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  • 1.
    Anderson, Helén
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sverige.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Interaktiv innovation genom intervention2013In: Det mogna tjänstesamhällets förnyelse – affärsmodeller, organisering och affärsrelationer / [ed] Andersson, P., Axelsson, B., & Rosenqvist, C., Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2013, 1, p. 275-285Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Anderson, Helén
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Chernetska, Diana
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI). University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Oskarsson, Steinthor
    Ramböll AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Innovation Through Interactions for Bathroom Suppliers2016In: Extending The Business Network Approach: New Territories, New Technologies, New Terms / [ed] Peter Thilenius, Cecilia Pahlberg & Virpi Havila, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan , 2016, p. 159-176Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies often build an innovation strategy that is mostly reliant on internal knowledge and resources. This can lead to failure to meet customer needs (von Hippel 1986). By interacting with customers, companies can obtain crucial information and have the opportunity to involve customers in innovation and product development processes (Füller and Matzler 2007; Hadjikhani and Bengtson 2004; Laursen 2011; von Hippel 2009).

  • 3.
    Anderson, Helén
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Müllern, Tomas
    Jönköping University, Jonkoping, Sweden.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Exploring barriers to collaborative innovation in supply chains – a study of a supplier and two of its industrial customers2023In: Business Process Management Journal, ISSN 1463-7154, E-ISSN 1758-4116, Vol. 29, no 8, p. 25-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose is to identify and explore barriers to overcome for developing collaborative innovation between a global service supplier and two of its industrial customers in Sweden. Design/methodology/approach: The research had an action-based research approach in which the researchers were interacting and collaborating with the practitioners in the companies. The empirical part includes primary data from multiple interviews, and two workshops with dialogues with participants from the involved companies. The use of complementary data collection methods gave rich input to understanding the context for collaborative innovation, and to uncovering barriers, to develop solutions for collaborative innovation. The empirical barriers were analysed using theoretically derived barriers from a literature review. The analysis generated four broad themes of barriers which were discussed and led to conclusions and theoretical and practical implications on: the customer's safety culture, the business model, the parties' understanding of innovation and the management of collaborative innovation in supply chains. Findings: The thematic analysis generated four broad themes: the customer's safety culture, the business model, the parties' understanding of innovation and the management of collaborative innovation. These themes where analysed using theoretically derived barriers from a literature review. The industrial context, the understanding of innovation and its management created barriers. Originality/value: The unique access to the service supplier and its two independent industrial customers adds a rich contextual framing to the process of identifying and exploring the barriers to collaborative innovation. The conclusion emphasizes the importance of an industrial business context, the business logic in terms of business models and for the understanding and management of collaborative innovation. © 2023, Helén Anderson, Tomas Müllern and Mike Danilovic.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Awuah, Gabriel
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Wictor, Ingemar
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Innovation in Internationalization of Born Global firms2012In: 15th McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization and increased liberalization of markets have made it possible for many firms, large or Small and Medium –Sized Firms (SMEs), to be in many foreign markets, especially those in the global industries (Czinkota and Ronkainen, 2007; Doole and Lowe, 2008, 2004). Since trade barriers among markets have fallen dramatically, due to the effects of globalization, intense competition in many markets, and the spread of technological improvements in almost all sectors of any economy, many firms (small or large) seek to establish their presence in many foreign markets (Awuah, et. al., 2011; Doole and Lowe, 2008; Driffield and Love, 2007). Studies abound to shed light on why and how firms internationalize their business activities (Andersson, 2011; Moen, et al., 2004; Knight and Cavusgil, 1996; Johanson and Vahlne, 1990, 1977; Johanson and Wiedersheim-Paul, 1975). Although increased globalization, trade liberalization, and technological improvements do enable many firms (e.g. “Mininationals” or “Born Globals”) to serve several markets (Doole and Lowe, 2008; Czinkota and Ronkainen, 2007), there has emerged an intense competition among firms in all countries (Peng et al., 2008; Czinkota and Ronkainen, 2007; Beamish and Lu, 2004). For many SMEs, a number of factors (e.g. lower trade barriers, increased competition, rapid technological developments, shrinking market opportunities in domestic market, and firm-specific advantages combine to drive their rapid entry into foreign markets (Andersson, 2011; Peng et al., 2008; Moen, et al., 2004). SMEs that have, from the very inception of their establishment, had the drive to internationalize their business activities are termed “Born Global Firms”, in the subsequent sections to be addressed just as born globals (Andersson, 2011; Rialp et al., 2005; Knight and Cavusgil, 1996; Madsen and Servias, 1997). 

    Previous studies about a firm’s internationalization has predominantly concentrated on big multinational firms, where their motives for internationalization, the pace and pattern of their internationalization have been widely studied (Qian and Delios, 2008; Johanson and Vahlne, 1990, 1977; Johanson and Wiedersheim-Paul, 1975; Cavusgil, 1984; Coviello, 2006). In recent times studies have emerged, which have found out that the pace and pattern of the internationalization of big multinational firms are not in line with the pace and pattern, through which born globals, for example, internationalize their business activities (Andersson, 2011; Andersson and Wictor, 2003; Moen, et al., 2004; Rialp, et. al., 2005; Knight and Cavusgil, 1996; Madsen and Servais, 1997).  

    However, extant literature is virtually silent on what it takes for a born global (a small international player with limited resources, for example) to compete with big and resourceful multinational enterprises in many international markets. Our contention is that born globals’ ability to use innovative solutions to create sustainable competitive advantages as they aspire to expand and grow in international markets will be very crucial. The pace and pattern at which born globals internationalize their businesses, in the face of intense competition in almost all markets, in order to provide innovative solutions that enable them to achieve competitive advantages in the marketplace is under-researched. This has been an important reason for the study of the present phenomenon.   As stressed by Doole and Lowe (2008), products and services offered by firms, these days, are becoming ‘commodities’ (i.e. ‘me too’ products/services), if firms are not able to differentiate the core product benefit or service by offering a bundle of benefits for target customers or users in a target market. For Porter (1985), the competitive advantage of a firm grows fundamentally out of the value the firm can create for its customers, irrespective of the markets in which a firm operates.  Operating across borders, though offers opportunities, dealing with new set of macro-environmental factors (e.g. politics, laws, economics, cultures, and societies) and intense competition, will demand that a born global, for example, differentiates its products and services that will help it to meet similar needs and wants of its transnational customers, while it adapts to meet different market-specific requirements and/or needs of customers (e.g. Doole and Lowe, 2008). And for Doyle and Stern (2006), a firm that is good at satisfying customer needs, better than its competitors can do, has the best opportunities to grow and expand. Hence, Born Globals and their growth and expansion narratives are worth studying.

    In view of the above, the purpose of the present study is to investigate a born global’s use of innovative solutions to create sustainable competitive advantages as it expands and grows in different international markets. To be able to achieve the above purpose, we seek to address the following research questions:

    1. Why and how does a born global firm enter any chosen foreign market?
    2. Which strategies does the firm develop and implement in order to provide innovative solutions that will help achieve sustainable competitive advantages as the firm strives to grow and expand in the marketplace?
    3. Does the firm use ‘go-alone’ strategies or does it use strategies that influence and are influenced by other actors and the effect thereof? 
  • 5.
    Andersson, Svante
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for International Marketing and Entrepreneurship Research (CIMER).
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI). Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Hanjun, Huang
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Success Factors in Western and Chinese Born Global Companies2015In: iBusiness, ISSN 2150-4075, E-ISSN 2150-4083, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 25-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Born Global firms are becoming increasingly more important in terms of internationalization, innovation, ability to grow and providing employment. Most of the previous research about BornGlobals is done in North America, Europe or Australia, all these being developed industrialized countries but not developing countries or emerging markets. However, the emerging markets in general, and the Chinese in particular, have become very important for the world economy. Our aim is to investigate the differences between Western literature and literature from emerging markets, regarding internationalization process of Born Global firms. We also aim to discuss the various success factors, which underlie Born Globals’ internationalization process, particularly focusing on Born Globals firms in the China. Our methodology in this research has been literature review and interviews with Chinese CEOs of Born Global firms. However, this paper is only based on the litterateur part of our research. Our analysis shows that most of the Chinese Born Globals publications about the internationalization success factors are based on the Western literature and use them as the theoretical platform in the design of their own research strategy and research questions design. The consequence of this observation is important as it indicates that Chinese researchers are reproducing research under different contextual and situational conditions that might lead to unclear conclusions or maybe even wrong conclusions. Furthermore, compared to most Western Born Global companies, which treat innovation as core competence, the innovation culture becomes one of the biggest weaknesses of Chinese manufacturing Born Globals’ internationalization. China has special economic environment. Chinese manufacturing Born Globals not only need to follow the market but also the government policies, since the government greatly influences the industries and the whole economy. To foreign investors who want to exploit Chinese market, they also should take Chinese economic background and government policies into consideration. One important aspect of Chinese born Globals, neglected in previous research on Born Globals, that has been identified in our research, is the critical success factor of Chinese manufacturing Born Globals—the political and economic background and the role of the Chinese Government in the transformation process of Chinese business life, and the Guanxi network.

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  • 6.
    Bhatti, Harrison John
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Business Model Innovation Approach for Commercializing Smart Grid Systems2018In: American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, ISSN 2164-5167, E-ISSN 2164-5175, Vol. 8, no 9, p. 2007-2051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The depletion of fossil fuels, increased environmental concerns, rising cost and the demand for clean energy are causing the transformation of energy generation and distribution system, to shift towards the consumption side. Electricity generation sources and distribution systems are drifting from non-renewable to renewable, centralized to decentralized and localized, and traditional grid systems to smart grid systems. New technologies nurture the concept of transformation of energy firms, all the way from energy production to electricity consumption. Smart grid systems are one of the disruptive and emerging technologies that might influence the entire electricity system. This disruptive technology demands a new business model which can be used to commercialize the new power distribution system and thus create value for all stakeholders, from production to consumption. The Smart grid has the potential to revolutionize the electricity industry if it is commercialized successfully. It allows information and communication technology firms to contribute with their modern technology to empower their consumers to regulate the usage of electricity. To investigate the reasons for shifting from the old to the new energy system, the impact of this disruptive technology on energy providing firms, the demand for the new business model and the approach of the new business model in terms of creating and capturing values published peer-reviewed articles, and international energy agency reports have been reviewed. This paper encourages energy providing firms to redesign business models for commercializing new energy distribution system and to offer new services to the energy consumers for their future survival in the new trends of the energy market. These services include integrating with renewable energy sources, electric vehicle services, and demand response services to create more value for the consumers and in return gains more profit for each actor. The services provided through integration of renewable energy with smart grid and the electric vehicle will empower consumers involvement in the electricity system which will give them more control over electricity. CO2 production will be reduced, helping to create a clean environment and will enable operators to improve grid security and network stability. Finally, demand response services will provide multiple electricity package options to the consumers in which they can select an appropriate package according to their need which will give them more control over their electricity bill. System operators can optimize their grid operations to provide better power quality, and service providers can increase their income by offering additional services. © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

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  • 7.
    Bhatti, Harrison John
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Making the World More Sustainable: Enabling Localized Energy Generation and Distribution on Decentralized Smart Grid Systems2018In: World Journal of Engineering and Technology, ISSN 2331-4249, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 350-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart grid is an idea of upgradation of the traditional electric grid infrastructure. The efficiency of the existing electrical grid can be automated by integrating with innovative technical equipment such as: high-tech forecasting system, digital sensors, advanced two-way communication and two-way power flow systems. Smart grid establishes an interface between utility and consumer which helps to use energy, based on the preferences of price, eco-friendly and without technical system issues. It empowers the grid to be more secure, reliable and efficient. The peer-reviewed articles and published government reports have been reviewed, based on the analysis of technical characteristics of power generation systems, eco-friendly sources of power generations, cost reduction, functionality and design of traditional grid versus smart grid. Furthermore, the innovative technologies that enable the grid to integrate with decentralized power generation system efficiently have been considered. This paper claims that in this modern era, it is arduous for traditional grid to fulfill the rising demand of electricity, along with sustainable, eco-friendly and stable power supply, as it cannot be efficiently integrated with decentralized and localized power generation systems and renewable energy sources. The result of this paper shows that decentralized and localized power generation systems are located close to end-users which decrease the transmission and supply cost of electricity. Innovative technologies allow the decentralized and localized power generation systems to be integrated with renewable energy sources which help to reduce the cost of utility services and provide clean energy. Moreover, technological advancement played a decisive role in enabling the electrical system to be more efficient. Electrical reliability can be improved, greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced, renewable energy sources can efficiently be integrated, and rising demand for electricity can be met by embedding advanced applications and technological equipment in the electrical grid.

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  • 8.
    Bhatti, Harrison John
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Göteborg, Sweden.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China; Lund University, Lund, Swede.
    Nåbo, Arne
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Göteborg, Sweden.
    A Multidimensional Readiness Index for the Electrification of the Transportation System in China, Norway, and Sweden2023In: Future Transportation, E-ISSN 2673-7590, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 1360-1384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this paper is to develop a readiness index model that can serve as an analytical tool for exploring the achievements of the electrification of transportation systems. We have applied this readiness index model to evaluate the readiness positioning of China, Norway, and Sweden towards transportation electrification. We have chosen these three countries as they represent diversity among countries adopting electric transportation system solutions. Our developed readiness index model has four key dimensions: technological readiness, political readiness, societal readiness, and economic readiness. The embeddedness of all four dimensions in one model provides a multi-perspective way of analyzing and evaluating the readiness levels of countries moving towards transforming their transportation system. Therefore, we named the model a “multidimensional readiness index”. Our main conclusions are that political processes and decisiveness are the most important factors, followed by societal needs and economic ability, with the current technology as the fourth. Without the participation of dedicated and determined political decision makers, the other three factors are challenging to obtain. Political decision makers need to facilitate economic means to support the transformation in society and affected industries to balance the economic disadvantages of the electrically powered vehicle systems until they pass the cost disadvantage turning point. The development of relevant technology is no longer the significant barrier it was at the beginning of this transformation about 20 years ago. The technology for electrically powered transportation systems and devices is widely available now, although it is continuously evolving and being improved. Associated industries cannot be expected to initiate, finance, take risks, and take the lead in this global societal transformation without clear and strong political support.

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    Multidimensional Readiness Index Model
  • 9.
    Bhatti, Harrison John
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China; Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nåbo, Arne
    VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A System Approach to Electrification of Transportation – An International Comparison2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, the transportation system is transforming from a fossil-based to an electrification system. Some countries are leading in the transformation process. Some countries are rapidly catching up to become market leaders in developing and introducing new techniques and equipment that support the transformation process in their countries. In contrast, others are still relying on their old fossil-based system or could not have enough understanding of how to deal with this complex transformation of the transportation system.

    The electrification of the transportation system is not an isolated system that can be handled as a single technological element. It is a group of multiple technologies, political, societal, and economic sub-systems each of these sub-systems is embedded in each other, forming the whole system. Therefore, it is important to see and manage the system from a holistic perspective to transform the transportation electrification system efficiently. We have selected eight countries from three different continents – Asia (China, India), Australia, which is a country and continent, and Europe (Germany, Norway, Slovenia, Sweden, and the UK) to explore the transformational process of transportation electrification based on each countries’ conditions. We have chosen these continents as they are diversified in adopting transportation electrification system solutions.

    Our main conclusions are that the political processes and political decisiveness are the most important, followed by the societal and economic, with technology as the fourth. The other three are difficult to obtain without dedicated and determined political decision-makers. Political decision-makers need to use economic means to support the transformation in society and industry to balance the economic disadvantage of electric systems until they pass the cost disadvantage turning point. Technology is no longer a significant barrier as it was about 20 years ago. Now, technology is available, although it can be improved. The important part is to understand how to utilize the existing technology efficiently to transform the old fossil-based transportation system into new electrification of the transportation system. Without clear and strong political support, the industry cannot be expected to initiate, finance, take risks, and take the lead in this global societal transformation.

    Our analysis shows that China is being positioned as the leading country in the world in the electrification of the transportation system because of the strong technological advancements, control of the entire value chain, strong government decisiveness, and execution power in developing and implementing favorable electric vehicle (EV) policies, the willingness of the public sector to take the lead and citizens support to adopt clean technology. Norway has rapidly become one of the newcomers with large numbers of registered electric vehicles according to its population size within a few years, despite lacking manufacturing electric vehicles (EVs) and equipment for transportation electrification. Germany is leading in the technological sector of transportation electrification within Europe with its prestigious top-selling electric vehicle brands in Germany, such as Volkswagen, Mercedes Benz, BMW, Smart, and Audi, and establishing a battery Gigafactory with an annual potential production capacity of 60 GWh. However, Germany is still lagging behind from the societal perspective of not having enough sales of electric vehicles compared to gasoline-based vehicles. Sweden is a rapidly growing country in the electrification of transport, with three vehicle manufacturers introducing EVs in 2021 and developing electric roads system for more than ten years. Sweden is also working on establishing a new 50 GWh battery manufacturing plant in Gothenburg, Sweden. The UK is also catching up with its other European countries in transforming the transportation system with its strong government support. The British government has kept transportation electrification on its national agenda and considering building a Gigafactory to obtain a position as a future battery leader. However, the UK's adoption rate of electric vehicles is still slow compared to fossil-based vehicles. India, Australia, and Slovenia are far behind in the process of transportation transformation than China, Norway, Germany, Sweden, and the UK. One of the common reasons in all these countries is their governments' baby steps even though they have high ambitions. Their governments require a revolutionized and systems approach to enable remarkable change in the transformation process.

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  • 10.
    Bhatti, Harrison John
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Nåbo, Arne
    VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Multidimensional Readiness Index for Electrification of Transportation System in China, Norway, and Sweden2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     The main objective of this paper is to develop a readiness index model that can serve as an analytical tool for exploring the achievements of electrification of transportation systems. We have applied this readiness index model to evaluate the readiness positioning of China, Norway, and Sweden towards transport electrification. We have chosen these three countries as they represent diversity among countries that are in the process of adopting electrified transport system solutions. Our developed readiness index model has four key dimensions, technological readiness, political readiness, societal readiness, and economic readiness. The embeddedness of all four dimensions in one model provides a multi-perspective way of analyzing and evaluating the readiness levels of countries moving towards transforming the transportation system. Therefore, we named the model a“multidimensional readiness index.”

    Our main conclusions are that the political processes and political decisiveness involved are the most important factors followed by the societal needs and economic ability, with the current technology available as the fourth. Without the participation of dedicated and determined political decision-makers being involved, the other three factors are challenging to obtain. Political decision-makers need to facilitate the use of economic means to support the transformation in the society and affected industries to balance the initial economic disadvantages of the electrically-powered systems until they pass the cost disadvantage turning point. The development of the relevant technology is no longer a great barrier as it was at the beginning of this transformation, about 20 years ago. The technology for electrically powered transportation systems and devices is widely available now, although it is continuously evolving and being improved. Associated industries cannot be expected to initiate, finance, take the risk, and take the lead in this global societal transformation without clear and strong political support.

    Based on our multidimensional readiness index analysis, China is being positioned as the leading country in the world in the electrification of its transportation systems. This is mainly so because of the strong technology advancements, control of the entire value chain of research, development (R&D), and manufacturing of EVs, strong government decisiveness, and execution power in developing and implementing favorable electric vehicle (EV) policies. The willingness of China’s public sector to take the lead and their citizen’s support to adopt clean technology are additional factors facilitating this advancement. Norway has rapidly become one of the newcomers in electrification with large numbers of registered electric vehicles, despite lacking manufacturing industries of electric vehicles. Sweden is a rapidly developing country in the electrification of transport, with three vehicle manufacturers introducing EVs in 2021. The government has been committed to building demonstration sites for electric roads systems for more than ten years. Sweden is also working on establishing battery manufacturing facilities dedicated to the needs of electrified transportation equipment and systems. 

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  • 11.
    Bhatti, Harrison John
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. VTI, the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Nåbo, Arne
    VTI, the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Käck, Andreas
    VTI, the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Electric Roads: Energy Supplied by Local Renewable Energy Sources and Microgrid Distribution System2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The electric road system is an emerging concept in this modern era. The advancement of technology has made it possible to give this concept a real shape (electric road system). However, the energy provided to the electric roads is still produced by non-renewable energy sources, which are completely unhealthy and harmful for society. Furthermore, the traditional grid is not suited to integrate with decentralized/localized energy generation and distribution systems. It is an ineffectual and environmentally extravagant system. Therefore, the preliminary contribution of this research is to introduce a decentralized/localized energy generation system based on renewable energy sources and energy distribution to electric roads through the emerging technology of microgrid and smart grid systems, which have the capability to integrate with renewable energy sources easily. Thus, producing electricity with renewable energy sources is environmentally friendly, less expensive, and available without charges. However, each source of energy has some environmental impacts and cost differences. A brief description of the environmental and cost impact of renewable energy sources (wind, solar) is also presented. 

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  • 12.
    Campbell, Derek
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Halila, Fawzi
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Clash of Business Models in Emerging Economies: The Case of Wind Energy Industry in Africa2013In: The International Journal of Management Science and Information Technology, ISSN 1923-0265, no 10, p. 10-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the rise of emerging economy EE as main engine of global growth, the intensified competition in the wind energy industry and internationalization to EE, enterprises need to rethink and innovate their business models in order to succeed. The overall purpose of this article is to increase our understanding of the drivers of business model innovation (BMI) in EE, particularly in the wind energy industry. Qualitative, multi-case design is applied, where three cases within the wind energy industry in Africa are studied - Siemens (Germany), Suzlon (India) and Goldwind (China). The results show that there is a difference between “Developed-country Multinational Enterprises” (DMNEs), such as Siemens, and “Emerging-country Multinational Enterprises”, such as Suzlon and Goldwind, in the way they approach BMI in EE. To gain a competitive advantage in EE requires capabilities to deal with the specific EE-related drivers of change: 1) fast growth and high demand combined with high uncertainty; 2) lower level of market-oriented socioeconomic development; 3) stronger governmental influence on the market; and 4) the need for simple, cheap and easy to maintain technologies. Therefore, it is important that managers position their enterprises in the EE first as local players and only then as multinationals. Our study indicates that future research should focus on the main elements and the drivers of change that would shape BMI by adding new variables, specifically related to EE.

  • 13.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, P.O. Box 1026, SE-551 11 Jönköping, Sweden.
    Bring Your Suppliers into Your Projects – Managing the Design of Work Packages in Product Development2006In: Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, Vol. 12, p. 246-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early supplier involvement and integration is important in product development on strategic as well as on operational, project and team levels. Saab Aerospace intended to achieve early supplier involvement and high level of integration on all levels in the redesign of the aircraft JAS 39 Gripen. The research underlying this article shows that the intended strategy was only achieved on the strategic level and not on the operational project and team levels. One major reason for this was that the design of the work breakdown structure (WBS) and work packages (WP) in the product development followed the functional and departmental logic within each company resulting in incompatible structures and preventing communication and information exchange. This article intends to explore how prevailing functionally designed WBS and WP structures created barriers and to demonstrate how supplier integration can be improved by designing collaborative WBS and integrated WP. The Dependence Structure Matrix (DSM) is introduced in order to analyze, visualize and manage interdependencies and information exchange between Saab Aerospace and its supplier on different levels of the WBS and in different phases of the development process, following the logic of interdependencies and information flow, in order to support a strategy focusing on integration of suppliers on the project and team level.

  • 14.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Supplier Integration in Product Development – A Matter of Designing the Project Structure.2006In: South African Journal of Transportation and Supply Chain Management, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 18-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In product development close collaboration between systems integrators and suppliers is important. The purpose of this article is to investigate the impact of the work breakdown structure (WBS) and work packages (WP) in product development on the possibilities to carry through the strategy of supplier involvement into collaborative practice and to investigate how supplier involvement can be improved by altering the design of collaborative WBS and WP structures. Dependence Structure Matrix (DSM) is introduced in order to analyze, visualize and manage interdependencies, in terms of information exchange between systems integrator and supplier. This article shows how DSM can support alternative design of integrated and collaborative WBS and integrated WP following the logic of dependencies and the flow of information in order to support a strategy focusing on integration of suppliers on the project and team level.

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  • 15.
    Danilovic, Mike
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Asamoah-Barnieh, Raymond
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Multi-Domain Matrices: Another Perspective2008In: Proceedings of the 10th International DSM Conference: Stockholm, 11 and 12 November 2008 / [ed] Matthias Kreimeyer, Udo Lindemann & Mike Danilovic, Munich: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH, 2008, p. 55-67Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With ever increasing competition, companies are collaborating in networks with projects increasingly spanning across different teams in companies with divisions in different geographical locations and with partner companies with different specializations. This creates the situation in which different companies must interact effectively to achieve a common goal in a multi-domain network environment. In this paper, a new approach for Multi-Domain Matrix (MDM) analysis based on empirical research on 4 companies in a network is presented. The approach builds on the perspective that the MDM consists of several matrices whose interrelationships can be explored. The perspective leads to the formulation of an aggregation of novel concepts for Multi-Domain Analysis which in turn leads us to a novel MDM phenomenon of managerial importance which has been named supercircuit in this paper.

  • 16.
    Danilovic, Mike
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Browning, Tyson
    M.J. Neeley School of Business, Texas Christian University (TCU), Fort Worth, TX, United States.
    Managing complex product development projects with designstructure matrices and domain mapping matrices2007In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 300-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complexity in product development (PD) projects can emanate from the product design, the development process, the development organization, the tools and technologies applied, the requirements to be met, and other domains. In each of these domains, complexity arises from the numerous elements and their multitude of relationships, such as between the components of the product being developed, between the activities to develop them, and among the people doing the activities. One approach to handing this complexity is to represent and analyze these domains' design structures or architectures. The design structure matrix (DSM) has proved to be a very helpful tool for representing and analyzing the architecture of an individual system such as a product, process, or organization. Like many tools, the DSM has been applied in a variety of areas outside its original domain, as researchers and practitioners have sought to leverage its advantages. Along the way, however, its fundamental rules (such as being a square matrix) have been challenged. In this paper, we formalize an approach to using a domain mapping matrix (DMM) to compare two DSMs of different project domains. A DMM is a rectangular (m × n) matrix relating two DSMs, where m is the size of DSM1 and n is the size of DSM2. DMM analysis augments traditional DSM analyses. Our comparison of DSM and DMM approaches shows that DMM analysis offers several benefits. For example, it can help (1) capture the dynamics of PD, (2) show traceability of constraints across domains, (3) provide transparency between domains, (4) synchronize decisions across domains, (5) cross-verify domain models, (6) integrate a domain with the rest of a project or program, and (7) improve decision making among engineers and managers by providing a basis for communication and learning across domains. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd and IPMA.

  • 17.
    Danilovic, Mike
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2). Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Halila, Fawzi
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Lihua Liu, Jasmine
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2). Shanghai Dianji University, School of Business, Shanghai, China.
    Business Model Innovation for the Internationalization of Chinese Wind Power Industry2014In: Global Business Model Innovation: An International Conference, Shanghai: Shanghai Dianji University , 2014, p. 48-73Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy consumption, pollutions and sustainable approaches to energy is one of the most important issues today. The transformation of energy from old to renewable has been in focus for many years and wind power energy production is one important source of energy that is renewable. With the rise of emerging economy (EEs) as main engine of global growth, the intensified competition in the wind energy industry and internationalization to EEs, enterprises need to rethink and innovate their business models in order to succeed in innovative technologies and commercializing their innovative technologies to customers. The overall purpose of this article is to explore the drivers of business model innovation (BMI) in emerging-country multinational enterprises (EMNEs) in the context of an EE markets particularly Chinese wind energy industry and with special focus on inclusive business activities in Africa. For this purpose a single case study of Goldwind (China), one of the most important actors in the wind power industry, was applied. The results of this research show that to gain a competitive advantage in EEs requires capabilities to deal with the specific EEs related drivers of change: 1) fast growth and high demand combined with high uncertainty; 2) lower level of market-oriented socioeconomic development; 3) stronger governmental influence on the market; and 4) the need for simple, cheap and easy to maintain technologies. Therefore, it is important that managers position their enterprises in the EEs first as local players and only then as multinationals. Our research identifies a symbiotic business model in which industry and political actors on national, province and city level collaborate intensively for mutual benefits and for commercializing wind power technology. Our study indicates that future research should focus on the main elements and the drivers of change that would shape BMI by adding new variables, specifically related to EE.

  • 18.
    Danilovic, Mike
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Hensbergen, Marleen
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Zadayannaya, Liudmila
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Exploring Diffusion and Dynamics of Corporate Social Responsibility2015In: Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, ISSN 1535-3958, E-ISSN 1535-3966, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 129-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the evolution of the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in academia. The process of evolution is conceptualised to consist of diffusion and dynamics. Bibliometrics were applied for data collection and visualisation of the evolution of CSR. The findings show increasing complexity and progression in the research on the concept of CSR fuelled not only by the efforts for intellectual refinement in the field but also reflecting the changing priorities of society and businesses. The growth of this field of research both in number of publications (i.e. diffusion) and in terms of different fields in academic usage (i.e. dynamics), is an indicator for growing complexity and widening acceptance of the CSR concept across various academic disciplines in the future. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

  • 19.
    Danilovic, Mike
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School (JIBS), Jönköping, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping School of Engineering (JTH), Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Analyzing core competence and core products for developing agile and adaptable corporation2007In: Proceedings of the 9th International DSM Conference, Aachen: Shaker Verlag, 2007, p. 49-59Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The core competence concept was introduced by Prahalad and Hamel in 1990, and the concept received much attention particularly in the management field. They were arguing that in short run, a company’s competitiveness derives from the price/performance attributes of current products. On the other hand, in the long run the competitiveness derives from an ability to build the core competencies that spawn unanticipated products. The real source of corporate advantage is the abilities to consolidate corporate technologies and products in order to adapt quickly to changing business opportunities (Prahalad & Hamel, 1990).

    Core competencies are seen as collective learning in the organization, not individually based learning or skill (Gallon, Stillman & Coates, 1995). Core competence is the way of work is performed, the ability to coordinate diverse production skills, to integrate and harmonize multitude of skills and technologies into products that deliver value to customers. Core competencies are the glue that binds existing business and also the engine for new business development (Prahalad & Hamel, 1990). Core competence is a combination of complementary skills and knowledge bases embedded in a group or team providing a superior product (Coyne, Hall & Clifford, 1997). Core competence has to be linked with end products. In between core competencies and end products we can identify a set of core products that can be used in a number of different combinations and finally different end products.  Therefore there are numerous relations between core competencies, core products and end products.

    Global competition and the dynamic changes of markets and customers puts pressure on corporations to identify their core competencies in order to develop capabilities to adopt to changing environment and technological development. The crucial issue for management is to perform analysis of what the core competence is in their corporation and how those core competencies can be related to core products and end products. If management does not find those answers they can not put focus in developing long run competencies and technologies that can be combined in a set of core products and strategic end products.

  • 20.
    Danilovic, Mike
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Lihua Liu, Jasmine
    Lund University Lund, Sweden & Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Electrification of the Transportation System in China: Exploring Battery-Swapping for Electric Vehicles in China 1.02021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thus far, the global electrification of transportation has been conducted mainly by the use of battery-powered vehicles. Over the years, the number of electric vehicles (EV) has grown substantially in number, the batteries have become larger in size providing vehicles with longer ranges, the efficiency of batteries has improved, and the prices have decreased substantially, etc. However, all batteries need to be charged with electricity. Several solutions to battery charging have been introduced, static and dynamic conductive and inductive technologies as well as cable charging. The most common, almost the dominant global solution, is stationary charging using cables, whether normal or fast charging.

    There is, however, another battery charging tech- nology, that of battery-swapping, i.e. replacement of the discharged battery in the vehicle with a charged battery from outside the vehicle. This modern battery-swapping technology was used by the German company Mercedes-Benz in the 1970s, the Israeli company Better Place in 2007 and also by US company Tesla in 2013. Tesla originally designed their car in a modular way that embraced battery- swapping but then opted for their own proprietary cable-based charging system and a business model that integrates cars and charging.

    During the 2010s, when the country started the substantial development of new energy vehicles, Chinese grid operators and entrepreneurial OEMs tried to put the swapping technology into practice in collaboration with Better Place. However, the early exploitation of battery-swapping failed due to the high cost of battery-swapping systems and batteries, lack of standards, lack of openness and diver- gent technical and economic interests among key stakeholders and objections from car manufacturers to opening up their vehicle structure. Additionally, one fire accident on a pilot project car raised safety questions that needed to be solved. Lastly, political support was lacking because the Chinese government did not promote battery-swapping technology in the countries’ first strategic development plan for a new energy vehicle 2012 to 2020.From 2012 to 2016, battery-swapping charging stations underwent large-scale development as the major complementary energy solution in China. BAIC, Lifan, NIO and some other Chinese OEM brands together with third-party battery-swap station opera- tors, such as Aulton, insisted on exploring the battery-swapping option and made substantial progress. Market scale reached a certain volume and the technology became more mature. When cable-based charging solutions became insufficient, forming the bottleneck of the rapidly growing EV market, Lifan again proposed battery-swapping as a complementary solution to the national congress in 2016. This time, the attitude of the various players was more positive. In 2020, after a discussion meeting with delegations from major stakeholders related to EV development, Chinese central government included battery-swapping technology in the National New Energy Vehicle Development Strategy 2021 to 2035 and included battery-swapping in the list of the New Infrastructure Construction campaign.

    Since 2020, there has been fast growth in battery- swapping infrastructure in Chinese cities and along the main highways. Modularly designed cars with fully integrated automated fast battery-swapping system solutions are available. There are also other emerging application areas for battery-swapping such as buses, trucks, heavy-duty vehicles etc.

    The new emerging business model for commercialization of battery-swapping is based on the idea of separating the price of the electric car from its cost liest part, the battery. Batteries can be chosen flexibly based on their size and can either be purchased or rented on a monthly basis to reduce anxiety and uncertainty among customers. Also, the charging of batteries can be cable-based or based on a monthly subscription according to the required amount of energy, resulting in great flexibility for the customer.

    Thus, the investment cost for customers is based on their purchasing power, risk taking attitude, level of uncertainty and driving habits. The swapping time is reduced down to 1 minute. This system enables great flexibility because the customer can choose and, if necessary, subsequently change the battery size depending on their needs as well as choosing the charging system and payment methods.

    At the end of January 2021, there were 562 battery-swap stations operative in China, providinga service to taxis, online car-hailing vehicles, private passenger vehicles and business operation vehicles. More than 100,000 cars have been sold with battery-swapping systems. Battery-swapping’s status asan important complementary solution to EV energy supply has been recognized by various parties. The feasibility of developing battery-swapping for taxis, online car-hailing vehicles, logistic vehicles and other business operation vehicles has been preliminarily verified.

    The major challenges faced by players include the large investment required for battery-swapping station construction, operation and maintenance requests, the high financial cost of batteries in the swapping stations, and battery depreciation, difficulty in achieving unified standards, overlap of the division of responsibilities, limited space for station construc- tion and safety issues. Accordingly, solutions are being intensely worked on by various players.

    A multi-player, new ecosystem is investing jointly in battery-swap stations and battery asset companies are also starting up. Third-party operator Aulton is initiating the exploration of battery standardization by unifying the interfaces of the battery outer package and the vehicles, leaving the content of the battery to OEMs. Government agencies are also driving a discussion on the standardization issue. Innovative collaborations on space sharing is providing space for battery-swap stations. Active and passive safety technologies are being developed that address the safety issue.

    A combination of local provincial governments, the automotive industry, IT-developers, entrepreneurs, state grid system operators, swapping system operators, electricity suppliers, institutes and univer- sities are developing a new ecosystem and placing large-scale systems in operation.We call this the Chinese approach, the Symbiotic Business Model, the collective exploration and experimenting of industrial, institutional and political players, leading all the way from technology devel- opment through to the establishment of local market solutions for the development and commercialization of battery-swapping systems, and the simultaneous construction and reshaping of a new ecosystem.

    The placement of battery-swapping on the national strategic list demonstrates the systematic approach to the electrification of transportation that needs to be seen and understood starting from energy production, distribution, charging, and the creation of a balancing component in overall energy sourcing and energy storage. Thus, the new ecosystem comprises the major part of the main players in the energy and electrification system. Battery-swapping must not be seen as just one technology that is only a business target for some players, but rather as strategic solution to the entire energy system transformation and part of the ongoing energy and transportation transformation.

    The battery-swapping system when operated ona large-scale has significant strategic importanceas decentralized, distributed and localized energy storage helping to balance energy production and distribution in the national grid system. Substantial rapid developmental growth in battery-swapping is expected in China from 2021. It is still not possible to predict the long-term development of this technology approach, but it is only in trying it, that it will be possible to discover the outcome.

    Implementation of the battery-swapping system can only be successful when all the main players in the energy-transportation system and along the value chain collaborate in the development and commercialization, implementation and large-scale diffusion.

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  • 21.
    Danilovic, Mike
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2). Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Lind, Carl
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Liu, Lihua
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Business Model Innovation for Internationalization: The Case of the Chinese Wind Turbine Manufacturer Envision2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Envision Energy is an emerging energy solution provider from China which entered the wind power market in 2007. Envision became the 3th biggest turbine manufacturer in China and the 9th largest in the world in 2015. Thus, the purpose of our research is to explore the underlying factors to Envision’s successful business model for internationalization. This qualitative research is based on interviews with key personnel at Envision. Our analysis has identified four major elements of their business model for internationalization that are crucial in the success of Envision. Those four are grouped on two major clusters:Upfront elements representing the face of the Envision to market and customers:

    1. Market positioning by the clear positioning of Envision on the market areas left open by the lack of understanding of the market logic by competitors.

    2. Customer orientation by clear focus on identified customer needs and desire for quality products also here left aside by competitors.

    Backend elements representing the value creation and value deliverance elements:

    3. Human resources as the key element through interaction with customers, creating bond and relations with customers and delivering promised values to customers and delivering.

    4. Supply chain by the capacity of Envision to utilize the entire supply chain to create and deliver high quality products synchronized with Envision’s offerings to customers and customer’s expectations.

    Our research shows that Envision represents a new kind of high-tech Chinese company which works systematically to develop new business models that can enable high growth and high level of internationalization that goes beyond the capacity of technology, products as tradition goes.

  • 22.
    Danilovic, Mike
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Lind, Carl
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Liu, Lihua
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Business Model Innovation for Internationalization: The Case Of The Chinese Wind Turbine Manufacturer Envision2016In: Asia Pacific Journal of Advanced Business and Social Studies, ISSN 2205-6033, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 57-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Envision Energy is an emerging energy solution provider from China which entered the wind power market in 2007. Envision became the 3th biggest turbine manufacturer in China and the 9th largest in the world in 2015. Thus, the purpose of our research is to explore the underlying factors to Envision’s successful business model for internationalization. This qualitative research is based on interviews with key personnel at Envision. Our analysis has identified four major elements of their business model for internationalization that are crucial in the success of Envision. Those four are grouped on two major clusters:Upfront elements representing the face of the Envision to market and customers:

    1. Market positioning by the clear positioning of Envision on the market areas left open by the lack of understanding of the market logic by competitors.

    2. Customer orientation by clear focus on identified customer needs and desire for quality products also here left aside by competitors.Backend elements representing the value creation and value deliverance elements:

    3. Human resources as the key element through interaction with customers, creating bond and relations with customers and delivering promised values to customers and delivering.

    4. Supply chain by the capacity of Envision to utilize the entire supply chain to create and deliver high quality products synchronized with Envision’sofferings to customers and customer’s expectations.

    Our research shows that Envision represents a new kind of high-tech Chinese company which works systematically to develop new business models that can enable high growth and high level of internationalization that goes beyond the capacity of technology, products as tradition goes.

  • 23.
    Danilovic, Mike
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Müllern, Tomas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Almestrand Linné, Philip
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lihua Liu, Jasmine
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    A Multidimensional Approach for Assessing Technological Development Projects – The Example of Electric Road Systems2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) has become a standard approach to assessment of technologicaldevelopment projects. The origin of TRL is the US moon rocket programs. However, to develop and put intopractice advanced technology projects, also other aspects are important to evaluate in a systematic way.This paper provides a tentative analytical model of four main perspectives to analyze readiness levels oftechnology projects; Technology Readiness Level (TRL), Political Readiness Level (PRL), Social andSocietal Readiness Level (SRL), and Commercial Readiness Level (CRL).To be successful we need to explore and understand the process, interconnectivities between and the impactbased on all those four aspects in an integrated way. 

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  • 24.
    Danilovic, Mike
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Sandkull, Bengt
    Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden .
    Managing Complexity and Uncertainty in a Multiproject Environment2002In: Proceedings of the 2002 5th International Conference of the International Research Network on Organizing By Projects, Rotterdam, Rotterdam: Erasmus University , 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In complex product development, corporations are running product development in many different projects. The number of more or less interdependent projects creates a web-like multiproject situation. It is characterized by the multitude of relations and dependencies that exist among projects, comprising tasks, people, knowledge, technologies, products, and components. In this paper we present a tentative framework, built on the assumption that complexity creates uncertainty that management has to handle. In multiproject situation the sources of complexity are: functionality of the product, people performing management and engineering work, chosen technology to fulfill functional demands, and shared resources in projects. The dimensions of uncertainty in multiproject situation that management has to handle are: the design of the process to transform functionality and technology to complete product design, organizing people in dual organizational settings basic as well as temporary projects, designing the product architecture based on functionality, technology and project interdependencies.

    This paper will shed some light on these problems and investigate how a participatory approach based on the Dependence Structure Matrix (DSM) as a process enabling tool can be used to manage complex multiproject situations. The results show that even a single project needs to be understood in the light of the situational and organizational complexity that is the actual outcome of project-based product development work. The analysis shows Who, What, Where, When, and Why coordination and integration need to take place in a complex multiproject situation on different levels of the organization. The process of communication among people creates a mutual understanding of the situational visibility and of why communication is essential in problem solving.

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  • 25.
    Danilovic, Mike
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, P.O. Box 1026, SE-551 11 Jönköping, Sweden.
    Sandkull, Bengt
    Malmö University, School of Teacher Education, SE-205 06 Malmö, Sweden.
    The Use Of Dependence Structure Matrix and Domain Mapping Matrix in Managing Uncertainty in Multiple Project Situations2005In: International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 23, p. 193-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of complex products is performed in multi-project environment in which it is crucial to explore interdependencies and manage the uncertainty with the information exchange and the understanding of the context. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a dependence structure matrix and domain mapping matrix approach that enables the systematic identification of inter- dependencies and relations in a Multi-project environment. These approaches enables clarifications of assumptions, the tractability of dependencies, explores the information needed within and between different departments, projects and people. This creates a transparency and enables the synchronization of actions through transformation of information and exploration of assumptions within and between domains. The outcomes of this process are situational visibility creating direction and accountability and the learning that takes place through communicating, reflecting, understanding, and acting.

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  • 26.
    Danilovic, Mike
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Winroth, Mats
    Jönköping Sch. of Eng., Jonkoping Univ./Linkoping Univ., P.O. Box 1026, SE-551 11 Jönköping, Sweden .
    A tentative framework for analyzing integrationin collaborative manufacturing network settings: a case study2005In: Journal of engineering and technology management, ISSN 0923-4748, E-ISSN 1879-1719, Vol. 22, no 1-2, p. 141-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important for small and medium-sized corporations to collaborate in networks in order to develop capacity, capability, and competence to perform product development and become suppliers of complete systems. The purpose of this case study is to identify barriers and to develop an analytical framework of inter-organizational collaboration in network settings. In this paper we present a tentative four-dimensional framework in terms of surface of integration, scope of integration, time horizon of integration, and intensity of integration. This framework can be used to analyze how network settings are developed, in terms of structural design of the network, the design of the workflow in collaborative settings, and the aspects of handling the psychological and social boundaries between people.

  • 27.
    Danilovic, Mike
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Box 1026, SE-551 11 Jönköping, Sweden .
    Winroth, Mats
    School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Box 1026, SE-551 11 Jönköping, Sweden .
    Corporate Manufacturing Network – From Hierarchy To Self-Organizing System2006In: The International Journal of Integrated Supply Management, ISSN 1477-5360, E-ISSN 1741-8097, Vol. 2, no 1/2, p. 106-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important for small and medium-sized corporations to collaborate in networks in order to develop capacity, capability, and competence to perform product development and become suppliers of complete systems. The purpose of this case study is to identify barriers and to develop an analytical framework of inter-organizational collaboration in network settings. In this paper we present a tentative four-dimensional framework in terms of surface of integration, scope of integration, time horizon of integration, and intensity of integration. This framework can be used to analyze how network settings are developed, in terms of structural design of the network, the design of the workflow in collaborative settings, and the aspects of handling the psychological and social boundaries between people.

  • 28.
    Danilovic, Mike
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Winroth, Mats
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kalmar Industries Supplier Network2012In: Design Structure Matrix Methods and Applications / [ed] Steven D. Eppinger & Tyson R. Browning, Boston: MIT Press, 2012, p. 317-324Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kalmar Industries produces heavy-duty materials handling equipment such as reach-stackers that are used in port and transportation operations. To deliver anticipated large customer orders of reach-stackers in a limited time frame, Kalmar worked to strengthen and intensify its collaboration with three major suppliers, Hiflex, Euromaster, and Kone, in a joint, co-located industrial network. The major challenge was to design the collaborative and information exchange processes between the four companies.

  • 29.
    Danilovic, Mike
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Winroth, Mats
    Division of Operations Management, Department of Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Managing dynamics in corporate networks2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A crucial issue in corporate networks is however to identify to what extent different strategic and operational decisions need to be coordinated between the involved companies. In this paper we elaborate on the issue of synchronization of information flow based on interconnectivities between companies in order to coordinate a corporate network by the means of DSM, Dependence Structure Matrix. The results show that DSM can be used to identify interconnectivities among actors in a network and to identify which information that needs to be transferred between companies in the network.

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  • 30.
    Danilovic, Mike
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Winroth, Mats
    Chalmers Institute of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Rethinking the platform approach in automotive industry2009In: POM 2009: 20th Annual Conference of the Production and Operations Management Society : Programs and proceedings, May 1-4, Orlanda, Florida, U.S.A. / [ed] Mark D. Hanna, Orlando, FL: Production and Operations Management Society , 2009, , p. 17p. 1-17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many industrial areas, such as in automotive industry, the development of joint technology platforms is seen as an enabler for improving efficiency, facilitating frequent and rapid new product and technology introductions, as well as transfer of production between units.

    During the present financial recession especially in the automotive industry, it has become obvious that there might be extensive drawbacks from using integrated platforms for several brands if different companies within large industrial groups are extremely integrated in terms of organization, technology, and know-how. In integrated product structures, major product changes, however, become more difficult and more expensive to carry out. If companies have products based on very different technologies, integration is also not easily achieved and it may be almost impossible to merge several brands into one group and one platform.

    In this paper we identify implications of widely implemented integrated technology platform thinking in automotive industry.

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  • 31.
    Danilovic, Mike
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Winroth, Mats
    School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Ferrándiz, Javier
    The School of Industrial Engineering of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Josa, Oriol
    The School of Industrial Engineering of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Platform thinking in the automotive industry – managing the dualism between standardization of components for large scale production and variation for market and customer2007In: Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference of The Production and Operations Management Society, POMS 2007, May 4-7, 2007, Fairmont Hotel, Dallas, Texas, USA, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automotive industry faces two major problems. One is to develop standard platforms to reach high volumes and low cost. The other is to use platforms for enabling variation of models that suit customer needs, local market demands, and restrictions. Platform thinking embraces several industrial levels, systems integrators, global and local suppliers, and markets. How can the dualism between standardization of components and model variation be managed and which trade-offs need to be made?

    In this paper we have identified and analyzed different approaches to platform concept from technical as well as organizational, production, and product development perspectives. Platform technology improves flexibility in production and product development. However, when radical changes are made, new design of platform is not easily made, i.e. propagation of requirements and changes in models vs. platforms. When this happens, several production systems have to be entirely rebuilt causing major capital investments, redesign at suppliers etc. Hence, platform technology reduces product development flexibility.

  • 32.
    Grönevall, Richard
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Designing an integrated project, program and portfolio system: A case study of healthcare2014In: Risk and change management in complex systems: Proceedings of the 16th International DSM Conference, Paris, France, 2-4 July 2014 / [ed] Marija Jankovic, Maik Mauer, Frank Marle, Danilo Marcello Schmidt, Udo Lindemann, München: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH, 2014, p. 309-318Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthcare organizations are subject to an increasing complexity in the management of patient information. The modern healthcare system is developed through projects in large scale. The complexity is rapidly increasing and lack of coordination between projects is crucial in relation to performance. The contemporary approach following the traditional project related approach is insufficient and obsolete and the underlying interconnectivity between elements in a multi-project environment can be used to explore new compositions of projects, programs and portfolios. By a systematic approach in managing interdependencies based on exploring the flow of information between projects on three different levels two major outcomes can be concluded. In our systematic DSM/DMM approach we explore how projects can be organized in programs and in portfolios.

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  • 33.
    Grönevall, Richard
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Designing an Integrated Project, Program and Portfolio System: A Case Study of Healthcare2014In: Journal of Modern Project Management, ISSN 2317-3963, E-ISSN 1747-0862, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 78-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthcare organizations are subject to an increasing complexity in the management of patient information. The modern healthcare system is developed through large-scale projects. The complexity is rapidly increasing but the lack of coordination between projects in relation to performance is critical. The contemporary approach following the traditional project related approach is insuffi cient and obsolete and the underlying interconnectivity between elements in a multi-project environment can be used to explore new compositions of projects, programs and portfolios. By a systematic approach in managing interdependencies based on exploring the fl ow of information between projects at three different levels and two major outcomes can be concluded. In our systematic DSM/DMM approach we explore how projects can be organized in programs and in portfolios.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Grönevall_Danilovic_2014
  • 34.
    Grönevall, Richard
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Managing Project Portfolios: The Next Step2011In: Invest on Visualization: Proceedings of the 13th International DSM Conference / [ed] Steven D Eppinger, et al, München: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH, 2011, p. 203-213Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing the portfolio management process for your projects in a complex environment is a task that puts all your capabilities on the line. The steps that need to be taken all stems from having a sufficient knowledge of your planned and ongoing projects. If you don’t, the output will be irrelevant. The use of methods in arranging information and analyzing it is so far only presented on a conceptual level or as a top-down selection method, this article presents the actual output of a case that will be used as input to a larger and forthcoming study of how a process for project portfolio management develops with the use of dependency structure- and domain mapping matrices.

  • 35.
    Halila, Fawzi
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Olofsson, Sandra
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Managing Business Model Innovation: The Case of a Social Enterprise in the Electricity Market2017In: Exploring a changing view on organizing value creation: Developing New Business Models. Contributions to the 2nd International Conference on New Business Models / [ed] Rauter, R., Zimek, M., Kiesnere, A.L., Baumgartner, R.J., Graz: Institute of Systems Sciences, Innovation and Sustainability Research , 2017, p. 313-319Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Hoveskog, Maya
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Halila, Fawzi
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2). Shanghai Dianji University Shanghai, China.
    Business Model Innovation in the Chinese Wind Power Industry: The Case of Goldwind in the Emerging Economy of Africa2013In: Strategic Management Forum 2013: The Internationalization Strategy of Chinese Firms – Dialogue Between Entrepreneurs and Scholars, Euromed Management/KEDGE Business School – Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai: Shanghai Jiaotong University , 2013, p. [29]-[29]Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the rise of emerging economy (EEs) as main engine of global growth, the intensified competition in the wind energy industry and internationalization to EEs, enterprises need to rethink and innovate their business models in order to succeed. The overall purpose of this article is to explore the drivers of business model innovation (BMI) in emerging-country multinational enterprises (EMNEs) in the context of an EE market, particularly in the wind energy industry and with special focus on inclusive business activities. For this purpose a single case study of Goldwind (China), one of the most important actors in the wind power industry, was applied. The results of this research show that to gain a competitive advantage in EEs requires capabilities to deal with the specific EEs related drivers of change: 1) fast growth and high demand combined with high uncertainty; 2) lower level of market-oriented socioeconomic development; 3) stronger governmental influence on the market; and 4) the need for simple, cheap and easy to maintain technologies. Therefore, it is important that managers position their enterprises in the EEs first as local players and only then as multinationals. Our study indicates that future research should focus on the main elements and the drivers of change that would shape BMI by adding new variables, specifically related to EE.

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  • 37.
    Hoveskog, Maya
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Halila, Fawzi
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Early Phases of Business Model Innovation: An Ideation Experience Workshop in the Classroom2015In: Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education, ISSN 1540-4595, E-ISSN 1540-4609, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 177-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the mantra "innovate your business model or die" increases in popularity among practitioners and academics, so does the need for novel and feasible business models. In this article, we describe an ideation experience workshop, conducted in an undergraduate business course, in which students, guided by their lecturers and two industry representatives, developed business models in the early phases of a company's new blood alcohol level testing device. The students based their business models on the nine building blocks of a Business Model Canvas tool. The workshop confirmed that the three learning objectives were achieved as students acquired knowledge, created problem solutions, and presented results. The success of the workshop is attributable to the opportunity it gives students to work with an actual company, to experiment with business model innovation, and to learn from evaluators' feedback. © 2015 Decision Sciences Institute.

  • 38.
    Hoveskog, Maya
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Halila, Fawzi
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI). Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Learning Networks for Knowledge Coproduction on Business Model Innovation in Wind Energy Industry2014In: Proceedings from British Academy of Management Conference, BAM 2014, Belfast: British Academy of Management , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Established firms find it difficult to innovate their business models. However, research suggests different approaches to overcome this. One of those is learning network. Research has also shown that learning networks can be used as an arena to coproduce knowledge between academia and industry. In this article, the authors provide an understanding of how learning networks can be used to improve the quality of knowledge coproduction on business model innovation and suggest a framework that can be used to facilitate knowledge coproduction related to business model innovation in the context of maintenance services for wind energy industry. The article suggests that learning networks are an appropriate approach not only to address practical problems but also to develop theoretical understanding of how organizational inertia related to business model innovation could be overcome and what are the benefits for the involved participants.

  • 39.
    Khudyakova, Tatyana
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    System-level based IDM/DSM/DMM dataset for multi-project coordination2007In: Proceedings of the 9th International DSM Conference: Munich: 16 - 18 October 2007 / [ed] Udo Lindemann, Mike Danilovic, Frank Deubzer, Maik Maurer & Matthias Kreimeyer, Aachen: Shaker Verlag, 2007, p. 393-402Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For many product development companies a multi-project situation is reality driven by competitive environment: offering customers a variety of new, more complex, high performing yet flexible products at a shortest possible time and lowest cost. Customers’ product complexity is however not an equivalent of the product development complexity and, while striving to deliver highly sophisticated products, development companies use various complexity management techniques in order to control and minimize it internally. High level of modularization, well-defined interfaces between the modules and components commonality & standardization are some factors contributing to complexity reduction. The benefits (according to Anderson, 1997) would be a capability to rapidly introduce incremental product improvements which can be called "new" products — that are really planned "variations on a theme," based on common parts and modular product architecture. Independent design of system components allows for clear definition of project boundaries and scopes within a project development portfolio, minimization of uncertainty and results in reduction of development cycle and ultra-fast time-to- market. However, according to Kentaro & Cusumano (1993) “…focusing on design modification is not advantageous strategy either in terms of the new product introduction rate or average platform design age”. 

    According to Whitney, some products, like high power mechanical ones, as opposed to low power signal processor type products, would benefit from more integral design if technical performance is a priority. Technical constraints, such as light weighting, low power consumption etc. drive designers towards more integral architectures (adopted from Hölttä-Otto, 2005). Integral architecture is characterized by multiple dependencies between system entities (where entities could be functions, physical or non-physical elements), when interfaces are difficult to define clearly.  Kentaro & Cusumano (1993) demonstrated that system-level co-ordination is required between different projects when composing and optimizing a project portfolio for complex products with integrated architecture. A practice of early enforcement of restrictions upon the project scope /requirements in order to avoid potential system-level dependency conflicts with other projects makes further development process less flexible and responsive to changing business requirements such as costs, product flexibility etc. Resolving system-based interdependency-related issue has traditionally been seen as system architect’s task: ”...architects’ greatest concerns and leverage are still, …with the systems’ connections and interfaces because (1) they distinguish a system from its components; (2) their addition produce unique system-level functions, a primary interest of the systems architect; (3) subsystem specialists are likely to concentrate most on the core and lest on the periphery of their subsystems (Maeir & Rechtin, 2002). Other players like development project group members and management in general have often limited access to dependency-based system views and use intuitive approach when dealing with dependencies., hence a transfer of knowledge is essential to be able to support flexibility in system-level project co-ordination.

  • 40.
    Kreimeyer, Matthias
    et al.
    Munich Technical University, Garching, Germany.
    Danilovic, MikeJönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.Lindeman, UdoMunich Technical University, Garching, Germany.
    Proceedings of the 10th International DSM Conference: Stockholm, 11 and 12 November 20082008Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proceedings contain 34 papers. The topics discussed include: introduction of software related DSMs to software engineers; modeling structural change over time - requirements and first methods; an approach to model time dependent process-stakeholder networks; indirect connections in a supply chain: visualisation and analysis; applying Apollo to DSM for schedule adherence visualisation; advanced project management framework for product development; simulation of product change effects on the duration of development processes based on the DSM; a complexity measure for concurrent engineering projects based on the DSM; assessing design strategies from a change propagation perspective; re-engineering legacy knowledge based engineering systems using DSM: extending the affordance structure matrix - mapping design structure and requirements to behavior; and using the design structure matrix (DSM) and architecture options to optimize system adaptability.

  • 41.
    Kreimeyer, Matthias
    et al.
    Insitute for Product Development, Munich Technical University, Garching, Germany.
    Deubzer, Frank
    Insitute for Product Development, Munich Technical University, Garching, Germany.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Fuchs, Stefan Daniel
    Insitute for Product Development, Munich Technical University, Garching, Germany.
    Herfeld, Ulrich
    Insitute for Product Development, Munich Technical University, Garching, Germany.
    Lindemann, Udo
    Insitute for Product Development, Munich Technical University, Garching, Germany.
    Team composition to enhance collaboration between embodiment design and simulation departments2007In: DS 42: Proceedings of ICED 2007, the 16th International Conference on Engineering Design, Paris, France, 28.-31.07.2007 / [ed] J.-C. Bocquet, Bristol: The Design Society, 2007, Vol. DS 42Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient collaboration between design and simulation departments is a key factor to efficient product development. There are numerous efforts to systematically “integrate” product development activities using CAD- and CAE-systems.

    This paper presents a team-based approach to render collaboration, i.e. communication and coordination, between the engineers involved in designing and simulating the product more efficient. It is part of an overall integration strategy to support collaboration between the departments in question in terms of the product architecture and the engineers involved as well as information objects, tools, and the process.

    The team structures proposed combine the different ways of organization prevailing in design and simulation. Based on a product architecture regarding both functional and geometry-oriented perspectives onto the product, virtual teams attributed to parts of this component-function-structure serve as a basis to enhance communication. This is intended to offer a means of orientation to coordinate common efforts between engineers involved. The paper lines out a method to compose teams that merge the necessary competences and responsibilities involved to foster communication across different engineers involved in a set of functions and components.

  • 42.
    Laur, Inessa
    et al.
    Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Enabling change within new forms of organisations: an empirical investigation of change patterns and stakeholder influence on core intermediary activities2020In: Journal of Organizational Change Management, ISSN 0953-4814, E-ISSN 1758-7816, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 1041-1070Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Although previous research has highlighted the importance of innovative intermediary services that are delivered through cluster initiatives to foster own attractiveness and the development of business, little emphasis has been placed on examining the patterns and influencers of such a change in new organisational forms from a management perspective. The present study investigates the change patterns of core intermediary activities in cluster initiatives as well as the influence of various stakeholders on change in those core activities. Design/methodology/approach: The empirical data of this work illustrates the general picture of change within new organisational forms and therefore emerges from a survey study carried out among numerous European cluster initiatives originating from different industries. The main propositions for testing have roots in and are discussed through the prism of Stakeholder Theory as well as entrepreneurship, change and intermediary (middle-hands, brokerage) literature. Findings: The findings reveal that intermediary activities are under continuous change, and the changes appreciated by the initiative members tend to gradually increase in intensity over time. Internal stakeholders are actively engaged in the change process activities, and external stakeholders are too, but to a limited extent. This leaves space for creativity and action for the initiatives. Research limitations/implications: This research combines stakeholder theory and literature on intermediation (new forms of organisations), change, and entrepreneurship. The outcome of the study might serve as a ground for theoretical classification of cluster initiatives as a particular type of intermediary in accordance with their specific occupation. This would add to the ongoing discussion on definition and typologies of intermediaries as well as lift the awareness on the peculiar constellation of stakeholders within these innovative organisations – their engagement expectations and level of involvement. Practical implications: Knowledge on which stakeholders can turn to in the event that a special service is needed can shorten implementation times and improve the quality of services. This knowledge is a way to choose suitable and influential networking partners who can assist by pushing existing working mechanisms in a favourable direction. Social implications: The study illustrates the patterns behind changes of intermediary activities/services over time, which would form solid ground for developing new methods to assist in achieving stakeholder satisfaction through cluster-initiative services. Therefore, this work can serve as a benchmarking example for traditional organisations that find themselves in “sleeping” mode or that aim for revitalization. Originality/value: The contribution of change and engagement mechanisms to effectivization and innovativeness of organisations are highlighted as main value added of this research. © 2020, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 43.
    Lihua Liu, Jasmine
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China; Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Cheng, Xiang
    Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Electrification of the Transportation System in China: Exploring Hydrogen Technology for Electric Vehicles in China 1.02021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of human society, the total demand for energy is rising. However, due to the limited fossil energy stock and the threat of the green-house effect, adjusting the energy structure is crucially important for the sustainable development of all countries in the world.

    Hydrogen energy has received great attention as one technology that can provide society with clean energy, support decarbonization, and be one key technology in the electrification of transport.

    In 2018, China’s hydrogen production was 21 million tons, accounting for 2.7% of the total energy according to the calorific value of energy management. According to the prediction of China hydrogen energy alliance, hydrogen energy will account for 5% of total energy consumption in 2030 and 10% in China’s thermal energy by 2050. According to the market forecast, China’s hydrogen production will exceed 20 million tons in 2020. China hydrogen energy alliance predicts that China’s hydrogen demand will reach 35 million tons by 2030, with a compound annual growth rate of 5.76%.

    In 2050, China’s hydrogen demand will be close to 60 million tons. Hydrogen energy is increasingly more widely used in China, and the market development speed is growing rapidly.

    This report focuses on the development of hydrogen technology in China where the Chinese central government has put hydrogen technology on the strategic listing, repeatedly issued relevant policies to support the development of hydrogen technology and the industry, upgraded the fuel cell development to the level of strategic development, and guides and encourages the development of the fuel cell vehicle industry.

    Hydrogen based vehicles have been launched mainly in Japan, USA and South Korea. Compared with the relatively mature fuel cell vehicle market in Japan and South Korea, the customers of domestic hydrogen refueling stations in China are mainly buses and official vehicles. However, there are several Chinese enterprises manufacturing passenger cars to runon hydrogen fuel, such as Chery, Changan, Hongqi, GAC, FAW and others. As illustration, the GAC’s self-developed hydrogen fuel cell-based passenger vehicle has an operational range of 650 km.

    Compared with the more mature pure electric vehicle, based on batteries as energy source, the hydrogen fuel vehicle is still in a very early but rapidly maturing stage.

    The data show that in 2018, China’s input of hydrogen energy vehicles reached 1,527, including 1,418 buses and 109 logistic trucks. In 2019, the production and sales of fuel cell vehicles in China was 2,833 and 2,737, respectively, with a year-on-year growth of 85.5% and 79.2%, respectively. By the end of 2019, the cumulative number of fuel cell vehicles in China was 6,000.

    In 2020, the policy for fuel cells became favorable. From the development of China, there is still a lot of room for growth.

    Hydrogen technology requires refueling stations, and in China, several traditional oil suppliers are building hydrogen refueling stations.

    On 1 July 1 2019, Sinopec built the first domestic oil and hydrogen combined station in Foshan, Guang-dong Province. Since then, Sinopec has built the first batch of comprehensive energy supply stations in Zhejiang, Shanghai and other places, which integrate refueling, hydrogenation and other functions. As a strategic partner of the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympic Games, Sinopec will provide hydrogen supply, vehicle hydrogenation, and operation support of hydrogenation stations for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in the Beijing and Zhangjiakou Winter Olympic Games.

    On 28 May 2020, Sinopec Guangdong Petroleum Branch, together with Huangpu District and Guang-zhou Development Zone, built the infrastructure for the application and development of hydrogen energy vehicles. It was planned to build more than 20 integrated energy sales stations in the area, integrating hydrogenation, refueling, charging, non-oil and photovoltaic power generation. It is estimated that the revenue of a series of projects will exceed 10 billion yuan/RMB (1,6 billion USD).

    The Foshan area in the south of China has rapidly become a center of hydrogen development. Foshan municipal government has successively issued development planning and supporting subsidy policies.

    The hydrogen energy industry development plan (2018-2030) includes building 57 hydrogen stations in 2030, which will develop the Foshan area into a leading national hydrogen energy industry demonstration city and agglomeration highland. Finally, hydrogen energy in China is facing a trend of rapid speed and scale of development. Clean energy hydrogen production and energy utilization are still in the early but rapidly growing stage of development. Soon, hydrogen energy will see immense development prospects in the field of transportation, heavy freight transportation and electric energy storage.

    We have reasons to believe that hydrogen will be one of the strategic technologies and practices in China in the development of a green society, decarbonization and the electrification of transport.

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  • 44.
    Lihua Liu, Jasmine
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China; Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Electrification of the Transportation System in China: Exploring Battery Swapping for Heavy Trucks in China 1.02021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve successful transportation electrification, we need to understand the role of different vehicle charging solutions. This report focuses on conductive technology that involves the physical exchange of empty batteries with fully charged ones, an approach called battery swapping. The battery swapping alternative has garnered great interest in China and many other developing economies in recent years, particularly for two- and three-wheeled vehicles. This battery swapping approach is now tackling the heavy vehicle sector, such as trucks and buses. As a result, this approach to “refueling” electric vehicles is important to explore, and we need to understand the conditions needed for battery swapping to succeed. In this report, we focus on the use of battery-swapping technology to develop and market Electric Heavy Trucks (EHT) in China.

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  • 45.
    Lihua Liu, Jasmine
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China; Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Dong, Ran
    Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Electrification of the Transportation System in China: Exploring Battery Technology for Electrical Vehicles in China 1.02021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Batteries is one of the main systems of electric vehicle. Batteries determine the total performance and define the capabilities of the electric vehicle regardless it is a passenger vehicle or heavy truck. Batteries are also determining the total price of the electric vehicle to large extend. In our first two reports on battery-swapping, Exploring Battery-Swapping For Electric Vehicles in China 1.0, and Exploring Battery-Swapping for Heavy Trucks in China 1.0, our focus was on passengers’ vehicles, and heavy trucks and the development and estab- lishment of large-scale battery-swapping systems in the Chinese context.

    Due to the importance of batteries for the performance of electric vehicles, it is important to explore and understand the development of technologies for batteries in China as China is not only largest manufacturer of electric vehicles but also one of the largest developers and manufacturers of batteries used in electric vehicles.

    In this report we are focusing on the technology development in historic perspective of the last 15 years in China. We see that the lithium-ion technology is the dominant technology, but we also see new emerging battery technologies that might be the game changer for the performance of electric vehicles. We demonstrate the dynamics of main battery technologies, LFP (lithium iron manganese, LiFeO4, battery cell) battery and NMC (lithium nickel manga- nese cobalt oxide battery cell) battery, the distribution of installed volumes between LFP and NMC in the Chinese market. During the early days of modern battery, the LFP battery technology were dominant with 69% of the market while NMC had 27% of the market. Over the last 5 years we can see big change where NMC is moving to the 67% level and LFP is going down to 32%. During the emerging stage of the China’s new energy vehicle development, LFP batteries account for 69-72% of the installed capacity due to their low cost and mature technology.With the introduction of NMC batteries into the mar- ket, their energy density, capacity and operational vehicle range and safety performance have been improved compared with LFP batteries. In recent years, the installed capacity of NMC battery technology accounts for two-thirds of the market in China. With the intensification of competition in the new energy vehicle market, NMC batteries with higher energy density and better cost efficiency ratio have become the new favorite and are still the mainstream of the market until now.

    The CTP (cell to pack) technology of CATL (Contemporary Amperex Technology Co., Limited) improves the energy density and group efficiency of NMC battery, and the blade battery developed by BYD improves the energy density and safety performance based on the low cost of LFP battery. LFP battery market share expected to grow.

    However, professionals in the industry point out that the energy density of LFP battery and NMC battery is close to the theoretical limit, the energy density limit of high nickel material + silicon carbon negative cell is about 300Wh/Kg At current time only CATL and GOTION High-Tech have reached this level.

    New battery technologies are emerging, such as the Li-S (Lithium-Sulfur) battery that was first proposed in the 1960s, but progress has been slow so far; it was not until the 21st century that China’s research on Li-S batteries began gradually to develop. Solid-state lithium and lithium-rich manganese-based battery technologies are becoming the new hot-spots of battery development in China.

    Beside capacity and performance, the main challenges for battery development that we have identified are:

    Safety issues, especially the risk of fire during battery charging. The need to improve battery-management systems in collaborative settings between vehicle OEMs and key partners such as battery manufacturers and battery swapping technology developers. The management of batteries in their second and third lifecycles, as well as the decommissioning and recycling of old batteries.According to the development of the existing market, the market size of power lithium battery pack recycling will reach about 6.5 billion yuan by 2020, of which the market size of ladder utilization is about 4.1 billion yuan, and the market size of recycling is 2.4 billion yuan. By 2023, the total market size for battery decommissioning will reach 15 billion yuan, of which the market size of ladder utilization is about 5.7 billion yuan, and the market size of recycling is about 9.3 billion yuan.

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  • 46.
    Lihua Liu, Jasmine
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China; Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Zu, Shendong
    Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai, China.
    Electrification of the Transportation System in China: Exploring Inductive Charging Technology for Electric Vehicles in China 1.02021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2020, there were about 360 million vehicles in China, of which 270 million were passenger vehicles, accounting for 75% of the total number of motor vehicles, while the new energy vehicle population was 4.17 million, a year-on-year increase of 9.45%. According to the forecast of the State Grid Electric Vehicle Company, the number of electric vehicles in China will reach 300 million in 2040.

    This article mainly conducts research in the field of wireless power transmission for static and dynamic charging of electric vehicles in China.

    The orderly guidance of electric vehicle chargingcan greatly increase the utilization rate of grid equip- ment and save nearly 70% of investment. The power battery capacity can reach more than 20 billion kWh, which will provide 12 billion kWh of energy storage and 4.8 million MW of regulation capacity for the grid.

    There are several Chinese automotive OEM companies, such as FAW, SAIC, Geely, Changan, Dongfeng, BAIC, GAC, BYD, etc., all of which are involved in the development of wireless charging technology, as well as several independent equipment companies. There are also more than 30 electric vehicle wireless charging equipment suppliers in China, including Xiamen New Page, ZTE New Energy, Huawei Technology, Wanan, Anjie, and Zhonghui.

    Some interesting achievements of some of the Chinese companies include:

    • SAIC Roewe released the pure electric SUV MAVELX in 2018, equipped with a 6.6 kW EV WPT (wireless power transfer) system. Themodel is also equipped with the AI Pilot intelligent driving assistance system, which has theAI Parking full-function intelligent parking assistance system, offering the perfect combinationof automatic parking and EV WPT. The wireless charging system configured by MAVELX is a front-end product. The vehicle chassis retains the structure, electrical and communication interfaces for the EV WPT. This is the first pure electric vehicle equipped with EV WPT.

    • ZXNE is a wholly owned subsidiary of ZTE Cor- poration. It began researching EV WPT technology in 2012 and established an operating company in July 2014. As of August 2019, ZXNE had completed the development of the third-generation EV WPT system. The first-generation products are put in operation. In 2016, it has completed modification and testing with 11 domestic and foreign auto manufacturers.

    The development in demonstration sites began in 2015, based on the early days of research and basic technology development. The foundation has led to mature knowledge and a theoretical framework for the operation of wireless charging technologies.

    In 2015, EV WPT’s TRL (Technology Readiness Level) curve reached TRL6 in the private domain due to the early mature theoretical system. Since 2019, the development of EV WPT in the private sector has become more mature, and the curve will reach TRL7 in 2020.

    In the public application field, a large amount of theoretical knowledge about the application results of WPT on the TRL reached L3 in 2010 and rose to TRL6 in 2019.

    There are two main reasons why TRL analysis does not show higher levels:

    There is a lack of national and international standards, particularly in interoperability, preventing the wireless charging technology from going all the way to full scale commercialization.There is also uncertainty concerning radiation associated with wireless charging. The sender and the receiver modules are physically separated and the distance between must be overcome with high energy transmission that creates radiation outside the ray beam between the sender and the receiver. It is unclear what outcome this radiation might have on humans and animals. Until this is clear, full-scale commercialization has been put on hold.

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  • 47.
    Lindemann, Udo
    et al.
    Munich Technical University, Garching, Germany.
    Danilovic, MikeJönköping International Business School (JIBS), Jönköping, Sweden.Deubzer, FrankMunich Technical University, Garching, Germany.Maurer, MaikMunich Technical University, Garching, Germany.Kreimeyer, MatthiasMunich Technical University, Garching, Germany.
    Proceedings of the 9th International DSM Conference: Munich: 16 - 18 October 20072007Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proceedings contain 33 PowerPoint presentations. The topics discussed include: from product/service complexity management to innovation; managing complexity in automotive engineering; social network techniques applied to design structure matrix analysis. the case of a new engine development at Ferrari SpA; analyzing core competence and core products for developing agile and adaptable corporation; analyzing communication dependencies in product development using the design structure matrix; benefits derived from use of DSM as part of the ADePT approach to managing engineering projects; DMM partitioning analysis for design study procedure optimization; a simulation model to predict impacts of alterations in development processes; the projection relationship between object process models (OPM) and design system matrices (DSM); and function driven process design for the development of mechatronic systems.

  • 48.
    Liu, Lihua
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Hoveskog, Maya
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    Halila, Fawzi
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Centre for Technology, Innovation and Marketing Management (CTIM2).
    The Swedish Maintenance and Services Market in Wind Power Industry Lessons Learned and Opportunities for Chinese Service Providors2013In: Advances in Social Science, Humanities, and Management: 2013 International Conference on Advances in Social Science, Humanities, and Management (ASSHM 2013), Paris: Atlantis Press, 2013, p. 133-138Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents results from an investigation of maintenance and service market of Swedish wind power industry. Although the average number of disruptions per wind turbine only increased slightly from 2007 to 2009 in Sweden, the average downtime, the average electricity production loss and accordingly economic loss to the wind power operators increased 3 times during the same period. Equipped with strong production power, technology skills and expertize, Chinese wind turbine manufacturers have opportunity to enter the Swedish wind power maintenance and service market, and bring benefit to Swedish wind power industry and to themselves‟ internationalization process and sustainable development. 

  • 49.
    Lysek, Michal
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI). HMS Industrial Networks AB, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI). Shanghai Dianji University, School of Business, Shanghai, China.
    Liu, Jasmine Lihua
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI). Shanghai Dianji University, School of Business, Shanghai, China.
    Do You Know Your Customers? Do You Love Them? Reevaluating Value Creation for Customers through Business Model Innovation2019In: Proceedings of The IIER International Conference, The IIER International Conference , 2019, p. 6-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What customers want is one thing, but what they actually need and what they desire is something else. In this paper we define existing customer needs as something that customers know and are aware of, can express, and new customer needs as something that customers do not yet know and are not yet fully aware of. Just like in a Johari window. Companies usually go for the former because the latter is more difficult. Particularly when the customer desire is more psychological in character. Business models are valuable innovation tools because they can turn even an old and less novel technology into a successful innovation, but as stated by Chesbrough, at the heart, a business model performs two important functions: value creation and value capture. However, how can you create value when customers don’t know what they actually need? When they cannot express what they actually desire? Maybe a deeper interaction is required, interpreting the customer’s needs, reading between the lines, inferring what is going on underneath the surface, and collaborative prototyping. This study was based on an exploratory, inductive research approach influenced by grounded theory, studying three Swedish technological companies: Axis, HMS and Sectra. Using grounded theory coding techniques, a typology of seller and buyer needs was created based on four categories: unconstrained needs, undoubtful needs, unconventional needs, and uncertain needs. The results show that depending on which category the company resides, the typology can help managers decide when it is appropriate to listen closely to customers, and when it is not. When they want to fulfill existing customer needs and when they want to fulfill new customer needs. However, discovering new customer needs requires close interaction with customers. Especially when you want to discover not just what customers know that they want, but also what they do not yet know that they actually need. Intimacy is needed when you really want to come close to customers and really want to explore and understand their deep desires.

  • 50.
    Lysek, Michal
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI). HMS Industrial Networks AB, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Danilovic, Mike
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    Liu, Jasmine Lihua
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Business Model Innovation (BMI).
    In Search of Innovation: Exploring the Dynamics of Innovation2016In: International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering, ISSN 1307-6892, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 215-229, article id 280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    HMS Industrial Networks AB has been recognized as one of the most innovative companies in the industrial communication industry worldwide. The creation of their Anybus innovation during the 1990s contributed considerably to the company’s success. From inception, HMS’ employees were innovating for the purpose of creating new business (the creation phase). After the Anybus innovation, they began the process of internationalization (the commercialization phase), which in turn led them to concentrate on cost reduction, product quality, delivery precision, operational efficiency, and increasing growth (the growth phase). As a result of this transformation, performing new radical innovations have become more complicated.

    The purpose of our research was to explore the dynamics of innovation at HMS from the aspect of key actors, activities, and events, over the three phases, in order to understand what led to the creation of their Anybus innovation, and why it has become increasingly challenging for HMS to create new radical innovations for the future.

    Our research methodology was based on a longitudinal, retrospective study from the inception of HMS in 1988 to 2014, a single case study inspired by the grounded theory approach. We conducted 47 interviews and collected 1 024 historical documents for our research.

    Our analysis has revealed that HMS’ success in creating the Anybus, and developing a successful business around the innovation, was based on three main capabilities – cultivating customer relations on different managerial and organizational levels, inspiring business relations, and balancing complementary human assets for the purpose of business creation.

    The success of HMS has turned the management’s attention away from past activities of key actors, of their behavior, and how they influenced and stimulated the creation of radical innovations. Nowadays, they are rhetorically focusing on creativity and innovation. All the while, their real actions put emphasis on growth, cost reduction, product quality, delivery precision, operational efficiency, and moneymaking. In the process of becoming an international company, HMS gradually refocused. In so doing they became profitable and successful, but they also forgot what made them innovative in the first place. Fortunately, HMS’ management has come to realize that this is the case and they are now in search of recapturing innovation once again.

    Our analysis indicates that HMS’ management is facing several barriers to innovation related path dependency and other lock-in phenomena. HMS’ management has been captured, trapped in their mindset and actions, by the success of the past. But now their future has to be secured, and they have come to realize that moneymaking is not everything. In recent years, HMS’ management have begun to search for innovation once more, in order to recapture their past capabilities for creating radical innovations. In order to unlock their managerial perceptions of customer needs and their counterinnovation driven activities and events, to utilize the full potential of their employees and capture the innovation opportunity for the future.

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