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  • 1.
    Almgren, Johanna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Löfström, Emma
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Hallands Hospital Halmstad, Halmstad, Sweden; Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Malmborg, Julia S
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Nygren, Jens M.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Undén, Johan
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Department of Operation and Intensive Care, Hallands Hospital Halmstad, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. Spenshult Research and Development Centre, Halmstad, Sweden; Section of Rheumatology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Patients' Health Experiences of Post COVID-19 Condition – A Qualitative Study2022In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 19, no 21, article id 13980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients who suffer from long-term symptoms of COVID-19, described as post COVID-19 condition, are a new and large group of patients. There is a lack of knowledge concerning health experiences in this patient group. The aim of this study was to explore patients' health experiences of post COVID-19 condition. Data collection was performed through 14 semi-structured interviews. The qualitative content analysis resulted in six sub-categories, three categories, and an overall theme. Patients experienced symptoms of varying duration-ranging from 5-21 months. The results showed that patients' health experiences of post COVID-19 condition moved between uncertainty and new insights. This was shown by patients experiencing: (1) loss of abilities, including losing smell and taste and lacking energy, (2) loss of control, including being foreign to oneself and seeking answers, and (3) revaluation of life, including accepting the transformed body and prioritizing health. This study illustrates that patients living with post COVID-19 condition need to be treated with flexibility, based on each individual's unique challenges and experiences of the symptoms and the consequences for their health. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 2.
    Ek, Staffan
    et al.
    Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Department of Medical Imaging and Physiology, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Wollmer, Per
    Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Department of Medical Imaging and Physiology, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Magnus K.
    Clinical and Molecular Osteoporosis Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences and Orthopaedics, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Peterson, Tomas
    Department of Sport Sciences, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Thorsson, Ola
    Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Department of Medical Imaging and Physiology, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Malmborg, Julia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Dencker, Magnus
    Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Department of Medical Imaging and Physiology, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Relative Age Effect of Sport Academy Adolescents, a Physiological Evaluation2020In: Sports, E-ISSN 2075-4663, Vol. 8, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between birth quarter distribution and physiological characteristics related to athletic skills, in adolescent sport academy students has not been fully investigated. In a cross-sectional study, we recruited 86 boys and 52 girls aged 12-14 years during their first term at a sport academy school. We measured body size, cardiac size, pulmonary function, body composition, lower body power, cardiorespiratory fitness parameters, and running endurance by standard methods and analyzed these estimates in relation to birth quarter by ANOVA. Birth quarter distribution in our cohort was compared with birth quarter distribution in the same ages in the whole of Sweden and analyzed by logistic regression. The academy had an overrepresentation of students born in the first quartile of the year compared to those born in the last quartile (odds ratio 2.3 (95% CI: 1.1-4.7)). When comparing the physiological characteristics between birth quarters, uniformity is prominent since out of 26 performed physiological and anthropometric tests only four showed statistically significant group differences. We thus believe that the selection process to the sport academy favours athletes with higher chronological age, i.e., a so-called relative age effect is present. © 2020 MDPI (Basel, Switzerland).

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  • 3.
    Johansson, Hanna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Malmborg, Julia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Ekengren, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Lind, John
    Swedish Ice Hockey Association, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Skating on thin ice? Mental health and well-being in women’s ice hockey2023In: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, E-ISSN 2055-7647, Vol. 9, no 4, article id e001746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: First, to map the prevalence of symptoms of positive mental health, anxiety, depression and sleep difficulties, along with the coexistence of these symptoms, among players in the Swedish Women’s Hockey League (SDHL). Second, to investigate relationships between these mental health symptoms and demographic variables (ie, age, injuries, dual careers), social support and psychological flexibility.

    Methods: Players from nine teams in SDHL (n=182; mean age 22.3±SD 4.8, range 16–35) participated in this cross-sectional study. An online survey, including validated self-assessment questionnaires, conducted data collection. The questionnaires were distributed just before the play-offs started in the 2022–2023 season. Mental health variables were presented as descriptive statistics, and associations were investigated through multivariate binary logistic regression analyses.

    Results: The response rate was 91%. Moderate or severe symptoms were reported among 29.7% for sleep difficulties, 20.9% for anxiety and 18.1% for depression. Nineteen per cent reported comorbidities. Sixty percent reported flourishing mental health. Lower psychological flexibility was associated with lower odds of flourishing mental health and higher odds of symptoms of anxiety, depression and sleep difficulties. Social support was associated with higher odds of flourishing mental health and lower odds of sleep difficulties.

    Conclusion: 6 of every 10 players reported not reaching the ideal state of mental health (ie, flourishing mental health without mental illness). Mental health symptoms were statistically significantly associated with psychological flexibility and social support, suggesting that these factors will be beneficial to consider when preventing mental illness and promoting mental health in this population.

  • 4.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention. FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sverige.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sverige.
    Orthorexic Eating Behavior in Relation to Health Status and Physical Activity: A Comparison Between Students in Two University Programs2015In: Book of Abstracts of the 20th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science - 24th - 27th June 2015, Malmö - Sweden / [ed] Radmann, A., Hedenborg, S., Tsolakidis, E., Cologne: SporTools , 2015, p. 497-498Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Orthorexia nervosa (ON) is a condition described as ‘unhealthy’ behaviors regarding diet and physical activity. There is an ongoing discussion if ON is more common among adolescents studying in the area of health care and exercise. The research on ON is scarce and few studies assess ON and its association to health related quality of life (HRQoL).

    Aim

    The aim was to study orthorexic eating behavior, levels of physical activity and HRQoL in students enrolled at university programs focusing on health and exercise compared to those enrolled in business programs.

    Method

    128 subjects, 32 men and 38 women from Biomedicine – Athletic Training (Biomedicine) and 22 men and 36 women from Construction and Real Estate Business (Business) participated in this cross-sectional study. The subjects completed the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) to measure HRQoL, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) to measure levels of physical activity and ORTO-15 which examines eating behavior. A score less than 40 on ORTO-15 (score ranging from 0-60, worst to best) indicated an unhealthy relation to diet and was considered as ON in this study (Donini et al., 2005). Differences between groups were analyzed with t-tests and chi-square test.

    Results

    A total of 105 out of 128 (82%) subjects had a score indicating ON. Students from Biomedicine had a higher frequency of ON in comparison to Business (p < 0.000) and in the SF-36 subscale bodily pain, Biomedicine students reported a higher frequency of pain (p = 0.006). Results from measurements of physical activity did not differ significantly between Biomedicine and Business students, but there was a trend for high-intensity physical activity to occur more frequently in men than in women in general (p = 0.014).

    Conclusion

    ON is a common condition in university students and even more frequent in students enrolled in a program directed towards health and nutrition. The high frequency of ON seen in Biomedicine students could be a problem that needs to be addressed since the students, after graduation, are expected to coach other people to a healthy living. Further studies are needed to explore associations with ON to health and physical activity. There is also a need to develop valid and reliable instruments for assessing the condition.

  • 5.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden; Department of Regional Health Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; Danish Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases Sønderborg, University Hospital of Southern Denmark, Sønderborg, Denmark; Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden; Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Primary Health Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden; Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Musculoskeletal pain in adolescent sportschool students – a two-year follow-up2021Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Department of Regional Health Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Primary Health Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg,Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Risk Factors for Persistence and Development of Frequent Musculoskeletal Pain in Adolescent Athletes2020In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 79, no Suppl 1, p. 206-206Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Pain and its association to health, orthorexia nervosa, sports performance, and physical maturity in sport school adolescents2017In: Proceedings of the Nordic Sport Science Conference – ‘The Double-Edged Sword of Sport: Health Promotion Versus Unhealthy Environments’ / [ed] Hertting, K. & Johnson, U., Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2017, p. 56-57Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Health status, physical activity, and orthorexia nervosa: A comparison between exercise science students and business students2017In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 109, p. 137-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Orthorexia nervosa is described as an exaggerated fixation on healthy food. It is unclear whether students in health-oriented academic programs, highly focused on physical exercise, are more prone to develop orthorexia nervosa than students in other educational areas. The aim was to compare health status, physical activity, and frequency of orthorexia nervosa between university students enrolled in an exercise science program (n = 118) or a business program (n = 89). The students completed the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and ORTO-15, which defines orthorexia nervosa as a sensitive and obsessive behavior towards healthy nutrition. The SF-36 showed that exercise science students scored worse than business students regarding bodily pain (72.8 vs. 82.5; p = 0.001), but better regarding general health (83.1 vs. 77.1; p = 0.006). Of 188 students, 144 (76.6%) had an ORTO-15 score indicating orthorexia nervosa, with a higher proportion in exercise science students than in business students (84.5% vs. 65.4%; p = 0.002). Orthorexia nervosa in combination with a high level of physical activity was most often seen in men in exercise science studies and less often in women in business studies (45.1% vs. 8.3%; p < 0.000). A high degree of self-reporting of pain and orthorexia nervosa in exercise science students may cause problems in the future, since they are expected to coach others in healthy living. Our findings may be valuable in the development of health-oriented academic programs and within student healthcare services. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  • 9.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bergman, A.-C.
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Primary Health Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sleeping Problems and Anxiety is Associated to Chronic Multisite Musculoskeletal Pain in Swedish High School Students2018In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 77, no Suppl. 2, p. 226-226, article id OP0361-HPRArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The relationship between chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain (CMP) and sleep is complex, where pain can lead to sleeping problems and lack of sleep can intensify the pain perception. Most previous studies relates to adults, but adolescents may also suffer from CMP, and there is a need for more knowledge regarding the relationships between CMP and sleeping problems, stress, anxiety, depression, and health status.

    Objectives: To study background factors associated to CMP in first year Swedish high school students.

    Methods: First year Swedish high school students (n=296) were invited to complete questionnaires on chronic pain (mannequin with 18 body regions), sleeping problems (Uppsala Sleep Inventory, four items scored from 1–5), stress (ELO questions, scored from 1–5), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, scored from 0–21), health status (EQ-5D, scored from 0 to 1, worst to best) and physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire, categorised into low, moderate and high levels). Stress and sleeping items were dichotomized into 1–3 points (best) vs 4–5 points (worst). Individuals scoring at least severe problems (4 points) at one or more sleeping items were classified as having severe sleeping problems. HADS were categorised as non-cases (0–7), possible7–10 and probable cases (11–21 points). Students were grouped as having CMP (pain present in ≥3 regions) or not (no chronic pain or chronic pain in 1–2 regions). Multiple logistic regression analyses (adjusted for sex) with CMP as dependent variable were performed in SPSS, version 24.

    Results: 254 students (86% of total sample, 87 boys and 167 girls) with a mean age of 16.1 (SD 0.6) years participated in the study. CMP was present in 25 (9.8%) students with no differences between boys and girls (8.0% vs 10.8%; p=0.488). Having CMP was associated with reporting severe sleeping problems (OR 2.49, 95% CI: 1.06 to 5.81, p=0.035) with initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, early morning awakenings and/or not feeling restored after sleep in comparison to the other students. Students with CMP were more likely to be categorised as probable cases for anxiety (OR 3.06, 95% CI: 1.09 to 8.61, p=0.034), but there were no associations for possible cases for anxiety (OR 1.15, 95% CI: 0.38 to 3.51, p=0.800), possible cases (OR 2.03, 95% CI: 0.63 to 6.54), or probable cases for depression (OR 3.35, 95% CI: 0.33 to 33.83). There was a nearly significant association between stress and belonging to the CMP group (OR 2.31, 95% CI: 0.97 to 5.53, p=0.059). A higher self-reported health status was associated to a lower likelihood for CMP (OR 0.04, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.27, p=0.001). Distribution of physical activity levels of low, moderate and high was not significantly associated to having CMP in comparison with not having it.

    Conclusions: One in ten high school students fulfilled criteria for having chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain. CMP was associated to sleeping problems, anxiety, and a worse health status. The results from this study may be used by school health-care professionals in their preventive work to promote student’s health.

    Disclosure of Interest: None declared

  • 10.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bergman, Stefan
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Daily Musculoskeletal Pain Affects Health And Sports Performance Negatively In Youth Athletes2017In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 49, p. 972-972Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In sports, musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is often studied from the perspective of sport specific injuries, why little is known about the prevalence of daily or multisite MSP that does not affect participation in sports. It is also unclear if daily or multisite MSP is a risk factor for worse health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and worse sports performance in youth athletes.

    PURPOSE: To study how HRQoL and sports performance is affected by daily MSP in youth athletes that are able to participate in sports.

    METHODS: 136 Swedish youth athletes attending a sport school (13 to 14 years, boys n=83, girls n=53) completed the EQ-5D measuring HRQoL (range 0 to 1, worst to best), a pain questionnaire including current pain (yes/no), pain in 18 body regions (never to rarely/monthly to weekly/more than once a week to almost daily), and pain intensity in the last week (0 to 10, best to worst), anthropometric measures to estimate biological age, and sports performance tests (grip strength, 20 meter sprint, and countermovement jump(CMJ)).

    RESULTS: 109 to 117 of the 136 students answered the different pain questions. 53 of 113 (47%) reported current MSP, and 28 of 109 (26%) experienced MSP ‘more than once a week to almost daily’ from one or more body regions (frequent MSP group), while 28% (n=30) stated ‘never to rarely’ in MSP (no MSP group). Boys in the frequent MSP group reported worse HRQoL, higher pain intensity, performed worse in all sports performance tests, and had a younger biological age than boys in the no MSP group. Girls in the frequent MSP group reported worse HRQoL and higher pain intensity than the girls in the no MSP group. No other differences were found (table).

    CONCLUSIONS: Every other youth athlete attending a sport school reported current MSP and one out of four reported almost daily MSP. MSP affects HRQoL negatively in both boys and girls, and sports performance negatively in boys. The prevalence of MSP in youth athletes is concerning since pain in younger ages may predict pain in adult ages.

    © 2017 American College of Sports Medicine

  • 11.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Roswall, Josefine
    Department of Pediatrics, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, SE-416 85, Sweden; Department of Pediatrics, Halland Hospital, Halmstad, SE-301 85, Sweden.
    Almquist-Tangen, Gerd
    Department of Pediatrics, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, SE-416 85, Sweden; Child Health Care Unit, Region Halland, Halmstad, SE-301 80, Sweden.
    Dahlgren, Jovanna
    Department of Pediatrics, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, SE-416 85, Sweden.
    Alm, Bernt
    Department of Pediatrics, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, SE-416 85, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Spenshult Research and Development Centre, Bäckagårdsvägen 47, Halmstad, SE-302 74, Sweden; The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Box 454, Gothenburg, SE-405 30, Sweden.
    Associations between pain, health, and lifestyle factors in 10-year-old boys and girls from a Swedish birth cohort2023In: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Pain is common in children and its associations with various biopsychosocial factors is complex. Comprehensive pain assessments could contribute to a better understanding of pediatric pain, but these assessments are scarce in literature. The aim of this study was to examine differences in pain prevalence and pain patterns in 10-year-old boys and girls from a Swedish birth cohort and to study associations between pain, health-related quality of life and various lifestyle factors stratified by sex.

    Methods:

    866 children (426 boys and 440 girls) and their parents from the “Halland Health and Growth Study” participated in this cross-sectional study. Children were categorized into two pain groups, “infrequent pain” (never–monthly pain) or “frequent pain” (weekly–almost daily pain), based on a pain mannequin. Univariate logistic regression analyses, stratified by sex, were performed to study associations between frequent pain and children’s self-reports of disease and disability and health-related quality of life (Kidscreen-27, five domains), and parents’ reports of their child’s sleep (quality and duration), physical activity time, sedentary time, and participation in organized physical activities.

    Results:

    The prevalence of frequent pain was 36.5% with no difference between boys and girls (p = 0.442). Boys with a longstanding disease or disability had higher odds of being in the frequent pain group (OR 2.167, 95% CI 1.168–4.020). Higher scores on health-related quality of life in all five domains for girls, and in two domains for boys, was associated with lower odds of being categorized into the frequent pain group. Frequent pain was associated with poor sleep quality (boys OR 2.533, 95% CI 1.243–5.162; girls OR 2.803, 95% CI 1.276–6.158) and more sedentary time (boys weekends OR 1.131, 95% CI 1.022–1.253; girls weekdays OR 1.137, 95% CI 1.032–1.253), but not with physical activity.

    Conclusions:

    The high prevalence of frequent pain needs to be acknowledged and treated by school health-care services and the healthcare sector in order to prevent pain from influencing health and lifestyle factors negatively in children. © 2023, The Author(s).

  • 12.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Spenshult Research and Development Centre, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Roswall, Josefine
    Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Pediatrics, Halland Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Almquist-Tangen, Gerd
    Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Child Health Care Unit, Region Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Dahlgren, Jovanna
    Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Alm, Bernt
    Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Spenshult Research and Development Centre, Halmstad, Sweden; Primary Health Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pain and its association with health-related quality of life, sleep, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in 10-year-old children from a Swedish birth cohort2022In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 81, no Suppl. 1, p. 988-988Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Malmborg, Julia S.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Spenshult Research and Development Centre, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden; University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; University Hospital of Southern Denmark, Sønderborg, Denmark; Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden; Lund University, Lund, Sweden; The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Haglund, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden; Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Musculoskeletal pain and its association with health status, maturity, and sports performance in adolescent sport school students: a 2-year follow-up2022In: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation, E-ISSN 2052-1847 , Vol. 14, no 1, article id 43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Musculoskeletal pain and its risk factors are rarely assessed in studies on adolescent athletes. The aim was to identify risk factors at baseline that were associated with the persistence or development of musculoskeletal pain at a two-year follow-up in adolescent sport school students, and to study cross-sectional associations at follow-up between musculoskeletal pain and sports performance.

    Methods: Sport school students (79 boys and 52 girls, aged 14 years at baseline) were divided into infrequent (never–monthly) or frequent (weekly–almost daily) pain groups, based on frequency of pain using a pain mannequin. Logistic regression analyses were performed to study longitudinal associations between frequent pain at follow-up and baseline variables: pain group, number of regions with frequent pain, health status by EQ-5D, maturity offset (pre, average, or post peak height velocity), and sports (contact or non-contact). Linear regression analyses were used to study cross-sectional associations between pain groups and 20-m sprint, agility T-test, counter-movement jump, and grip strength at follow-up. Results were stratified by sex.

    Results: A higher percentage of girls than boys reported frequent pain at follow-up (62% vs. 37%; p = 0.005). In boys, frequent pain at follow-up was associated with being pre peak height velocity at baseline (OR 3.884, CI 1.146–13.171; p = 0.029) and participating in non-contact sports (OR 3.429, CI 1.001–11.748; p = 0.050). In girls, frequent pain at follow-up was associated with having frequent pain in two or more body regions at baseline (OR 3.600, CI 1.033–12.542; p = 0.044), having a worse health status at baseline (OR 3.571, CI 1.026–12.434; p = 0.045), and participating in non-contact sports (OR 8.282, CI 2.011–34.116; p = 0.003). In boys, frequent pain was associated with worse performances in 20-m sprint and counter-movement jump, but not in agility T-test and grip strength.

    Conclusions: Baseline risk factors for having frequent pain at follow-up were late maturation in boys, frequent pain and worse health status in girls, and participation in non-contact sports in both sexes. Boys with pain performed worse in sports tests. Coaches and school health-care services should pay attention to the risk factors and work towards preventing pain from becoming persistent. © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 14.
    Malmborg, Julia S
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark & University Hospital of Southern Denmark, Sønderborg, Denmark & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bergman, Anna-Carin
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Brorsson, A Sofia
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden & The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Worse health status, sleeping problems, and anxiety in 16-year-old students are associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain at three-year follow-up2019In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 1565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Chronic musculoskeletal pain is common in adolescents, and it has been shown that adolescents with pain may become young adults with pain. Pain often coincides with psychosomatic symptoms in adults, but little is known about longitudinal associations and predictors of pain in adolescents. The aim was to investigate chronic musculoskeletal pain and its associations with health status, sleeping problems, stress, anxiety, depression, and physical activity in 16-year-old students at baseline, and to identify risk factors using a three-year follow-up.

    METHODS: This was a longitudinal study of 256 students attending a Swedish upper secondary school. Questionnaires regarding chronic musculoskeletal pain and distribution of pain (mannequin), health status (EQ-5D-3 L), sleeping problems (Uppsala Sleep Inventory), stress symptoms (single-item question), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) were issued at baseline and follow-up. Student's t-test and chi2 test were used for descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were used to study associations between chronic pain and independent variables.

    RESULTS: Fifty-two out of 221 students at baseline (23.5%) and 39 out of 154 students at follow-up (25.3%) were categorized as having chronic musculoskeletal pain. Chronic musculoskeletal pain at follow-up was separately associated with reporting of an EQ-5D value below median (OR 4.06, 95% CI 1.83-9.01), severe sleeping problems (OR 3.63, 95% CI 1.69-7.82), and possible anxiety (OR 4.19, 95% CI 1.74-10.11) or probable anxiety (OR 3.82, 95% CI 1.17-12.48) at baseline. Similar results were found for associations between chronic musculoskeletal pain and independent variables at baseline. In multiple logistic regression analysis, chronic musculoskeletal pain at baseline was a predictor of chronic musculoskeletal pain at follow-up (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.09-8.24, R2 = 0.240).

    CONCLUSION: Chronic musculoskeletal pain at baseline was the most important predictor for reporting chronic musculoskeletal pain at the three-year follow-up, but a worse health status, severe sleeping problems, and anxiety also predicted persistence or development of chronic musculoskeletal pain over time. Interventions should be introduced early on by the school health services to promote student health.

  • 15.
    Malmborg, Julia S
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Malmö Sports Academy, Malmö, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Musculoskeletal pain and its association with maturity and sports performance in 14-year-old sport school students2018In: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, ISSN 2055-7647, Vol. 4, no 1, article id e000395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: In youth sports, musculoskeletal pain is often studied from the standpoint of sports injuries, but little is known about pain conditions in which athletes still participate. The aim was to study the frequency of pain and associations with maturity offset, health status and sports performance in 14-year-old sport school students.

    Methods: Cross-sectional design. One hundred and seventy-eight students (108 boys and 70 girls) completed anthropometric measures for maturity offset (height, weight and sitting height), questionnaires (pain mannequin and EQ-5D for health status) and sports performance tests (sprint, agility, counter-movement jump and grip strength). Differences between groups were analysed with Student’s t-test and analysis of covariance.

    Results: Thirty-one students (18.6%) reported infrequent pain, 85 (50.9%) frequent pain and 51 (30.5%) constant pain. Students in the constant pain group had worse health status than those in the infrequent pain group. Boys with constant pain (n=27) had a lower mean maturity offset (–0.38 vs 0.07 years; p=0.03) than boys with infrequent pain (n=22), and pain was associated with worse sports performance. There was no difference in maturity or sports performance between girls with constant pain (n=24) and girls with infrequent pain (n=9).

    Conclusion: Musculoskeletal pain is common in sport school students and coincides with worse health status and with a younger biological age in boys. The high prevalence of pain should be acknowledged by coaches and student healthcare workers in order to promote a healthy and sustainable development in young athletes. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2018.

  • 16.
    Malmborg, Julia S.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. FoU Spenshult, Halmstad.
    Roswall, Josefine
    Avdelningen för pediatrik, Hallands Sjukhus, Halmstad, Sverige; Avdelningen för pediatrik, institutionen för kliniska vetenskaper, Sahlgrenska Akademin, Göteborgs Universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Almquist-Tangen, Gerd
    Avdelningen för pediatrik, institutionen för kliniska vetenskaper, Sahlgrenska Akademin, Göteborgs Universitet, Göteborg, Sverige; Barnhälsovårdsenheten, Region Halland, Halmstad, Sverige.
    Dahlgren, Jovanna
    Avdelningen för pediatrik, institutionen för kliniska vetenskaper, Sahlgrenska Akademin, Göteborgs Universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Alm, Bernt
    Avdelningen för pediatrik, institutionen för kliniska vetenskaper, Sahlgrenska Akademin, Göteborgs Universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Bergman, Stefan
    FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sverige; Enheten för allmänmedicin, avdelningen för samhällsmedicin och folkhälsa, institutionen för medicin, Sahlgrenska Akademin, Göteborgs Universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Smärta och hälsa hos 10-åriga barn från en födelsekohort2023Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Malmborg, Julia S.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Nygren, Jens M.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Aili, Katarina
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Parents' health experiences after their child with ADHD and sleep problems underwent a sleep intervention with a weighted blanket2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Being a parent of a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and sleep problems can be challenging and stressful. Weighted blankets have the potential to improve sleep and health in these children, but less is known about the potential effects the child's use of a weighted blanket may have on parents' health.

    Purpose of the study: To explore parents' health experiences after their child with ADHD and sleep problems underwent a sleep intervention with a weighted blanket.

    Methods: This study is a part of a randomized, controlled crossover trial with a 16-week sleep intervention with weighted blankets for children with ADHD and sleep problems. A total of 24 parents of children who preferred sleeping with a weighted blanket were interviewed about how the sleep intervention influenced their health. An inductive qualitative content analysis resulted in seven subcategories and two categories.

    Findings: Children's sleep with weighted blankets influenced parents experienced health in terms of 1) coping with everyday life, including finding harmony, nurturing family relationships, and maintaining a sustainable structure, and 2) feeling well-being, including being well rested, sustaining energy, reaching calm, and achieving meaningful leisure time.

    Conclusion: A sleep intervention with weighted blankets in children with ADHD and sleep problems influenced parents' health positively by improving management of life and well-being. For parents who struggle to meet the everyday challenges of their child's ADHD, this sleep intervention may contribute to a sustainable health. 

  • 18.
    Söderström Malmborg, Julia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Pain and health in adolescents and young adults – pieces of a puzzle2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Musculoskeletal pain is a burden for the individual and for society, and it has a negative impact on overall health. The biological, psychological, and social factors that govern pain and health form a complex puzzle to put together. Musculoskeletal pain conditions may be alleviated by physical activity, but a too high level of physical activity may also increase the risk of pain. Youth athletes may be especially vulnerable to developing pain due to factors related to training load and physical maturity. Being physically active and maintaining a healthy diet is associated with better health, but if carried out to excess these health behaviours may become unhealthy. Our understanding of musculoskeletal pain and health in adolescents and young adults needs to be developed, both in individuals involved in sports and exercise and in the general population.

    Aim: The overall aim was to study musculoskeletal pain and its relationship to various health-related factors in adolescents and young adults enrolled in sport or general education programmes.

    Methods: Study I was a cross-sectional study on university students (aged 19–29) from an exercise science programme (n = 118) and a business programme (n = 89), assessing health status, physical activity, and orthorexia nervosa (an exaggerated fixation on healthy food). Study II was a cross-sectional study (n = 178), and Study III a 2-year longitudinal (n = 131) study on sport school students (aged 14 at baseline), assessing musculoskeletal pain, health status, physical maturity, and sports performance. Study IV was a 3-year longitudinal study on students from a general upper secondary school (n = 256, aged 16 at baseline), assessing chronic musculoskeletal pain, health status, physical activity, sleep, stress, anxiety, and depression.

    Results: In Study I, compared to business students, exercise science students reported more pain, but better general health. A high level of physical activity in combination with orthorexia nervosa was most prevalent in men from the exercise science programme. In Studies II and III, pain was common in sport school students. At baseline, boys with constant pain were not as physically mature as boys with infrequent pain. Students with constant pain reported a worse health status than students with infrequent pain. At follow-up, frequent pain, frequent pain in two or more body regions, and a worse health status at baseline were identified as risk factors for having frequent pain at follow-up in girls. For boys, late physical maturation at baseline was a risk factor. Involvement in non-contact sports was also an identified risk factor over time in both sexes. Pain was associated with a worse sports performance in boys at both baseline and follow-up. In Study IV, chronic musculoskeletal pain was common in students from a general upper secondary school. A worse health status, severe sleeping problems, anxiety, and chronic musculoskeletal pain at baseline were associated with reporting chronic musculoskeletal pain at follow-up.

    Conclusions: Pain was prevalent, and also persistent, in adolescents and young adults, irrespective of attending sport or general education programmes. Pain is a biopsychosocial phenomenon and must be treated as such. Pain should be frequently monitored, and treatment should be introduced early on to prevent pain from becoming persistent.

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