSN 1553-9563, E-ISSN 2378-8585, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 36-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to explore the effect of how small firms draw on their limited networks to develop their markets and serve them well, a performance that will guarantee their survival and success. Drawing on a business relationship approach, two case studies have been used to highlight the extent to which exchange relationships have impacted on the performance of the small firms in this study. As an important finding, the study highlights the extent to which regular and intensive interactions between the case companies and the limited actors in their network have enabled each of the case companies to develop their respective niche markets and serve them well, something which also explains their survival and ability to win and retain loyal customers.

  • 34.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Reinert, Venilton
    University of Blumenau, Brazil.
    Place Marketing: A Study of a Place Marketer's use of its Network of Relationships2010In: Journal of International Management Studies, ISSN 1690-2140, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 14-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of winning and retaining investors who establish businesses in a particular place is under-researched. The purpose of this study is to analyze the extent to which place marketers (seller) and potential investors interact in order to establish, develop and maintain a win- win exchange relationships. A cross-country study, with multiple case studies, was used as method. The result shows that the seller has been able to win and maintain clients. The seller-client exchange relationships have been influenced by interaction with third parties. The seller-client interactions have been going on before, during, and after clients’ location of operations.

  • 35.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Reinert, Venilton
    Universidade Regional de Blumenau, Brazil.
    The use of Internet as a marketing strategy in hotel market: A comparison between Brazil, Ghana, and Sweden2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new information technologies (NIT), especially the Internet, have created opportunities for companies. NIT can be used as a tool to execute marketing activities on three levels: (1) a firm can convey information about its products and services, using various communications tools, (2) conduct transactions by means of e-commerce and deliver its products/services online or (3) by the help of the conventional delivering way. In the tourism market, which is an information-oriented phenomenon, the NIT has had strong influence because people use the Internet to search for information to better plan their trips. In the hotel business, for example, the customers search for the company’s core service and support services, which can fulfill their basic and secondary needs. In this perspective, this study analyzed how hotels presented their services, prices, and communicated with their customers on the Internet. The main objective was to analyze the presentation of the marketing mix strategies in the hotels’ websites. The methodology used was first an exploratory research and then a descriptive study. The method was a qualitative and the population was hotels from three countries, Ghana, Sweden and Brazil. The results showed that the information aired in the hotels’ web pages were clearly directed to their respective target audience. To promote their services, the companies studied used, as their main communication tools, advertising, Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and public relations. It can be inferred that the companies uniformly used marketing and communication tools in their websites. Thus, to market their services, no difference was found among the three firms’ use of those tools.

  • 36.
    Baffour Awuah, Gabriel
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Iddris, Faisal
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Studying a Firm's Innovations as a Multi-Faceted (Interactive) Socio-Technical Process2015In: Review of Business Research, ISSN 1546-2609, E-ISSN 2378-9670, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 37-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to stimulate debate with regards to why firms will commit resources to innovate and the effects of the interactive nature of a firm’s innovation, as the firm engages in collaboration with several others to co-produce value. Methodologically, the study is a review of the existing literature on innovation, looking for an answer to the following. Why and how do a firm and some significant actors in its network engage in innovative activities to co-produce value? The study shows that, from a firm’s perspective, (1) a firm innovates in order to enhance its competitiveness and (2) a firm innovates because it enables it to achieve growth in an increasingly competitive environment.  A firm’s innovation should translate into value creation for some stakeholders. (3) Through innovations, a firm co-produces value, mostly, with others in its network. A firm’s internal capacity is complemented by external capacities of some actors in the firm’s network. © 2015 IABE. All Rights Reserved.

  • 37.
    Baffour Awuah, Gabriel
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Iddris, Faisal
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Studying a Firm's Innovations as a Multi-Faceted (Interactive) Socio-Technical Process2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Deraz, Hossam
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Abraha, Desalegn
    School of Technology and Society at Skövde University, Skövde, Sweden.
    The Effect of Culture on the Consumers’ Assessment of Advertisements on Social Networking Sites: Cross-cultural analysis2015In: 2015 Fifth International Conference on Digital Information Processing and Communications (ICDIPC), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2015, p. 127-135Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do consumers of the same brand from different culture have the same perceptions while assessing the advertisements on Social Networking Sites’ (SNSAs)? To answer this question, the data for this study were collected from brand communities’ consumers (BCCs) on SNSs. 278 respondents from three different cultural backgrounds (Egyptians, Dutch and British) answered the questionnaires. Five main variables to collect the consumers’ assessment of SNSAs were tested (information value, entertainment value, credibility value, interactivity value, and irritation value). Based on the empirical findings, the three groups perceived five of the six variables with significant difference F ratios. Consequently, their perception of the entertainment value of SNSAs has no significant differences between the three groups. Based on the cross-cultural theory, the findings of this study have some agreements and some contradictions, especially the influences of power distance and uncertainly avoidance. Moreover, the researchers used the One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Post Hoc tests to compare between the assessments of the three groups. ©2015 IEEE

  • 39.
    Deraz, Hossam
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    The assessments of social networking advertisements; as perceived by brand communities consumers2015In: International Journal of Current Research, ISSN 0975-833X, E-ISSN 0975-833X, Vol. 7, no 8, p. 19787-19796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the extensive research in the context of brand communities on social networking sites (SNSs), the theoretical foundations underlying consumers’ assessment of advertisements on SNSs’ brand communities was not yet explored. The present study consequently aimed to explore how SNSs’ brand communities’ consumers assess social networks’ advertisements (SNAs). Regression analysis was used to identify the best fit model, and the most effective predictors on the assessment of SNAs. From the collected data, four dimensions had positive significant effects on the consumers’ assessment (informativeness, entertainment value, credibility value and interactivity value), while the fifth dimension (irritation value) had a significant negative effect. The results of this study had some contradictions with some results on previous studies, and confirmed other results. Moreover, the researchers used the descriptive analysis to gain deeper understanding of how the brand communities’ consumers (BCCs) on SNSs assess SNAs, and to identify the main characteristics of the BCCs on SNSs.

  • 40.
    Deraz, Hossam
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Gebrekidan, Desalegn Abraha
    Skövde University, Skövde, Sweden.
    Assessing the Value of Social Network Sites’ Advertisements2015In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on E-Technologies and Business on the Web, Paris, France 2015 / [ed] Jean-Marc Lehu, Paris: Society of Digital Information and Wireless Communications (SDIWC) , 2015, p. 89-101Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marketers use social network sites (SNSs) to merchandise their products and services more efficiently. However, the scope of the published studies about assessing social network sites advertisements’ value (SNSAV) is limited. The present study consequently aims to include credibility and interactivity in addition to informativeness and entertainment and irritation values as variables for the assessment of SNSAV, as perceived by SNS users.

    The data analysis supports the central concepts of this study that informativeness, credibility, interactivity and entertainment values are the main variables of assessing SNSAV, while irritation value has no significant effect on the assessment of SNSAV. Moreover, according to the beta coefficient, informativeness and entertainment values, in conjunction with credibility and interactivity values, have different effects on consumers’ assessment of SNSAV compared to the results of the previous studies.

    This study is successful in terms of introducing advertisements’ credibility and interactivity as crucial variables in the assessment of SNSAV. It is also successful with regard to offering a new construct model for assessing SNSAV based on four main dimensions: informativeness, entertainment and credibility and interactivity values. According to the data analysis, interactivity value has the highest significant effect with regard to the assessment of SNSAs.

  • 41.
    Deraz, Hossam
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Gebrekidan, Desalegn Abraha
    Skövde University, Skövde, Sweden.
    Factors Predicting Consumers’ Assessment of Advertisements on Social Networking Sites2015In: International Journal of Digital Information and Wireless Communications (IJDIWC), ISSN 2225-658X, E-ISSN 2225-658X, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 111-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marketers act on social networking sites (SNSs) in order to be more efficient in merchandising their products and/or services. Even so, the scope of the published studies regarding the assessment of advertisements on social networking sites (SNAs) is limited. Consequently, the present study aimed to consider credibility and interactivity, in addition to information, entertainment and irritation values, as main factors for consumers’ assessment of SNAs, as perceived by SNSs’ users.An analysis of empirical data helped to identify four main factors for assessing SNAs. These were: information value, entertainment value, credibility value and interactivity value. Irritation value was the only factor that had no significant effect on the assessment of SNAs. Furthermore, based on the beta coefficients, the information and entertainment values of SNAs, in conjunction with credibility and interactivity values, had different outcomes from previous studies. Consequently, the interactivity value was the strongest among the four predictors for assessing SNAs.

  • 42.
    Iddris, Faisal
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    The Role of Innovation Capability on Internationalisation of Low-Tech Manufacturing Firms2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore innovation capability and its effect on internationalisation of small low-tech herbal manufacturing firms, thereby also contributing to theory development in the subject area. 

    Design/methodology/approach: A single case study method is adopted to explore the process of innovation capability of low-tech manufacturing for internationalisation process. 

    Findings: Our result indicates that in low-tech herbal manufacturing innovation capability has been crucial for the company’s internationalization. The uniqueness of the products is derived from mutual learning, collaboration, most importantly team work pertaining in the organisation. The findings in this study support the notion that the development of innovation capability in a natural resource-based sector could be pursued as a strategy for internationalisation in countries like Ghana. 

    Research limitations/implications: 

    In this study we attempted to examine low-tech manufacturing firms’ innovation capability and how it affects internationalisation. Our study, like any study, suffers from some limitations. First, the data is based on a single firm. Ideally we would like to include data from few more firms. However, getting data from innovative companies is a difficult task. Future research may consider multiple case studies within the same sector or across different sectors. 

    Originality/Value: Although the research field of innovation capability is growing lately, few attempts have been made to explore innovation capability and its effect on internationalisation process of low-tech manufacturing firms.

  • 43.
    Iddris, Faisal
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Gebrekidan, Desalegn Abraha
    School of Technology and Society, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    The Role of Innovation Capability in Achieving Supply Chain Agility2014In: Proceedings of 11th International Conference of Management and Behavioural Sciences: “An Interdisciplinary Conference”: June 28-29, 2014 at University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada / [ed] S. Kumar, Society of Management and Behavioural Sciences Canada (SMBS Canada) , 2014, p. 18-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation capability has been recognized as important approach for organizations to be competitive. The purpose of this study is to understand how innovation capability, with the notion of cloud computing, trust and open innovation affect supply chain agility.

    The main research question to be addressed is How Does Innovation Capability enabled by cloud computing, trust and open innovation affect supply chain agility of a firm?

    The methodology used in this study is to review existing literature in innovation capability, cloud computing, trust, open innovation and agility and develop some propositions on how firms can achieve supply chain agility.

    Some of the expected results from the study are, development and interaction of trust with cloud computing and open innovation is crucial in innovation capability building process. Second, innovation capability building process enabled by cloud computing, trust and open innovation will influence agility of a firm, leading to firm competitiveness.

  • 44. Iddris, Faisal
    et al.
    Baffour Awuah, Gabriel
    Abraha Gebrekidan, Desalegn
    School of Technology and Society, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    The Role of Innovation Capability in Achieving Supply Chain Agility2014In: International Journal of Management and Computing Sciences, ISSN 2231-3303, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 104-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation capability has been recognized as important approach for organizations to be competitive. The purpose of this study is to understand how innovation capability, with the notion of cloud computing, trust and open innovation affect supply chain agility.

    The main research question to be addressed is How Does Innovation Capability enabled by cloud computing, trust and open innovation affect supply chain agility of a firm?

    The methodology used in this study is to review existing literature in innovation capability, cloud computing, trust, open innovation and agility and develop some propositions on how firms can achieve supply chain agility.

    Some of the expected results from the study are, development and interaction of trust with cloud computing and open innovation is crucial in innovation capability building process. Second, innovation capability building process enabled by cloud computing, trust and open innovation will influence agility of a firm, leading to firm competitiveness.

  • 45.
    Iddris, Faisal
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Baffour Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Desalegn Abraha, Gebrekidan
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden .
    Achieving supply chain agility through innovation capability building2016In: International Journal of Supply Chain and Operations Resilience, ISSN 2052-8698, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 114-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have examined the innovation capability perspective in the context of supply chain, and in particular toward achieving supply chain agility. The purpose of this study was to deepened our understanding of how a focal firm, in conjunction with customers, suppliers, and other supply chain members build innovation capability, leading to supply chain agility. Using qualitative case study approach, this paper explores how focal firms together with supply chain members build innovation capability, leading to supply chain agility. The study reveals that supply chain members play a critical role in influencing how a focal firms build their innovation capability to swiftly respond to increasing change in customers existing and potential need through agile supply chains. Drawing inspiration from theories of Resource-Based View of the firm and Dynamic Capability, this study contributes to growing streams of literature on innovation capability by explaining how supply chains build innovation capability, leading to supply chain agility. Building innovation capability in conjunction with supply chain members is crucial for achieving supply chain agility (e.g improved customer service, new product introduction, product customisation and international delivery capacity). Copyright © 2016 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  • 46.
    Payan, Janice
    et al.
    University of Northern Colorado.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Svensson, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Interorganizational Cooperation and Coordination: A comparison of US and Swedish Distributor Relationships2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperation/coordination is related to positive interorganizational outcomes.  Because Sweden is more collectivist/feminine than the U.S. (Hofstede 2001), stronger effects in Swedish distributor cooperative/coordinative relationships are expected compared to the U.S.

  • 47.
    Payan, Janice
    et al.
    University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, Colorado, USA.
    Hair, Joe
    Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, Georgia, USA.
    Svensson, Göran
    Oslo School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Modeling Antecedents in Trust-Commitment Vendor Relationships2015In: Rediscovering the Essentiality of Marketing: Proceedings of the 2015 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) World Marketing Congress, Cham: Springer, 2015, p. 321-321Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary purpose of this study is to examine the importance of selected antecedents (i.e., cooperation, coordination, and relationship investments) in a commitment-trust vendor relationship model. Collaboration in organizations often is not effective in relationships between purchasers and vendors because cooperation, coordination and relationship investment are lacking. Research on these constructs is very limited in interorganizational research, so this study is unique, therefore, in examining antecedents in a trust-commitment relationship model. Following examination of both first and second order modeling approaches, findings show the influence of these antecedents on trust and commitment, and ultimately vendor relationship satisfaction. All three antecedents are positively related to the higher order management factors construct, and in turn to both trust and commitment, with the stronger relationship being to commitment. Commitment and trust are both positively related to relationship satisfaction. The direct relationship from trust to satisfaction is strongest, but there is evidence of partial mediation through the indirect relationship from trust to commitment and then to satisfaction.

  • 48.
    Payan, Janice M.
    et al.
    University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, Colorado, USA.
    Hair, Joe
    Marketing and Professional Sales, Cole College of Business, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, Georgia, USA.
    Svensson, Göran
    Management, Kristiania University College, Oslo, Norway.
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    The Precursor Role of Cooperation, Coordination, and Relationship Assets in a Relationship Model2016In: Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, ISSN 1051-712X, E-ISSN 1547-0628, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 63-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study is to test the importance of activity-oriented precursors in a relationship model. This study supports the theoretical view that firms create trust and knowledge through activities and these activities make a commitment decision less risky (Johanson & Vahlne, 2009). The secondary purpose of this study is to collect and examine data from interorganizational relationships in both Sweden and the United States. By including data from two countries, results will be more generalizable. Results can also lead to several managerial implications.

    Methodology/approach: This study focuses on a sample of distributors from both the United States and Sweden. One hundred sixty-one usable surveys were returned from the U.S. survey, for a response rate of 27%. One hundred twenty-four usable surveys were returned from the Swedish survey, for a response rate of 21%. The PLS-SEM method was used to examine the model’s constructs.

    Findings: Similar to past research results show that trust and commitment have a direct positive influence on satisfaction, and that trust also has a direct positive influence on commitment. However, this study uniquely supports four out of six newly tested hypotheses. Both cooperation and relationship assets have a direct positive influence on commitment. Cooperation has a direct positive influence on trust and commitment. Relationship assets have a direct negative influence on trust but a direct positive influence on commitment. Surprisingly, two hypotheses were not supported: Coordination did not have a significant relationship with either trust or commitment.

    Research implications: Managers who want to achieve a satisfactory relationship based on trust and commitment need to prioritize their attention toward cooperation. They should also be aware that participation in joint activities (i.e., coordination and relationship investments) does not guarantee higher levels of trust or commitment in the relationship. It is the quality of the joint activities and the how dependent firms are on each other and not just participation in joint activities that are likely to create higher levels of trust or commitment. The quality of coordination and manageable levels of dependence may counteract the higher costs associated with joint activities compared to the costs associated with cooperation. Managers may  be wise to not make major commitments to other firms unless high quality joint activities have created knowledge and trust between firms.

    Originality/value/contribution: The model adds the joint activity-oriented antecedents associated with collaboration which is essential to a successful relationship. Because of the high failure rate of collaboration may be due to cooperation and coordination failures and because these two constructs are underspecified in interorganizational research, this study is unique in examining activity-oriented antecedents in a trust/commitment model of relationship satisfaction in a crosscultural context (i.e., with U.S. and Swedish samples). © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  • 49.
    Payan, Janice M.
    et al.
    University of Northern Colorado.
    Svensson, Göran
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Relationship Quality in Interorganizational Contexts2009In: Proceedings of the 14th biennial world marketing congress (preliminary release): Marketing in transition: scarcity, globalism, & sustainability / [ed] Colin L. Campbell, Academy of Marketing Science , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides support for the dimensional distinctiveness of cooperation, specific assets, satisfaction, trust, and commitment. Based on the results, it is suggested that four of these dimensions are reflective of relationship quality or the "Cross-Cultural RELQUAL-scale" (cooperation, coordination, trust, and commitment) and that relationship quality impacts satisfaction with the relationship. Data was used to test the cross-cultural RELQUAL-scale in supplier-distributor relationships in Sweden and USA.

  • 50.
    Payan, Janice M.
    et al.
    University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, USA.
    Svensson, Göran
    Oslo School of Management, Norway.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Andersson, Svante
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Hair, Joe
    Kennesaw State University, USA.
    A  "cross-cultural RELQUAL-scale" in supplier-distributor relationships of Sweden and USA2010In: International Marketing Review, ISSN 0265-1335, E-ISSN 1758-6763, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 541-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a cross-cultural RELQUAL-scale in supplier-distributor relationships in Sweden and the USA. 

    Design/methodology/approach: The Swedish and US sampling frames consisted each of a random sample of 600 owners and managers of distribution firms of specialty tools and fasteners. A total of 161 usable surveys were returned from the US-survey, for a response rate of 27 percent, while 121 usable surveys were returned from the Swedish survey, for a response rate of 20 percent. An overall response rate of 24 percent was achieved across both countries. 

    Findings: The paper provides support for the dimensional distinctiveness of cooperation, coordination, specific assets, satisfaction, trust, and commitment. Four of the dimensions are reflective of relationship quality or the "cross-cultural RELQUAL-scale" (cooperation, coordination, trust, and commitment) and relationship quality was found to be associated with relationship-satisfaction with suppliers. A test of metric invariance confirmed the RELQUAL-scale is appropriate for cross-cultural research. 

    Research limitations/implications: Examining the tested in other industrial and cultural contexts and countries in other inter-organizational settings could help establish the generality of findings beyond Sweden and the USA and that beyond the context of the distributor-supplier relationship of fasteners and specialty tools. Practical implications The "cross-cultural RELQUAL-scale" is of interest to business practice as it provides a structure of dimensions to be considered in the organizational effort of maintaining satisfactory levels of relationship quality with suppliers. 

    Originality/value: The paper focuses on two different cultural contexts, which is an approach rarely seen in inter-organizational research. The focal constructs are frequently included in inter-organizational research, but have previously not been included in the same empirical study of RELQUAL.

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