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  • 1.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention. FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sverige.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS). FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sverige.
    Orthorexic Eating Behavior in Relation to Health Status and Physical Activity: A Comparison Between Students in Two University Programs2015In: Book of Abstracts of the 20th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science - 24th - 27th June 2015, Malmö - Sweden / [ed] Radmann, A., Hedenborg, S., Tsolakidis, E., Cologne: SporTools , 2015, p. 497-498Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Orthorexia nervosa (ON) is a condition described as ‘unhealthy’ behaviors regarding diet and physical activity. There is an ongoing discussion if ON is more common among adolescents studying in the area of health care and exercise. The research on ON is scarce and few studies assess ON and its association to health related quality of life (HRQoL).

    Aim

    The aim was to study orthorexic eating behavior, levels of physical activity and HRQoL in students enrolled at university programs focusing on health and exercise compared to those enrolled in business programs.

    Method

    128 subjects, 32 men and 38 women from Biomedicine – Athletic Training (Biomedicine) and 22 men and 36 women from Construction and Real Estate Business (Business) participated in this cross-sectional study. The subjects completed the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) to measure HRQoL, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) to measure levels of physical activity and ORTO-15 which examines eating behavior. A score less than 40 on ORTO-15 (score ranging from 0-60, worst to best) indicated an unhealthy relation to diet and was considered as ON in this study (Donini et al., 2005). Differences between groups were analyzed with t-tests and chi-square test.

    Results

    A total of 105 out of 128 (82%) subjects had a score indicating ON. Students from Biomedicine had a higher frequency of ON in comparison to Business (p < 0.000) and in the SF-36 subscale bodily pain, Biomedicine students reported a higher frequency of pain (p = 0.006). Results from measurements of physical activity did not differ significantly between Biomedicine and Business students, but there was a trend for high-intensity physical activity to occur more frequently in men than in women in general (p = 0.014).

    Conclusion

    ON is a common condition in university students and even more frequent in students enrolled in a program directed towards health and nutrition. The high frequency of ON seen in Biomedicine students could be a problem that needs to be addressed since the students, after graduation, are expected to coach other people to a healthy living. Further studies are needed to explore associations with ON to health and physical activity. There is also a need to develop valid and reliable instruments for assessing the condition.

  • 2.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Pain and its association to health, orthorexia nervosa, sports performance, and physical maturity in sport school adolescents2017In: Proceedings of the Nordic Sport Science Conference – ‘The Double-Edged Sword of Sport: Health Promotion Versus Unhealthy Environments’ / [ed] Hertting, K. & Johnson, U., Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2017, p. 56-57Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Health status, physical activity, and orthorexia nervosa: A comparison between exercise science students and business students2017In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 109, p. 137-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Orthorexia nervosa is described as an exaggerated fixation on healthy food. It is unclear whether students in health-oriented academic programs, highly focused on physical exercise, are more prone to develop orthorexia nervosa than students in other educational areas. The aim was to compare health status, physical activity, and frequency of orthorexia nervosa between university students enrolled in an exercise science program (n = 118) or a business program (n = 89). The students completed the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and ORTO-15, which defines orthorexia nervosa as a sensitive and obsessive behavior towards healthy nutrition. The SF-36 showed that exercise science students scored worse than business students regarding bodily pain (72.8 vs. 82.5; p = 0.001), but better regarding general health (83.1 vs. 77.1; p = 0.006). Of 188 students, 144 (76.6%) had an ORTO-15 score indicating orthorexia nervosa, with a higher proportion in exercise science students than in business students (84.5% vs. 65.4%; p = 0.002). Orthorexia nervosa in combination with a high level of physical activity was most often seen in men in exercise science studies and less often in women in business studies (45.1% vs. 8.3%; p < 0.000). A high degree of self-reporting of pain and orthorexia nervosa in exercise science students may cause problems in the future, since they are expected to coach others in healthy living. Our findings may be valuable in the development of health-oriented academic programs and within student healthcare services. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  • 4.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bergman, A.-C.
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Primary Health Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sleeping Problems and Anxiety is Associated to Chronic Multisite Musculoskeletal Pain in Swedish High School Students2018In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 77, no Suppl. 2, p. 226-226, article id OP0361-HPRArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The relationship between chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain (CMP) and sleep is complex, where pain can lead to sleeping problems and lack of sleep can intensify the pain perception. Most previous studies relates to adults, but adolescents may also suffer from CMP, and there is a need for more knowledge regarding the relationships between CMP and sleeping problems, stress, anxiety, depression, and health status.

    Objectives: To study background factors associated to CMP in first year Swedish high school students.

    Methods: First year Swedish high school students (n=296) were invited to complete questionnaires on chronic pain (mannequin with 18 body regions), sleeping problems (Uppsala Sleep Inventory, four items scored from 1–5), stress (ELO questions, scored from 1–5), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, scored from 0–21), health status (EQ-5D, scored from 0 to 1, worst to best) and physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire, categorised into low, moderate and high levels). Stress and sleeping items were dichotomized into 1–3 points (best) vs 4–5 points (worst). Individuals scoring at least severe problems (4 points) at one or more sleeping items were classified as having severe sleeping problems. HADS were categorised as non-cases (0–7), possible7–10 and probable cases (11–21 points). Students were grouped as having CMP (pain present in ≥3 regions) or not (no chronic pain or chronic pain in 1–2 regions). Multiple logistic regression analyses (adjusted for sex) with CMP as dependent variable were performed in SPSS, version 24.

    Results: 254 students (86% of total sample, 87 boys and 167 girls) with a mean age of 16.1 (SD 0.6) years participated in the study. CMP was present in 25 (9.8%) students with no differences between boys and girls (8.0% vs 10.8%; p=0.488). Having CMP was associated with reporting severe sleeping problems (OR 2.49, 95% CI: 1.06 to 5.81, p=0.035) with initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, early morning awakenings and/or not feeling restored after sleep in comparison to the other students. Students with CMP were more likely to be categorised as probable cases for anxiety (OR 3.06, 95% CI: 1.09 to 8.61, p=0.034), but there were no associations for possible cases for anxiety (OR 1.15, 95% CI: 0.38 to 3.51, p=0.800), possible cases (OR 2.03, 95% CI: 0.63 to 6.54), or probable cases for depression (OR 3.35, 95% CI: 0.33 to 33.83). There was a nearly significant association between stress and belonging to the CMP group (OR 2.31, 95% CI: 0.97 to 5.53, p=0.059). A higher self-reported health status was associated to a lower likelihood for CMP (OR 0.04, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.27, p=0.001). Distribution of physical activity levels of low, moderate and high was not significantly associated to having CMP in comparison with not having it.

    Conclusions: One in ten high school students fulfilled criteria for having chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain. CMP was associated to sleeping problems, anxiety, and a worse health status. The results from this study may be used by school health-care professionals in their preventive work to promote student’s health.

    Disclosure of Interest: None declared

  • 5.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Olsson, Charlotte M.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Bergman, Stefan
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Daily Musculoskeletal Pain Affects Health And Sports Performance Negatively In Youth Athletes2017In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 49, p. 972-972Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In sports, musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is often studied from the perspective of sport specific injuries, why little is known about the prevalence of daily or multisite MSP that does not affect participation in sports. It is also unclear if daily or multisite MSP is a risk factor for worse health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and worse sports performance in youth athletes.

    PURPOSE: To study how HRQoL and sports performance is affected by daily MSP in youth athletes that are able to participate in sports.

    METHODS: 136 Swedish youth athletes attending a sport school (13 to 14 years, boys n=83, girls n=53) completed the EQ-5D measuring HRQoL (range 0 to 1, worst to best), a pain questionnaire including current pain (yes/no), pain in 18 body regions (never to rarely/monthly to weekly/more than once a week to almost daily), and pain intensity in the last week (0 to 10, best to worst), anthropometric measures to estimate biological age, and sports performance tests (grip strength, 20 meter sprint, and countermovement jump(CMJ)).

    RESULTS: 109 to 117 of the 136 students answered the different pain questions. 53 of 113 (47%) reported current MSP, and 28 of 109 (26%) experienced MSP ‘more than once a week to almost daily’ from one or more body regions (frequent MSP group), while 28% (n=30) stated ‘never to rarely’ in MSP (no MSP group). Boys in the frequent MSP group reported worse HRQoL, higher pain intensity, performed worse in all sports performance tests, and had a younger biological age than boys in the no MSP group. Girls in the frequent MSP group reported worse HRQoL and higher pain intensity than the girls in the no MSP group. No other differences were found (table).

    CONCLUSIONS: Every other youth athlete attending a sport school reported current MSP and one out of four reported almost daily MSP. MSP affects HRQoL negatively in both boys and girls, and sports performance negatively in boys. The prevalence of MSP in youth athletes is concerning since pain in younger ages may predict pain in adult ages.

    © 2017 American College of Sports Medicine

  • 6.
    Malmborg, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Olsson, M Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Malmö Sports Academy, Malmö, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Musculoskeletal pain and its association with maturity and sports performance in 14-year-old sport school students2018In: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, ISSN 2055-7647, Vol. 4, no 1, article id e000395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: In youth sports, musculoskeletal pain is often studied from the standpoint of sports injuries, but little is known about pain conditions in which athletes still participate. The aim was to study the frequency of pain and associations with maturity offset, health status and sports performance in 14-year-old sport school students.

    Methods: Cross-sectional design. One hundred and seventy-eight students (108 boys and 70 girls) completed anthropometric measures for maturity offset (height, weight and sitting height), questionnaires (pain mannequin and EQ-5D for health status) and sports performance tests (sprint, agility, counter-movement jump and grip strength). Differences between groups were analysed with Student’s t-test and analysis of covariance.

    Results: Thirty-one students (18.6%) reported infrequent pain, 85 (50.9%) frequent pain and 51 (30.5%) constant pain. Students in the constant pain group had worse health status than those in the infrequent pain group. Boys with constant pain (n=27) had a lower mean maturity offset (–0.38 vs 0.07 years; p=0.03) than boys with infrequent pain (n=22), and pain was associated with worse sports performance. There was no difference in maturity or sports performance between girls with constant pain (n=24) and girls with infrequent pain (n=9).

    Conclusion: Musculoskeletal pain is common in sport school students and coincides with worse health status and with a younger biological age in boys. The high prevalence of pain should be acknowledged by coaches and student healthcare workers in order to promote a healthy and sustainable development in young athletes. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2018.

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