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  • 1.
    Berglund, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.
    Khan, Ghazanfar Ali
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Fick, Jerker
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.
    Efficient removal of antibiotics in surface-flow constructed wetlands, with no observed impact on antibiotic resistance genes2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 476-477, p. 29-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about pharmaceuticals including antibiotics as environmental contaminants. Antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater have been suggested to affect bacterial population dynamics and to promote dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Conventional wastewater treatment processes do not always adequately remove pharmaceuticals causing environmental dissemination of low levels of these compounds. Using constructed wetlands as an additional treatment step after sewage treatment plants have been proposed as a cheap alternative to increase reduction of wastewater contaminants, however this means that the natural microbial community of the wetlands becomes exposed to elevated levels of antibiotics. In this study, experimental surface-flow wetlands in Sweden were continuously exposed to antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater. The aim was to assess the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands and to evaluate the impact of low levels of antibiotics on bacterial diversity, resistance development and expression in the wetland bacterial community. Antibiotic concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and the effect on the bacterial diversity was assessed with 16S rRNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Real-time PCR was used to detect and quantify antibiotic resistance genes and integrons in the wetlands, during and after the exposure period. The results indicated that the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands was comparable to conventional wastewater treatment schemes. Furthermore, short-term treatment of the constructed wetlands with environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e. 100-2000 ng x 1(-1)) of antibiotics did not significantly affect resistance gene concentrations, suggesting that surface-flow constructed wetlands are well-suited for wastewater treatment purposes. (c) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Bodin, Hristina
    et al.
    Division of Natural Sciences, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Attenuation of Pharmaceutical Substances: Phytoremediation using Constructed Wetlands2018In: 13th Society of Wetland Scientists (SWS) Europe Chapter Meeting: Management of Wetland Ecosystem Services: Issues, Challenges and Solutions, 2018, p. 19-22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Currently, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) do not efficiently remove pharmaceutical substances (PS). Thus, such substances are now frequently found in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Also, concentrations of some PS in treated effluents exceed Environmental Quality Standards proposed by EU legislation. One resource-efficient option for increasing PS removal in WWTP effluents is to use constructed wetlands (CWs) as an attenuation step (Breitholtz et al. 2012; Li et al. 2014). However, very little research has been done on how to maximize the PS attenuation capacity of CWs. Therefore, a project with the aim to investigate reduction of different pharmaceutical substances in CWs with different vegetation compositions and water depths, was performed at the Experimental Wetland Area (EVA) located 20 km north of Halmstad, Sweden. 

  • 3.
    Bodin, Hristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Mietto, Anna
    University of Padova, Legnaro, Italy.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Persson, Jesper
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Tracer behaviour and analysis of hydraulics in experimental free water surface wetlands2012In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 49, p. 201-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of inlet design and vegetation type on tracer dynamics and hydraulic performance were investigated using lithium chloride in 18 experimental free water surface wetlands. The wetlands received similar water flow but had different vegetation types: 6 emergent vegetation wetlands (EVWs), 6 submerged vegetation wetlands (SVWs) and 6 free development wetlands (FDWs). Two types of inlet designs were applied: half of each wetland vegetation type had a barrier near the inlet to help distribute incoming tracer solution, while the rest had no barrier. Residence time distribution (RTD) functions were calculated from tracer data using two techniques: method of moments and a novel Gauss modelling approach. RTD functions were used to quantify hydraulic parameters: active wetland volume (e-value), water dispersion (N-value) and hydraulic efficiency (lambda-value). For wetlands without barrier, significantly lower tracer mass recoveries were found from EVWs compared to FDWs and SVWs, signifying a risk of tracer methodological problems in small densely vegetated wetlands. These problems were minimized in wetlands with an inflow construction promoting distribution of incoming tracer solution. Compared to the method of moments, Gauss modelling seemed to produce more reliable lambda-values but less reliable N-values. Data for precise hydraulic quantification were lost by Gauss modelling, as indicated by overall lower variance in these data sets and lower mass recoveries. However, Gauss modelling may minimize uncertainties associated with lithium immobilization/mobilization. Parameters were significantly affected by the RTD data analysis method, showing that the choice of method could affect evaluation of wetland hydraulics. The experimental wetlands in this study exhibited relatively high e-values and low N-values. This was probably caused by the small size of the wetlands and low water flow velocities, emphasizing that hydraulic parameter values obtained in small experimental wetlands may not be applicable to hydraulics in larger wetlands. The method of moments revealed lower e-values from EVWs compared to SVWs and FDWs. It was indicated that lower e-values were mainly caused by vegetation volumes. This highlighted a need for regular maintenance to secure efficient treatment volume in wetlands with dense vegetation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  • 4.
    Brönmark, Christer
    et al.
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan E. B.
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Indirect effects of fish community structure on submerged vegetation in shallow, eutrophic lakes: an alternative mechanism1992In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 243/244, no 1, p. 293-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The loss of submerged macrophytes during eutrophication of shallow takes is a commonly observed phenomenon. The proximate reason for this decline is a reduction of available light due to increasing phytoplankton and/or epiphyton biomass. Here we argue that the ultimate cause for the transition from a macrophyte-dominated state to a phytoplankton-dominated state is a change in fish community structure. A catastrophic disturbance event (e.g. winterkill) acting selectively on piscivores, cascades down food chains, eventually reducing macrophyte growth through shading by epiphyton, an effect that is reinforced by increasing phytoplankton biomass. The transition back from the phytoplankton to the macrophyte state depends on an increase in piscivore standing stock and a reduction of planktivores. A conceptual model of these mechanisms is presented and supported by literature data and preliminary observations from a field experiment. © 1992 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  • 5.
    Brönmark, Christer
    et al.
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Decoupling of cascading trophic interactions in a freshwater, benthic food chain1996In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 108, no 3, p. 534-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food chain theory provides explicit predictions for equilibrium biomasses among trophic levels in food chains of different lengths. Empirical studies on freshwater benthic food chains have typically been performed on chains with up to three levels and in field experiments with limited spatial and temporal scale. Here we use a ‘’natural snapshot experiment” approach to study equilibrium biomass and abundance among trophic levels in natural ponds differing only with respect to fish assemblage structure. Forty-four ponds were surveyed for their density and biomass of fish, snails and periphyton. Ponds were divided into three categories based on fish assemblage: ponds with no fish (two trophic levels), ponds with molluscivorous fish (three trophic levels), ponds with molluscivorous fish (three trophic levels) and ponds that also had piscivorous fish (four trophic levels). Ponds without fish had a high density and biomass of snails and a low biomass of periphyton, whereas snails with molluscivorous fish. In the presence of piscivores, molluscivore populations consisted of low numbers of large individuals. Snail assemblages in piscivore ponds were characterised by relatively high densities of small-bodied detritivorous species and periphyton biomass was not significantly different from ponds with three trophic levels. Thus, predictions from classic food chain theory were upheld in ponds with up to three trophic levels. In ponds with four trophic levels, however, there was a decoupling of the trophic cascade at the piscivore-molluscivore level. Gape-limited piscivory, predation on snails by molluscivores that have reached an absolute size refuge from predation, and changes in food preferences of the dominant snails are suggested to explain the observed patterns.

  • 6.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Nutrient retention in constructed wetlands in an agricultural landscape in southwest Sweden2007In: 2nd International Symposium on Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control - WETPOL 2007: extended abstracts, Tartu: University of Tartu, 2007, p. 91-92Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    The influence of vegetation on nitrogen retention in a long-term experimental wetland study2009In: Proceedings of the 3rd Wetland Polluntat Dynamics and Control - WETPOL 2009 - Barcelona / [ed] Josep M. Bayona & Joan García, 2009, p. 197-198Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Eriksson, Peder G
    et al.
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    An experimental study on effects of submersed macrophytes on nitrification and denitrification in ammonium-rich aquatic systems1999In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 44, no 8, p. 1993-1999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have examined the role of microbial communities on the surface of submersed macrophytes and in the underlying sediment for nitrification and denitrification in light and dark in NH(4)(+)-enriched microcosm systems using isotope pairing and dilution techniques. Potamogeton pectinatus L. and intact sediment cores were collected in a shallow reservoir receiving treated municipal wastewater and containing dense submersed vegetation. Chambers containing P. pectinatus shoots, sediment, or both P. pectinatus shoots and sediment were exposed to 6 h of darkness, 6 h of light, and 6 h of darkness. (14)NH(4)(+) and (15)NO(3)(-) were added at ambient concentrations of 15 and 5 mg N liter(-1), respectively. NH(4)(+) was primarily nitrified in the epiphytic microbial communities, and NO; was denitrified in the underlying sediment. In chambers containing macrophytes, there was a net production of O(2) and NO(3)(-) in light and a net consumption in dark, and nitrification was higher in light than in dark. In chambers with only sediment, there was always a net consumption of NO(3)(-), and nitrification was similar in light and dark. The results show that submersed macrophytes can be important for the N metabolism in NH(4)(+)-rich freshwaters (e.g., wastewater treatment systems) by stimulating nitrification through providing surfaces for attached nitrifying bacteria and possibly also through diurnal changes in the water chemistry.

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Peder G.
    et al.
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Functional differences in epiphytic microbial communities in nutrient-rich freshwater ecosystems: An assay of denitrifying capacity1996In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 555-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. The denitrifying capacity of epiphyton was used to evaluate differences in the function of epiphytic microbial communities on submersed macrophytes in nutrient-rich freshwater ecosystems. The denitrifying capacity of epiphyton on Patamogeton perfoliatus shoots of different age and with different epiphytic abundances from a eutrophic lake was investigated in laboratory microcosms in the Light and dark. Additionally, differences between epiphyton on shoots of Potamogeton pectinatus grown under different in Situ nutrient and hydraulic conditions were investigated by examining their denitrifying capacity. 2. Denitrification was registered in well-developed epiphytic layers on both mature and senescent shoots in the dark, with activities 3- to 10-fold higher in the epiphytic communities of senescent shoots. No activity was detected on young shoots with sparse epiphyton or on shoots from which loosely attached epiphyton had been removed. Denitrification never occurred during illumination. 3. Even though the epiphytic abundance was similar in magnitude, the denitrifying capacity of epiphyton adapted to high nutrient loadings was about a hundred times higher than that of epiphyton adapted to lower nutrient levels. Additionally, epiphytic abundance and denitrifying capacity were higher at sites less exposed to wave turbulence or water currents, than at sites with more water turbulence. 4. The results illustrate how the hydraulic and nutrient conditions of the surrounding water affect both the quantity and function of epiphytic microbial communities in nutrient-rich freshwater ecosystems.

  • 10.
    Eriksson, Peder G.
    et al.
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nitrogen removal in a wastewater reservoir: The importance of denitrification by epiphytic biofilms on submersed vegetation1997In: Journal of Environmental Quality, ISSN 0047-2425, E-ISSN 1537-2537, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 905-910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the importance of epiphytic denitrifying bacteria on submersed vegetation in removing N from a shallow nutrient-enriched freshwater ecosystem. The investigation was conducted during the summer of 1994 in a surface now reservoir receiving municipal tertiary-treated wastewater. The submersed vegetation in the reservoir was dominated by Potamogeton pectinatus L. and filamentous green algae (FGA). The N loading was 2300 mg N h(-1) m(-2) and the N removal, calculated as the mean difference between influent and effluent N, was 190 mg N h(-1) m(-2) (8%). The majority of influent N consisted of NH4+, but the main part of the N removal was due to the removal of NO3- whereas no net retention of NH4+ was found. Mean total soluble solids and BOD7 retention was 69 and 38%, respectively, Denitrification measurements were conducted in darkness at in situ temperature in microcosms with P. pectinatus, FGA, or infect sediment cores. Epiphytic denitrification ranged between 0.21 to 7.0 mg N h(-1) m(-2) reservoir surface area depending on the abundance of the submersed vegetation (5-140 g DW m(-2)). Sediment denitrification was 4.7 mg N h(-1) m-L reservoir surface area. The mean assimilative N uptake of the submersed vegetation and epiphyton was 3.4 and 1.6 mg N h(-1) m(-2) reservoir surface area, respectively. Measured N removal rates through plant uptake and denitrification could only account for a minor part of the N removal observed by mass balance. However, microcosm denitrification measurements underestimate actual denitrification. Thus, the major part of the N removal was most likely due to denitrification. In conclusion, this study indicates that denitrification in epiphytic microbial communities on submersed vegetation can be of significant importance for the N removal in nutrient-enriched freshwater ecosystems.

  • 11.
    Graneli, Wilhelm
    et al.
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Sytsma, Mark D.
    UC Davis, Department of Botany, Davis, United States.
    Rhizome dynamics and resource storage in Phragmites australis1992In: Wetlands Ecology and Management, ISSN 0923-4861, E-ISSN 1572-9834, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 239-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seasonal changes in rhizome concentrations of total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC), water soluble carbohydrates (WSC), and mineral nutrients (N, P and K) were monitored in two Phragmites australis stands in southern Sweden. Rhizome biomass, rhizome length per unit ground area, and specific weight (weight/ length ratio) of the rhizomes were monitored in one of the stands. Rhizome biomass decreased during spring, increased during summer and decreased during winter. However, changes in spring and summer were small (< 500 g DW m-2) compared to the mean rhizome biomass (approximately 3000 g DW m-2). Winter losses were larger, approximately 1000 g DW m-2, and to a substantial extent involved structural biomass, indicating rhizome mortality. Seasonal changes in rhizome length per unit ground area revealed a rhizome mortality of about 30% during the winter period, and also indicated that an intensive period of formation of new rhizomes occurred in June. Rhizome concentrations of TNC and WSC decreased during the spring, when carbohydrates were translocated to support shoot growth. However, rhizome standing stock of TNC remained large (> 1000 g m-2). Concentrations and standing stocks of mineral nutrients decreased during spring/ early summer and increased during summer/ fall. Only N, however, showed a pattern consistent with a spring depletion caused by translocation to shoots. This pattern indicates sufficient root uptake of P and K to support spring growth, and supports other evidence that N is generally the limiting mineral nutrient for Phragmites. The biomass data, as well as increased rhizome specific weight and TNC concentrations, clearly suggests that "reloading" of rhizomes with energy reserves starts in June, not towards the end of the growing season as has been suggested previously. This resource allocation strategy of Phragmites has consequences for vegetation management. Our data indicate that carbohydrate reserves are much larger than needed to support spring growth. We propose that large stores are needed to ensure establishment of spring shoots when deep water or stochastic environmental events, such as high rhizome mortality in winter or loss of spring shoots due to late season frost, increase the demand for reserves. © 1992 SPB Academic Publishing.

  • 12.
    Hansson, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Landowners’ incentives for constructing wetlands in an agricultural area in south Sweden2012In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 113, p. 271-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eutrophication of the Baltic Sea has in Sweden led to the initiation of government schemes aiming to increase wetland areas in agricultural regions and thereby reduce nutrient transport to the sea. Landowners play a significant role as providers of this ecosystem service and are currently offered subsidies to cover their costs for constructing and maintaining wetlands. We undertook a grounded theory study, in which landowners were interviewed, aiming at identifying landowners’ incentives for constructing wetlands on their land. The study showed that adequate subsidies, additional services that the wetland could provide to the landowner, local environmental benefits, sufficient knowledge, and peers’ good experiences could encourage landowners to construct wetlands. Perceived hindrances were burdensome management, deficient knowledge, time-consuming application procedures and unclear effectiveness of nutrient reduction. The main reason for not creating a wetland, however, was that the land was classified as productive by the landowner, i.e., suitable for food production. Current schemes are directed toward landowners as individuals and based on subsidies to cover costs. We propose that landowners instead are approached as ecosystem service entrepreneurs and contracted after a tendering process based on nutrient reduction effects. This would lead to new definitions of production and may stimulate improved design and placement of wetlands.

  • 13.
    Hansson, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Markägares motiv för att anlägga våtmarker2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att minska näringsläckaget från jordbruksmark via vattendrag till havet ges i Sverige bidrag till privata markägare genom olika åtgärdsprogram. Målet har varit att erhålla 12 000 hektar anlagda våtmarker 2010. Målet kommer dock inte att uppnås. Ett av skälen kan vara att markägarna har andra motiv än ekonomiska när de väljer att anlägga, eller avstå från att anlägga, en våtmark. För att öka förståelsen för markägares syn på miljö, markanvändning och vattenförvaltning och att identifiera motiv för att anlägga våtmarker genomfördes en kvalitativ studie i södra Halland. Femton markägare intervjuades och deras svar analyserades i enlighet med metoden Grundad teori. Viktigast för markägarna var Att förvalta sin mark på bästa sätt vilket innebar att mark som var odlingsbar i första hand skulle användas för det ändamålet. Lågproduktiv mark kunde komma ifråga för våtmarksanläggande, men det var inte självklart. Att ta sitt miljöansvar innebar främst att följa regelverket, men kunde också omfatta frivilliga åtgärder för miljön. Det var dock nödvändigt Att främja företagets ekonomi. Markägarna hade goda Kunskaper och insikter om jordbrukets miljöbelastning, men efterlyste Stöd och bekräftelse. Att vara missgynnad av regelverket som ansågs gynna större jordbruk och jordbruk i andra länder var allmänt. Utifrån resultatet har rekommendationer utformats inför det fortsatta arbetet med att anlägga våtmarker på privat mark.

  • 14.
    Joelsson, Arne
    et al.
    County Administrative Board of Halland, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Gert
    Regional Development Council, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Feuerbach, Peter
    Rural Economy and Agricultural Society of Halland, Eldsberga, Sweden.
    Hansson, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Henriksson, Annika
    County Administrative Board of Halland, Sweden.
    Kindt, Torsten
    Municipality of Laholm, Sweden.
    Kling, Johan
    County Administrative Board of Halland, Sweden.
    Strand, John A.
    Rural Economy and Agricultural Society of Halland, Eldsberga, Sweden.
    Svensson, Jonas
    County Administrative Board of Halland, Sweden.
    Tollebäck, Erika
    County Administrative Board of Halland, Sweden.
    Vartia, Katarina
    County Administrative Board of Halland, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    The Aquarius approach on mitigation of phosphorus losses2010In: 6th International Phosphorus Workshop (IPW6): Towards a sustainable control of diffuse P loss: risk, monitoring, modelling, and mitigation options, 2010, p. 164-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Johannesson, K.
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tonderski, K.S.
    Linköping University.
    Wedding, B.
    Ekologgruppen i Landskrona AB.
    Weisner, S.E.B.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Phosphorus dynamics and retention in non-point source wetlands in southern Sweden2010In: Proceedings of the 12th International Water Association International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control: October 4-8, 2010 Venice, Italy. Volume 1 / [ed] Fabio Masi and J. Nivala, San Giovanni Valdarno: Palombi Editori , 2010, p. 493-494Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seven constructed wetlands receiving diffuse pollution from agricultural land in the south of Sweden were investigated with respect to water flow patterns and phosphorus (P) dynamics. P retention was positive, and correlated to P load in all wetlands. However, there was a large variation in both specific and relative retention, both between wetlands and between years. Thus, the phosphorus retention in a specific wetland is difficult to predict using simple loadretention models. The water flow was correlated to P concentrations in most wetlands; however, there were some exceptions. For instance, one wetland showed a negative relationship between water flow and P concentration during summer, which indicated that other factors than the water flow determined the dynamics of P during this season. This investigation will provide a better understanding of factors affecting phosphorus retention in constructed wetlands, with further implications for wetland research and monitoring. Furthermore, the results can assist when formulating models for phosphorus removal in wetlands receiving nonpoint source runoff.

  • 16.
    Johannesson, Karin M.
    et al.
    IFM Ecology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kynkäänniemi, Pia
    Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ulén, Barbro
    Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Tonderski, Karin S.
    IFM Ecology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Clay-bound phosphorus retention in wetlands: a catchment comparison2010In: 6th International Phosphorus Workshop (IPW6): Towards a sustainable control of diffuse P loss: risk, monitoring, modelling, and mitigation options : Book of Abstracts, 2010, p. 127-127Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ten constructed wetlands, situated in agricultural areas in the south of Sweden, are investigated for phosphorus (P) retention and factors affecting the efficiency. These wetlands are situated in areas dominated by clay or heavy clay soils. National monitoring and estimations have shown that agricultural areas dominated by such clay soils have among the highest phosphorus losses. It has also been shown that a large proportion of P is transported in particulate form; hence, it is expected that sedimentation is the predominant P retention process in the selected wetlands. Sedimentation of clay may, however, be difficult to achieve in wetlands, and the aim of the study is to quantify the function of wetlands as sinks for the P lost from the catchments. Sedimentation and accumulation of particles are measured once a year using sedimentation plates (40×40 cm) placed on the bottom of the wetlands. Additional sedimentation traps (estimating gross sedimentation) have been placed in three of the wetlands, and those are emptied two times per year. This paper presents results for P and soil retention after the first year (in kg P ha-1 year-1), estimated by extrapolating the amount of sediment accumulated on the plates, and the content of total phosphorus (TP), to the whole wetland area. Furthermore, one wetland was selected for a detailed investigation of the effect of a vegetation filter, which in a previous study has been shown to have a positive effect on particle retention. Here, estimates of net and gross sedimentation are measured before, within and after the vegetation filter. To identify some factors of significant importance for wetland P load and retention efficiency, the statistical relationship with different wetland and catchment characteristics is analyzed. The factors included are the ratio wetland area to catchment area, average hydraulic load, and various catchment characteristics, e.g. soil type, topography, fertilization history, and soil P fractions. Since there is some uncertainty regarding sedimentation of fine clay particles (< 0.2 m), the size fractions of the accumulated sediment is determined to see whether or not the finest clay particles from the catchments settle in the wetlands. Previous studies have shown a correlation between particle size and bioavailability, where finer clay particles contain larger proportion of easily available P. Trapping the finest clay particles is therefore of particular ecological importance and needs to be further investigated.

  • 17.
    Johannesson, Karin M.
    et al.
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kynkäänniemi, Pia
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ulén, Barbro
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Tonderski, Karin S.
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Phosphorus and particle retention in constructed wetlands—A catchment comparison2015In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 80, p. 20-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Seven constructed wetlands (0.05–0.69 ha), situated in agricultural catchments (22–267 ha) in the south of Sweden, were studied for two years with two aims: to (i) quantify their function as sinks for particles and phosphorus (P) lost from the catchments, and (ii) investigate to what degree catchment and wetland characteristics and modeled loads (using hydrochemical catchment models) could be used to explain differences in retention between the wetlands. The wetland areas ranged from 0.04 to 0.8% of the respective catchment area, and they were situated in areas dominated by fine-textured soils with relatively high P losses and the main proportion of P transported in particulate form. Net P and particle retention were estimated during two years from annual accumulation of particles on sedimentation plates (40 × 40 cm) on the bottom of the wetlands.

    There was an annual net retention of particles and P, but with a large variation (for particles 13–108 t ha−1 yr−1 and for P 11–175 kg ha−1 yr−1), both between wetlands and between years. The difference between the two years was larger than the difference in mean P retention between the seven wetlands. There was a positive relationship between P and particle retention and three catchment factors, i.e. P status (P-AL) of agricultural soils, average slope in the catchments and the livestock density, and a negative relationship with the agricultural soil clay content. In addition, there was a positive relationship with the wetland length:width ratio. Contrary to expectations, neither the modeled hydraulic load nor P load was significantly correlated with the measured particle and P retention. There was also a positive relationship between P concentration in the sediment and soil P status in the catchment. The results imply that considerable errors are introduced when down-scaling modeled regional nutrient losses to estimate the P loads to small wetlands in agriculturally dominated catchments. A more qualitative approach, using catchment characteristics for identification of hot-spot fields, may be equally good to identify suitable locations for constructed wetlands to reduce diffuse P loads. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  • 18.
    Johannesson, Karin M.
    et al.
    IFM Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Tonderski, Karin S.
    IFM Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Weisner, Stefan E. B.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Temporal phosphorus dynamics affecting retention estimates in agricultural constructed wetlands2017In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 103, no Part B, p. 436-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from seven constructed wetlands (CWs) in the south of Sweden were analyzed to investigate the effects of water flow and season on inflow phosphorus (P) concentrations and temporal P retention variations in CWs receiving runoff from arable land. The form of P (dissolved or particulate) during different water flows (high and low) and seasons (warm and cold) was investigated using the results of total P (TP) and phosphate analyzed in grab samples that had been collected regularly or occasionally during two to nine years, along with continuous water flow measurements.

    The form of inflow and outflow P (particulate or dissolved P) differed between CWs, and also varied with season and flow. For instance, in three of the CWs, particulate P (PP) dominated the inflow during the cold period with high flow, while during the other periods the proportion of PP was approximately 50%. In one CW situated in a catchment with high clay content, PP dominated both inflow and outflow at all times. The average clay content in catchment top soils was positively correlated to the flow-weighted inflow TP concentrations.

    In three CWs receiving runoff through drainage pipes, the relationship between TP concentrations (TPin) and water flow was positive, both during high and low flow, and during warm and cold period. However, in four CWs that received surface water runoff, the relationship between TPin and water flow was positive during high flow periods (i.e. the 25% sampling occasions with the highest flow), and during low flow and warm period, the relationship was negative in these four wetlands, indicating either anoxic stagnant water upstream or influence from rural wastewater.

    The temporal dynamics of P concentrations mean that in some of the CWs, the main part of the annual P retention may occur during a few days with high water flows. The correlation between concentration and water flow suggests that the water sampling strategy may have a considerable impact on retention estimates, as exemplified by some calculation examples. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  • 19.
    Johannesson, Karin
    et al.
    Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sverige.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sverige.
    Wedding, Bengt
    Ekologgruppen i Landskrona AB, Landskrona, Sverige.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Phosphorus load variations and retention in non-point source wetlands in southern Sweden2011Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from seven constructed wetlands receiving runoff from agricultural catchments in the south of Sweden were investigated with respect to phosphorus (P) retention. The seven wetlands differed in size (0.22-2 ha), design, land use and catchment characteristics. The hydraulic load varied between 7 and 725 m yr-1, which reflect the different geographical and hydrological conditions. The overall aim of this study was to increase the understanding of how water flow and inflow P concentration varations affect the P retention in constructed wetlands receiving runoff from arable land. Water flow was measured continuously, and time or flow proportional water samples were taken. Grab samples were taken during high flow periods and also to supplement the automatic water sampling. P retention varied between wetlands, from 1 to 58 kg ha-1 yr-1, and was correlated to the P load (R2=0.9, p<0.05). P retention in the wetlands varied strongly between years, and negative retention was recorded for some years and wetlands. When investigating monthly retention for each wetland, release of P corresponded to either high flow or possible anoxic conditions during low-flow periods in summer or during winter when ice covered the wetlands. Analyses of grab samples revealed a relationship between TP concentration and water flow for most wetlands. In some wetlands, P was transported mainly as particulate P (PP), but in other wetlands, soluble P was the dominating form in both inflow and outflow. Incoming concentrations varied greatly between wetlands (1-2000 μg l-1) which reflected the different catchment characteristics, e.g. land use, soil type and topography.

  • 20.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Holmquist, Mats
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Jonasson, Mikael
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Centrum för lärande, kultur och samhälle (CLKS), Lärande, Profession och Samhällsutveckling.
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Ulvenblad, Per-Ola
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Slututvärdering av det svenska landsbygdsprogrammet 2007–2013: DELRAPPORT IV : Synteser för en hållbar landsbygdsutveckling : Utvärdering av programmets samlade effekter2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en del av utvärderingen av landsbygdsprogrammet 2007–2013. Fyra grupper med forskare från universitet och högskolor har gjort slututvärderingen. Den publiceras i fyra delrapporter varav detta är en. Frågor som handlar om hela programmet besvaras huvudsakligen i delrapport IV. Frågor om enskilda åtgärder besvaras i de tre andra delrapporterna. En översikt av vilka frågor som besvaras i vilken rapport finns på följande sidor.

    Slututvärderingen görs för att besvara EU-gemensamma och specifika svenska utvärderingsfrågor om vilka effekter programmet har haft, i vilken utsträckning det har bidragit till att uppfylla målen och hur effektivt detta har gjorts.

    Utvärderingssekretariatet vid Jordbruksverket ansvarar för att de svenska EU-programmen där Jordbruksverket är förvaltande myndighet blir utvärderade. Det innebär att utvärderingssekretariatet beställer och genomför utvärderingar av landsbygdsprogrammet, havs- och fiskeriprogrammet samt programmet för lokalt ledd utveckling inom regionalfonden och socialfonden. Programmen utvärderas dels var för sig men också tillsammans. Utvärderingarna görs i relation till målen i programmen och de övergripande EU 2020-målen.

    De flesta utvärderingarna genomförs av externa aktörer. Vi tar hjälp av forskare för att kvalitetsgranska rapporterna innan de publiceras. I slutet av rapporterna finns ett utlåtande från granskarna. Rapporterna publiceras i en särskild rapportserie och rapportförfattarna är ansvariga för slutsatserna. Slutsatserna utgör inte Jordbruksverkets officiella ståndpunkt.

    /Utvärderingssekretariatet vid Jordbruksverket

  • 21.
    Kallner Bastviken, Sofia
    et al.
    IFM Biology, Linköping University, Campus Valla, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Svensson, Jonas M.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Tonderski, Karin S.
    IFM Biology, Linköping University, Campus Valla, Sweden.
    Effects of vegetation and hydraulic load on seasonal nitrate removal in treatment wetlands2009In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 946-952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimising nitrate removal and identifying critical factors for nitrate removal in wetlands is an important environmental task in the effort to achieve better surface water quality. In this study, eighteen free water surface wetlands with similar shape and size (22 m2 each) received groundwater with a high nitrate-N concentration (about 11 mg l−1). The effects of two hydraulic loads, 0.13 m d−1 and 0.39 m d−1, and three vegetation types – emergent, submersed and freely developing vegetation – on the nitrate-N removal were investigated through mass inflow and outflow measurements.

    No significant difference in nitrate removal between the different hydraulic loads could be detected. Significantly higher area-specific nitrate removal and first-order area-based rate coefficients were found in the basins with emergent vegetation, with no difference between the basins with submersed and freely developing vegetation. The nitrate-N removal increased as the wetlands matured and the vegetation grew denser, emphasizing the role of dense emergent vegetation for nitrate removal at high nitrate concentrations.

  • 22. Milenkovski, S
    et al.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Samuelsson, K
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Berglund, O
    Lindgren, P-E
    Denitrification in constructed wetlands in southern Sweden2007In: 2nd International Symposium on Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control - WETPOL 2007: Extended abstracts / [ed] Ülo Mander, Margit Kõiv, Christina Vohla, Institute of Geography, 2007, p. 220-222Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Milenkovski, Susann
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Ecology/Ecotoxicology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Berglund, Olof
    Department of Chemical Ecology/Ecotoxicology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Samuelsson, Kristina
    Swedish County Administrative Board, Länsstyrelsen Kalmar län, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Medical Microbiology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Composition of denitrifying bacterial enzyme genes nirS, nirK and nosZ in constructed wetlandsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the composition of the denitrifying bacterial community among constructed wetlands in agricultural areas was investigated. Thirty-two constructed wetlands located in Southern Sweden were surveyed, and biofilm samples from each were analyzed by applying denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, to investigate the community composition of the three denitrifying bacterial enzyme genes nirK, nirS and nosZ. The DNA sequences of the enzyme genes were compared to known DNA sequences in GeneBank using BLAST. The results of the denitrifying bacterial enzyme genes indicated that these habitats may harbour a heterogeneous denitrifying bacterial community. Individual analysis of the enzyme genes revealed that nirS was more heterogeneous than both nirK and nosZ. Most sequences from the present study clustered with known sequences from species belonging to the group of α-Proteobacteria, and to a lesser extent with β- Proteobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria, and only nirS clustered with a member of gram-positive bacteria.

  • 24.
    Milenkovski, Susann
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Ecology/Ecotoxicology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Berglund, Olof
    Department of Chemical Ecology/Ecotoxicology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Medical Microbiology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Variation of eubacterial and denitrifying bacterial biofilm communities among constructed wetlandsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacteria play important roles in the transformation of nutrients in wetlands, but few studies have examined parameters affecting variation in bacterial community composition between wetlands. We compared the composition of eubacterial and denitrifying bacterial biofilm communities in 32 agricultural constructed wetlands in southern Sweden, and the extent to which wetland environmental parameters could explain the observed variation. Structure and richness of the eubacterial 16S rRNA gene and three denitrifying bacterial enzyme genes (nirK, nirS and nosZ), analysed by molecular fingerprinting methods, varied among the constructed wetlands, which could be partly explained by different environmental parameters. Results from the enzyme gene analyses were also compared to determine whether the practice of using a single denitrifying bacterial gene could characterize the overall community composition of denitrifying bacteria. We found that nirK was more diverse than both nirS and the nosZ, and the band structure and richness of the three genes were not related to the sam environmental parameters. This suggests that using a single enzyme gene may not suffice to characterize the community composition of denitrifying bacteria in constructed agricultural wetlands.

  • 25.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Johansson, Maria
    Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Värdering av kulturella ekosystemtjänster baserat på bidrag till livskvalitet: slutrapport2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten presenterar resultaten av forskningsprojektet Värdering av kulturella ekosystemtjänster baserat på bidrag till livskvalitet, ett av sju projekt som ingår i forskningssatsningen Värdet av ekosystemtjänster. I projektet undersöks om etablerade teorier, begrepp och metoder från miljöpsykologisk forskning kring interaktionen mellan människa och naturmiljö kan bidra till förståelsen av kulturella ekosystemtjänster och deras värde.

    Projektet visar att värdet av grönområden kan beskrivas utifrån hur områ­ dena bidrar till närboendes livskvalitet genom att de ger möjlighet till miljö­ upplevelser, känsloresponser och aktiviteter som främjar hälsan, inte minst återhämtning. Slutsatsen är att kulturella ekosystemtjänster kan värderas ickemonetärt med utgångspunkt från väletablerade teorier, begrepp och metoder. Men forskarna ser att den kompetens som finns bland tjänstemän som arbetar med kulturella ekosystemtjänster idag behöver kompletteras med kunskap i beteendevetenskap.

    Ekosystemtjänster är grunden för vår välfärd. Ändå tar vi dem ofta för givna. Genom en ökad medvetenhet om och värdering av ekosystemtjänster kan vi påverka vår framtida välfärd och livskvalitet. Politiker, myndigheter, kommuner, företag och organisationer kan därigenom fatta mer välunderbyggda beslut.

    Rapporten är författad av Eja Pedersen och Maria Johansson, Miljöpsykologi, Institutionen för arkitektur och byggd miljö, Lunds universitet och Stefan Weisner, Våtmarkscentrum, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap. Eja Pedersen har varit projektledare och organiserat resultatrapporteringen. Maria Johansson har ansvarat för de miljöpsykologiska teorierna och metoderna. Stefan Weisner har deltagit i projektet som expert på anlagda våtmarker. Samarbetspartners var Länsstyrelsen i Skåne, Hässleholms kommun, Staffanstorps kommun och Helsingborgs stad.

    Forskningssatsningen Värdet av ekosystemtjänster är en central insats för att nå ett av etappmålen inom miljömålssystemet genom att öka kunskapen om hur ekosystemtjänster bättre kan användas i olika beslutssituationer. Etappmålet innebär att betydelsen av biologisk mångfald och värdet av ekosystemtjänster senast 2018 ska vara allmänt kända och integreras i ekonomiska ställningstaganden, politiska avväganden och andra beslut i samhället där så är relevant och skäligt. Sju olika forskargrupper ingår i den omfattande satsningen som började 2014.

    Författarna tackar alla som bidragit med kunskap och erfarenhet under projektets gång. För projektets genomförande och analyser av resultaten, tack till Beatrice Marschke, Emilie Björling, Eva Hedenfelt, Lina Haremst, Linnea Saarela, Lukas Österling och Sanna Stålhammar. För värdefulla synpunkter i slutskedet av rapporteringen tackar projektet David Barton och Eeva Furman. Och till alla som deltagit i fokusgrupper och strukturerade vandringar, svarat på enkäter och deltagit i workshopar – ett stort tack!!

  • 26.
    Pedersen, Eja
    et al.
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, LTH, Lund University, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Johansson, Maria
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, LTH, Lund University, Sweden.
    Wetland areas' direct contributions to residents' well-being entitle them to high cultural ecosystem values2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 646, p. 1315-1326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wetlands in urban areas will be crucial to counteract the effects of climate change, for example, by improving flood protection and regulating local climate. To gain acceptance for larger-scale creation of wetlands, total values must be identified and revealed. Provisioning and regulating ecosystem services can be described as the quantitative effect, but cultural ecosystem services require other assessments. This study sought to determine whether peri-urban and urban wetland areas contribute to the well-being and quality of life of nearby residents, and to capture their value relative to two other types of green areas (i.e., parks and urban forests). A postal questionnaire survey, based on validated environmental psychology instruments, was distributed to residents in three municipalities with wetland areas of different structures and locations. In these municipalities, respondents (n = 474; response rate = 40%) reported that the wetland area contributed to several quality-of-life aspects, such as encountering nature and experiencing beauty. The areas also facilitated activities that support well-being, were perceived to have high restorative qualities, and evoked positive affective responses. All wetland areas were rated high on most of the measured concepts, but their value relative to other green areas differed possibly depending on the accessibility of the wetland and the availability of other green areas. The location and extent to which the wetland area was integrated in the residential area determined what quality-of-life aspects were most satisfied. Wetland areas can be ascribed cultural ecosystem service values based on how residents perceive their contribution to their quality of life. These values can be added to those of provisioning and regulating ecosystem services, forming the basis for planning urban environments. © 2018 The Authors

  • 27.
    Persson, Jesper
    et al.
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Integrera teknik och biologi vid utformning och anläggning2002In: Våtmarksboken: Skapande och nyttjande av värdefulla våtmarker / [ed] Karin Tonderski, Stefan Weisner, Jan Landin, Hans Oscarsson, Göteborg: Vattenstrategiska forskningsprogrammet (VASTRA) , 2002, p. 252-270Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Rögnvaldsson, Thorsteinn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Brink, Joachim
    Halmstad University.
    Florén, Henrik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Gaspes, Veronica
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Holmgren, Noél
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Lutz, Mareike
    Halmstad University.
    Nilsson, Pernilla
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Research on Education and Learning within the Department of Teacher Education (FULL).
    Olsfelt, Jonas
    Halmstad University.
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Ericsson, Claes
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Research on Education and Learning within the Department of Teacher Education (FULL).
    Gustafsson, Linnea
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Contexts and Cultural Boundaries (KK).
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Hylander, Jonny
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Nygren, Jens
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK).
    Sandberg, Mikael
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Center for Social Analysis (CESAM).
    Benner, Mats
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Berg, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Center for Social Analysis (CESAM).
    Bergvall, Patrik
    Halmstad University.
    Carlborg, Anna
    Halmstad University.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Hållander, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Olsson, Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Rundquist, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Waara, Sylvia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Werner, Sven
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    ARC13 – Assessment of Research and Coproduction: Reports from the assessment of all research at Halmstad University 20132014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    During 2013, an evaluation of all the research conducted at Halmstad University was carried out. The purpose was to assess the quality of the research, coproduction, and collaboration in research, as well as the impact of the research. The evaluation was dubbed the Assessment of Research and Coproduction 2013, or ARC13. (Extract from Executive Summary)

  • 29.
    Strand, John A.
    et al.
    Hushållningssällskapet i Halland.
    Feuerbach, Peter
    Hushållningssällskapet i Halland.
    Svensson, Jonas
    Länsstyrelsen i Hallands län.
    Vartia, Katarina
    Länsstyrelsen i Hallands län.
    Kindt, Torsten
    Laholms kommun.
    Kling, Johan
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Henriksson, Annika
    Agellus.
    Joelsson, Arne
    Länsstyrelsen i Hallands län.
    Edenman, Gunnar
    Aquarius-projektet.
    Hansson, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Erlandsson, Gert
    Region Halland.
    Markägare som vattenförvaltare i ett förändrat klimat2012Report (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Strand, John A.
    et al.
    Hushållningssällskapet Halland.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Kävlingeåprojektet – utvärdering av etapp I-III: Rapport på uppdrag av Programberedningen för Kävlingeåprojektet2010Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Strand, John A.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Vegetationsförändringar i Vänern - steg två: Projektplan för att utreda orsaken till igenbuskningen av skär och stränder samt dynamik hos vattenvegetationen2002Report (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Strand, John A.
    et al.
    Limnology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Limnology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Wave exposure related growth of epiphyton: Implications for the distribution of submerged macrophytes in eutrophic lakes1996In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 325, no 2, p. 113-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of submerged macrophytes in eutrophic lakes has been found to be skewed towards sites with intermediate exposure to waves. Low submerged macrophyte biomass at exposed sites has been explained by, for instance, physical damage from waves. The aim of this study was to investigate if lower biomass at sheltered sites compared to sites with intermediate exposure to waves can be caused by competition from epiphyton. Investigations were performed in eutrophic lakes in southern Sweden. Samples of submerged macrophytes and epiphytic algae on the macrophytes were taken along a wave exposure gradient. The amount of epiphyton (AFDW) per macrophyte biomass decreased with increased exposure. Biomass of submerged macrophytes, on the other hand, increased with increased exposure until a relatively abrupt disappearance of submerged vegetation occurred at high exposures. Production of epiphytic algae was monitored on artificial substrates from June to September at a sheltered and an exposed site in three lakes. It was higher at sheltered sites compared with exposed sites. We suggest that epiphytic algae may be an important factor in limiting the distribution of submerged macrophytes at sheltered sites in eutrophic lakes.

  • 33.
    Strand, John A.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Weisner, Stefan E. B.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Combating eutrophication of the sea and enhancing biodiversity of the agricultural landscape: experiences from wetland creation in Sweden2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Strand, John A.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Weisner, Stefan E B
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Effects of wetland construction on nitrogen transport and species richness in the agricultural landscape – experiences from Sweden2013In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 56, p. 14-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Constructed wetlands, have been used to decrease nitrogen transport from agricultural catchments to the coast of Sweden, while simultaneously contributing to increased species richness in the landscape. The purpose of this paper is to compile and evaluate data that have been produced in Sweden during some 20 years of using constructed wetlands as an environmental tool. To evaluate effects of different stated objectives for constructed wetlands within different national support systems we focus on nitrogen removal and bird and amphibian species richness. Continuous automatic water sampling for nitrogen removal measurements, during 1.5 to 10 years, has been performed in 7 constructed wetlands located in agricultural catchments in southern Sweden. Nitrogen removal per wetland area varied between wetlands but the results imply that an annual removal of at least 1000. kg. N per ha wetland area can be achieved in individual wetlands. Data from the long-term monitoring of the 7 wetlands, together with nitrogen removal data in the literature, were used to model >150 randomly selected constructed wetlands. According to the modeling, the nitrogen removal per created wetland area varied markedly between different wetland creation programs and was generally considerably lower compared to what can be achieved in individual wetlands. Cost-efficiency of nitrogen removal in wetland creation programs can be increased considerably with improved planning and if other desired benefits (e.g. species richness) contribute to share the costs for wetland creation. The effects of constructed wetlands in Sweden on species number and populations of wetland birds and amphibians were large enough to positively affect the occurrence of species in the national red list, i.e. on a national population level. Species richness of wetland breeding birds in the constructed wetlands were relatively stable after 13 years, but different functional groups had very different succession pattern. The mean maximum breeding bird species number in the wetlands occurred after 3.8 years. Wetland birds and amphibians colonized constructed wetlands irrespective of the original objective of the wetland (nitrogen removal or biodiversity). However, some amphibian species showed preference for biodiversity wetlands. There were clear effects of wetland construction on the regional populations of non-wetland bird species. The maximum species number for a given wetland size was found to be higher than previously reported. The analyses show that wetland construction can be a cost effective method for decreasing transport of diffuse pollution from arable land, and that the wetlands are important for the species numbers and population sizes on all spatial scales. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  • 35.
    Strand, John A.
    et al.
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Dynamics of submerged macrophyte populations in response to biomanipulation2001In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 46, no 10, p. 1397-1408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. A 6-year study (1992-97) of changes in submerged vegetation after biomanipulation was carried out in the eutrophicated Lake Finjasjon, Southern Sweden. Ten sites around the lake were revisited each year. At each site five samples of above-ground biomass were taken at 10 cm water depth intervals. An investigation of the seed bank at the 10 sites, and a grazing experiment where birds and large fish were excluded was also conducted. 2. Between 1992 and 1996, in shallow areas (water depth < 3 m), vegetation cover 2 increased from < 3 to 75% and above-ground biomass from < 1 to 100 g DW m(-2). Mean outer water depth increased from 0.3 to 2.5 m. Elodea canadensis and Myriophyllum spicatum accounted for > 95% of the increase in biomass and plant cover. The following year (1997), however, cover and above-ground biomass decreased, mainly attributable to the total disappearance of E. canadensis. Secchi depth increased after biomanipulation until 1996, but decreased again in 1997. 3. Total and mean number of submerged species increased after biomanipulation, probably as a result of the improved light climate. However, after the initial increase in species number there was a decrease during the following years, possibly attributed to competition from the rapidly expanding E. canadensis and M. spicatum. The lack of increase in species number after the disappearance of E. canadensis in 1997 implies that other factors also affected species richness. 4. A viable seed bank was not necessary for a rapid recolonization of submerged macrophytes, nor did grazing by waterfowl or fish delay the re-colonization of submerged macrophytes. 5. Submerged macrophytes are capable of rapid recolonization if conditions improve, even in large lakes such as Finjasjon (11 km(2)). Species that spread by fragments will increase rapidly and probably outcompete other species. 6. The results indicate that after the initial Secchi depth increase, probably caused by high zooplankton densities, submerged vegetation further improved the light climate. The decrease in macrophyte biomass in 1997 may have caused the observed increase in phosphorus and chlorophyll a, and the decrease in Secchi depth. We suggest that nutrient competition from periphyton, attached to the macrophytes, may be an important factor in limiting phytoplankton production, although other factors (e.g. zooplankton grazing) are also of importance, especially as triggers for the shift to a clear-water state.

  • 36.
    Strand, John A.
    et al.
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Morphological plastic responses to water depth and wave exposure in an aquatic plant (Myriophyllum spicatum)2001In: Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477, E-ISSN 1365-2745, Vol. 89, no 2, p. 166-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1 We investigated morphological responses of the submerged macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum L. to water depth and wave exposure when grown in the same substrate at two sites in two eutrophic lakes. Periphyton production was 4-8 times higher at sheltered than at wave-exposed sites and its influence was further investigated in a glasshouse experiment. Morphological responses in both experiments were compared by allometric analyses, with shoot weight as covariate. 2 In the field study, plants shoots exhibited similar responses (increased plant height and branch length, and decreased branch number) to sheltered conditions as to deep water. The partitioning between above- and below-ground biomass however, differed, with below-ground decreasing with an increasing water depth, but increasing or remaining unaffected at sheltered compared with exposed conditions. 3 In the glasshouse experiment, plant responses to water depth were similar to those in the field study. Furthermore, plant height increased when plants were overgrown with periphyton. 4 High production of periphytic algae at sheltered sites appears to cause light limitation of macrophytes. However, other factors such as nutrient uptake also appears to determine morphological responses. At sheltered sites, where leaf nutrient uptake is reduced by abundant periphyton and thick boundary layers, plants allocate more biomass to roots. At deep and wave-exposed sites, the absence of periphyton allows plants to take up nutrients through their leaves and allocation of biomass to shoots increases photosynthesis. 5 Overall, relative allocation to shoot and root biomass appears to be primarily controlled by nutrient availability, whereas allocation of available shoot biomass to particular structures is controlled by light availability.

  • 37.
    Strand, John A.
    et al.
    The Rural Economy and Agricultural Society of Halland, Lilla Boslid, Eldsberga, Sweden .
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Phenotypic plasticity – contrasting species-specific traits induced by identical environmental constraints2004In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 163, no 3, p. 449-451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Can it be assumed that a specific environmental constraint imposed on different species leads to a convergence in, for example, morphology? A phenotype expressed in response to external stimuli (e.g. size-reduction in response to mechanical stress) should be adaptive regardless of species – this is largely intuitive, but has been poorly studied. In this issue (pp. 651–660), Puijalon & Bornette reveal exciting new data that suggest that phenotypic plastic responses to identical environmental constraints may indeed be species-specific (Puijalon & Bornette, 2004).

  • 38.
    Svensson, Jonas M.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Strand, John A.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Rikare mångfald och mindre kväve: Utvärdering av våtmarker skapade med stöd av lokala investeringsprogram och landsbygdsutvecklingsstöd2004Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På uppdrag av Naturvårdsverket och Jordbruksverket har Våtmarkscentrum, Högskolan i Halmstad, utvärderat svenska våtmarker anlagda med landsbygdsutvecklingsstöd, LBU-stöd (Miva, projektstöd och Lmiva utan projektstöd) respektive våtmarker anlagda inom lokala investeringsprogram (LIP) avseende näringsretention och biologisk mångfald. Resultaten från utvärderingen redovisas separat för de fyra olika grupperna/kategorierna av anlagda våtmarker enligt nedan (fetstil anger kategorihänvisning i text, tabeller och figurer):

    • Våtmarker anlagda med anläggningsstöd inom Lokala investeringsprogram 1998 - 2002, LIP.

    • Våtmarker anlagda med anläggningsstöd inom LBU-projektstöd (dessa våtmarker får vanligen även skötselstöd, Lmiva), 2000 - 2002.

    • Våtmarker anlagda 1996-1999, utan anläggningsstöd men med skötselstöd (Miljöstöd), Miva.

    • Våtmarker anlagda från år 2000 - , utan anläggningsstöd men med skötselstöd (LBU-våtmarker som endast får skötselersättning), Lmiva.

    Syftet har främst varit att utvärdera och jämföra hur våtmarksanläggning inom olika stödformer har bidragit till minskad övergödning och ökad biologisk mångfald. Syftet har alltså inte varit att utvärdera enskilda våtmarker utan att ge en helhetsbild för olika stödformer och regioner. Därför har det varit nödvändigt att basera utvärderingen på data för ett stort antal våtmarker. Detta innebär att utförliga mätningar ej kunnat genomföras inom de enskilda objekten. Närsaltsretention har därför beräknats baserat på modeller och biologisk mångfald har undersökts genom att trollsländor använts som indikatorgrupp.

    Inom uppdraget har, med jordbruksstöd, registrerats information om totalt 908 våtmarksobjekt om totalt 2860 ha ersatt yta fördelat på 1815 ha Miva, 920 ha projektstöd och 125 ha Lmiva utan projektstöd. Totalt registrerade våtmarker med stöd från LIP är 274 st, omfattande 439 ha.

    Kompletterande fältstudier har utförts i drygt 100 st våtmarker. Främst är det resultaten från dessa våtmarker som sammanfattas nedan...

  • 39.
    Thiere, G.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Stadmark, J.
    Lund University.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Retention capacity achievements versus climate gas emission by constructed agricultural wetlands2007In: 2nd International Symposium on Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control - WETPOL 2007: Extended abstracts / [ed] Ülo Mander, Margit Kõiv, Christina Vohla, Institute of Geography, University of Tartu , 2007, p. 302-304Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Milenkovski, Susann
    Department of Ecology, Ecology Building, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Berglund, Olof
    Department of Ecology, Ecology Building, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Wetland creation in agricultural landscapes: Biodiversity benefits on local and regional scales2009In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 142, no 5, p. 964-973Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wetland creation aiming at a simultaneous increase in nutrient retention and species diversity in agricultural landscapes has recently become applied as a catchment-scale compensation measure for past wetland losses. Here, we evaluate if, and to what extend, dual-purpose wetlands benefit local and regional diversity of agricultural landscapes. We analysed composition and α, β, and γ diversity of aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages among dual-purpose wetlands in an agricultural region in southwest Sweden in relation to local (water quality, wetland morphology, succession stage, proximity to other aquatic habitats) and landscape parameters (regional connectivity, wetland density). Diversity of mature agricultural ponds was used as a standard to evaluate the value of dual-purpose wetlands. Dual-purpose wetlands sustained α, β, and γ diversity similar to that of natural lentic water bodies in agricultural landscapes in the region and elsewhere. Over 80% of the overall species richness was attributed to β diversity, and each created wetland contributed to overall species accumulation. Ecosystem parameters explained 19% of the compositional variation among assemblages, but were only marginally related to diversity. Wetland density promoted α and γ diversity, while spatial heterogeneity (β) remained equally high, independent of wetland density. Our results indicate that catchment-scale wetland creation for simultaneous retention and diversity purposes benefits the biodiversity of agricultural landscapes, particularly if the density of aquatic habitats is increased by at least 30%.

  • 41.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    Department of Ecology, Limnology, Lund University, Ecology Building, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan E. B.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Nitrogen retention versus methane emission: Environmental benefits and risks of large-scale wetland creation2011In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 6-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal eutrophication by nutrient fluxes from agricultural land to marine recipients is presently combated by measures such as the implementation of watershed-scale wetland creation programs aimed at nitrogen removal. Such created agricultural wetlands – termed ‘nitrogen farming wetlands’ (NFWs) – receive nitrogen (N) loads predominantly as nitrate, facilitating N removal by denitrification. However, the conversion of agricultural soils into waterlogged wetland area is likely to increase climate gas emissions, particularly methane (CH4). There is thus a need to evaluate the benefits and risks of wetland creation at a large, watershed-scale. Here we investigate N retention and CH4 emission originating from watershed-scale wetland creation in South Sweden, the relation between both processes, and how CH4 emission depends on individual wetland parameters. We combine data from intensively studied reference wetlands with an extensive wetland survey to predict N retention and CH4 emission with simple models, to estimate the overall process rates (large-scale effects) as well as spatial variation among individual NFWs. We show that watershed-scale wetland creation serves targeted environmental objectives (N retention), and that CH4 emission is comparably low. Environmental benefit and risk of individual wetlands were not correlated, and may thus be managed independently. High cover of aquatic plants was the most important wetland property that suppressed CH4 net production, potentially facilitating N retention simultaneously. Further, differences between wetlands in water temperature and wetland age seemed to contribute to differences in CH4 net production. The nationally planned wetland creation (12,000 ha) could make a significant contribution to the targeted reduction of N fluxes (up to 27% of the Swedish environmental objective), at an environmental risk equaling 0.04% of the national anthropogenic climate gas emission.

  • 42.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in created agricultural wetlands.: Key note presentation.2009In: 3rd Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control - WETPOL2009- Barcelona / [ed] Josep M. Bayona & Joan García, 2009, p. 29-30Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Tonderski, Karin S.
    et al.
    IFM div. Ecology, Linkoping University.
    Svensson, J. M.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Ekstam, Börje
    Högskolan i Kalmar.
    Eriksson, Peder
    Länsstyrelsen i Örebro län.
    Fleischer, Siegfried
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Herrmann, Jan
    Högskolan i Kalmar.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Våtmarker: Närsaltsfällor och/eller myllrande mångfald?2003In: Vatten: tidskrift för vattenvård, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 259-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes the state-of-the-art with respect to wetlands for nutrient removal and biodiversity enhancement, as expressed at a research workshop in December 2002. In the end of 2002, 260 and 884 wetlands had been constructed in Sweden with subsidies from LIP and the European Union, respectively. Most frequently, the aims were to remove nutrients from water and enhance biodiversity. The question raised is if we know how to design multifunctional wetlands. Should a wetland be deep or shallow, with or without macrophytes to be an efficient nutrient sink? Diverging opinions are presented, but generally it appears that fairly shallow wetlands at least partly covered by emergent macrophytes are favourable. The importance of extreme high flows and hydraulic short-circuiting is highlighted, and Danish and Norwegian approaches to wetlands construction are presented. Also, there is a risk that nutrient retaining wetlands develop a fairly trivial flora and fauna unless special care is taken. Intentional establishment of desirable and less common species, as well as creation of a variation of depth gradients to favour such species are such measures. Others are allowing for water level variations, as well as vegetation management such as grazing and harvesting.

  • 44.
    Tonderski, Karin
    et al.
    Department of Physics and Measurement Technology, Biology and Chemstry, Linköping University.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Ecological biotechnology in wetlands?2004In: Water research – what’s next? / [ed] Birgitta Johansson, Stockholm: Forskningsrådet Formas , 2004, p. 41-43Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Tonderski, Karin
    et al.
    IFM, Linköpings Universitet.
    Weisner, Stefan E. B.Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.Landin, JanIFM, Linköpings Universitet.Oscarsson, HansMiljöskyddsenheten, Länsstyrelsen Västra Götaland.
    Våtmarksboken: Skapande och nyttjande av värdefulla våtmarker2002Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 46.
    Vretare Strand, Viveka
    et al.
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Interactive effects of pressurized ventilation, water depth and substrate conditions on Phragmites australis2002In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 131, no 4, p. 490-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pressurized ventilation acts to increase the oxygen supply to roots and rhizomes in some species of emergent plants. In a greenhouse experiment, we investigated how pressurized ventilation affected growth, biomass allocation and mineral content of Phragmites australis in two water depths (15 cm or 75 cm) and two substrates (organic sediment or sand). Through perforating each stem above the water surface, pressurized ventilation was inhibited without affecting oxygen diffusion. In controls, 10-20% of the stems were perforated to make certain that lack of efflux sites would not limit pressurized ventilation. Plants with inhibited pressurized ventilation had lower oxygen concentrations in their stem bases than control plants. Growth was lower in plants with inhibited pressurized ventilation compared to controls except when plants grew in a combination of sand and shallow water. In plants grown in an organic sediment, but not in those grown in sand, inhibition of pressurized ventilation resulted in decreased biomass allocation to soil roots but increased allocation to aquatic roots. Stem perforation affected the tissue concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese and aluminium but not of calcium or iron. We suggest that the lower growth in plants with inhibited pressurized ventilation was caused by decreased mineral uptake, which may have resulted from the decreased proportional allocation to soil root weight, from decreased mineral availability or from impaired root function. In plants grown in sand in shallow water, diffusion seemed to cover the oxygen demand, as pressurized ventilation did not affect growth.

  • 47.
    Vretare, Viveka
    et al.
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Influence of pressurized ventilation on performance of an emergent macrophyte (Phragmites australis)2000In: Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477, E-ISSN 1365-2745, Vol. 88, no 6, p. 978-987Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1 Pressurized ventilation, which increases gas exchange between aerial and submerged plant parts, has been found in various emergent macrophyte species. We investigated the potential for this mechanism to affect growth, morphology and biomass allocation in Phragmites australis in glasshouse experiments. 2 Inhibition of pressurized ventilation by perforation of stems above the water surface resulted in decreased oxygen concentrations in stem bases and rhizomes. Perforation caused little mechanical damage. 3 Allometric methods were used to evaluate treatment effects on biomass allocation and morphology. 4 Inhibition of pressurized ventilation resulted in decreased allocation to belowground weight and decreased rhizome penetration into the substrate in two of three experiments. Treatment also decreased growth rate, rhizome length and number of rhizomes when substrate had a high organic content. In the third experiment, growth clearly decreased in deep water, although inhibition of pressurized ventilation did not affect growth, biomass allocation or morphology at either of the water depths tested. 5 Decreased allocation to below-ground parts and decreased rhizome lengths may be adaptations to allow the oxygen concentration in roots and rhizomes to be maintained above a critical level when the oxygen supply is low. 6 Pressurized ventilation may improve the performance of P. australis but only under certain conditions (e.g. not when growth rate is low or the substrate has a high redox potential).

  • 48.
    Vretare, Viveka
    et al.
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Strand, John A.
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Graneli, Wilhelm
    Limnology, Department of Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Phenotypic plasticity in Phragmites australis as a functional response to water depth2001In: Aquatic Botany, ISSN 0304-3770, E-ISSN 1879-1522, Vol. 69, no 2-4, p. 127-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have performed investigations to see if the emergent macrophyte Phragmites australia (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. exhibits phenotypic plasticity as a response to water depth and if such responses in biomass allocation pattern and morphology are functional responses, improving the performance of the plant. In greenhouse experiments plants were grown in deep or shallow water to evaluate plastic responses. Allometric methods were used to handle effects caused by size differences between treatments. To evaluate if phenotypic responses to water depth are functional, the relative growth rate (RGR) of plants acclimatised to shallow or deep water, respectively, were compared in deep water, and the growth of plants in fluctuating and constant water level were compared. When grown in deep (70 or 75 cm), compared to shallow (20 or 5 cm) water, plants allocated proportionally less to below-ground weight, made proportionally fewer but taller stems, and had rhizomes that were situated more superficially in the substrate. Plants acclimatised to shallow water had lower RGR than plants acclimatised to deep water, when they were grown in deep water, and plants in constant water depth (40 cm) grew faster than plants in fluctuating water depth (15/65 cm). In an additional field study, the rhizomes were situated superficially in the sediment in deep, compared to shallow water. We have shown that P. australis acclimatises to deep water with phenotypic plasticity through allocating more resources to stem weight, and also by producing fewer but taller stems, which will act to maintain a positive carbon balance and an effective gas exchange between aerial and below-ground parts. Furthermore, the decreased proportional allocation to below-ground parts probably results in decreased nutrient absorption, decreased anchorage in the sediment and decreased carbohydrate reserves. Thus, in deep water, plants have an increased risk of becoming uprooted and experience decreased growth and dispersal rates. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 49.
    Waara, Sylvia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Gajewska, Magdalena
    Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Dvarioniene, Jolanta
    Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Gajewski, Ryszard
    Gdańska Infrastructura Wodociągowo-Kanalizacyjna, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Grabowski, Pawel
    Grupa Lotos, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Hansson, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Kaszubowski, Jacek
    Gdańska Infrastructura Wodociągowo-Kanalizacyjna, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Obarska-Pempkowiak, Hanna
    Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Przewlócka, Maria
    Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Pilecki, Adam
    Grupa Lotos, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Nagórka-Kmiecik, Dagmara
    City Hall of Gdańsk, Environment Department , Gdańsk, Poland.
    Skarbek, Jacek
    Gdańska Infrastructura Wodociągowo-Kanalizacyjna, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Environmental Science, Wetland Research Centre.
    Wojciechowska, Ewa
    Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Towards Recommendations for Design of Wetlands for Post-Tertiary Treatment of Waste Water in the Baltic Sea Region – Gdańsk Case Study2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many challenges that need to be addressed if the far reaching objectives on high environmental status as required in the EU Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive will be met in the Baltic Sea Region within the next decade. For wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) this implies, in spite of the many improvements made during the last decade, development and introduction of new technology to further reduce eutrophying compounds, hazardous chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Constructed wetlands when properly designed and operated have been shown to be robust systems with low energy requirements that may not only reduce many types of pollutants but may also provide many additional ecosystem services beyond requirements generally imposed by authorities. For example, they may support and enhance biodiversity and be used to convert brownfield areas in urban landscapes to recreational areas. Reduced cost is possible if treated water is reused in industry or for irrigation. In a project, supported by the Swedish Institute, a group of scientists, a water company and water using industry has together with local authorities through workshops, field studies and literature studies worked on finding a general first recommendation on design and operation. In this paper we will present the scientific rational and legal constraints for the general design and operation of a wetland system for post-tertiary treatment of waste water from WWTPs using Gdańsk as an example. The proposal includes a first part, which mainly will be focusing on pollutant and pathogen removal using particle traps and a HSSF wetland on land owned by the WWTP and a second part consisting of a FWS wetland which, in addition to further polishing the water, will enhance biodiversity and provide recreational areas on derelict land owned by the city.

  • 50.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Wetland Research Centre.
    Potential hos våtmarker anlagda för fosfor- och kväveretention i jordbrukslandskapet: analys och tolkning av mätresultat2012Report (Other academic)
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