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  • 1.
    Balasubramaniam, Sasitharan
    et al.
    Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland .
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Kleyko, Denis
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Skurnik, Mikael
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland .
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Koucheryavy, Yevgeni
    Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland .
    Exploiting bacterial properties for multi-hop nanonetworks2014In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 52, no 7, p. 184-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular communication is a relatively new communication paradigm for nanomachines where the communication is realized by utilizing existing biological components found in nature. In recent years researchers have proposed using bacteria to realize molecular communication because the bacteria have the ability to swim and migrate between locations, carry DNA contents (i.e. plasmids) that could be utilized for information storage, and interact and transfer plasmids to other bacteria (one of these processes is known as bacterial conjugation). However, current proposals for bacterial nanonetworks have not considered the internal structures of the nanomachines that can facilitate the use of bacteria as an information carrier. This article presents the types and functionalities of nanomachines that can be utilized in bacterial nanonetworks. A particular focus is placed on the bacterial conjugation and its support for multihop communication between nanomachines. Simulations of the communication process have also been evaluated, to analyze the quantity of bits received as well as the delay performances. Wet lab experiments have also been conducted to validate the bacterial conjugation process. The article also discusses potential applications of bacterial nanonetworks for cancer monitoring and therapy. © 2014 IEEE.

  • 2.
    Bocharova, Irina
    et al.
    St.-Petersburg University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, St.-Petersburg, Russia & University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Kudryashov, Boris
    St.-Petersburg University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, St.-Petersburg, Russia & University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Frick, Erik
    AstaZero Hällered, Sandhult, Sweden.
    Rabi, Maben
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Department of Electrical Engineering, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Bergen, Norway.
    Low Delay Inter-Packet Coding in Vehicular Networks2019In: Future Internet, ISSN 1999-5903, E-ISSN 1999-5903, Vol. 11, no 12, article id 212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems (C-ITSs), vehicles need to wirelessly connect with Roadside units (RSUs) over limited durations when such point-to-point connections are possible. One example of such communications is the downloading of maps to the C-ITS vehicles. Another example occurs in the testing of C-ITS vehicles, where the tested vehicles upload trajectory records to the roadside units. Because of real-time requirements, and limited bandwidths, data are sent as User Datagram Protocol (UDP) packets. We propose an inter-packet error control coding scheme that improves the recovery of data when some of these packets are lost; we argue that the coding scheme has to be one of convolutional coding. We measure performance through the session averaged probability of successfully delivering groups of packets. We analyze two classes of convolution codes and propose a low-complexity decoding procedure suitable for network applications. We conclude that Reed–Solomon convolutional codes perform better than Wyner–Ash codes at the cost of higher complexity. We show this by simulation on the memoryless binary erasure channel (BEC) and channels with memory, and through simulations of the IEEE 802.11p DSRC/ITS-G5 network at the C-ITS test track AstaZero.

  • 3.
    Bocharova, Irina
    et al.
    Department of Information Systems, St. Petersburg University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, St.-Petersburg, Russia & Institute of Computer Science, University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Kudryashov, Boris
    Department of Information Systems, St. Petersburg University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, St.-Petersburg, Russia & Institute of Computer Science, University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Rabi, Maben
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Dankers, Wouter
    Volvo GTT, Goteborg, Sweden.
    Frick, Erik
    AstaZero, Hällered, Sandhult, Sweden.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Department of Electrical Engineering, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Bergen, Norway.
    Characterizing Packet Losses in Vehicular Networks2019In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 68, no 9, p. 8347-8358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To enable testing and performance evaluation of new connected and autonomous driving functions, it is important to characterize packet losses caused by degradation in vehicular (V2X) communication channels. In this paper we suggest an approach to constructing packet loss models based on the socalled Pseudo-Markov chains (PMC). The PMC based model needs only short training sequences, has low computational complexity, and yet provides more precise approximations than known techniques. We show how to learn PMC models from either empirical records of packet receptions, or from analytical models of fluctuations in the received signal strength. In particular, we validate our approach by applying it on (i) V2X packet reception data collected from an active safety test run, which used the LTE network of the AstaZero automotive testing site in Sweden, and (ii) variants of the Rician fading channel models corresponding to two models of correlations of packet losses. We also show that initializing the Baum-Welch algorithm with a second order PMC model leads to a high accuracy model. © 2019 IEEE.

  • 4.
    Bocharova, Irina
    et al.
    ITMO University, Saint Petersburg, Russia & University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Kudryashov, Boris
    ITMO University, Saint Petersburg, Russia & University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Rabi, Maben
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Dankers, Wouter
    Volvo GTT, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Frick, Erik
    AstaZero, Hällered, Sweden.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Modeling Packet Losses in Communication Networks2019In: 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory: Proceedings, 2019, p. 1012-1016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An approach to constructing discrete models of packet losses suitable for a wide variety of communication network applications is studied. It is based on estimating parameters of probabilistic automata described via so-called pseudo-Markov chains. The new technique is applied both to approximating a discrete time analog process at the output of known channel models and to the experimental data stream. Comparison of models is performed by computing probabilities of more than m losses out of n transmitted packets (P (m, n)). It is shown that for the Rician fading channel with exponential correlation and correlation determined by a Bessel filter, the obtained rank-two and rank-three discrete modes, respectively, provide high accuracy coincidence of P (m, n) performances. The rank-three discrete model computed on the experimental data stream obtained from the LTE network provides significantly better approximation of P (≥ m, n) performance than that obtained by the Baum-Welch algorithm.

  • 5.
    Campolo, Claudia
    et al.
    Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Molinaro, Antonella
    Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Service Discovery and Access in Vehicle-to-Roadside Multi-Channel VANETs2015In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Communication Workshop, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2015, p. 2477-2482Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide portfolio of safety and non-safety services will be provided to drivers and passengers on top of Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs).

    Non-safety services are announced by providers, e.g., road-side units (RSUs), on a channel that is different from the one where the services are delivered. The dependable and timely delivery of the advertisement messages is crucial for vehicles to promptly discover and access the announced services in challenging vehicle-to-roadside scenarios, characterized by intermittent and short lived connectivity.

    In this paper, we present an analytical framework that models the service advertisement and access mechanisms in multichannel vehicular networks.

    The model accounts for dual-radio devices, and computes the mean service discovery time and the service channel utilization by considering the disruption periods due to the switching of the RSU from the advertising channel (where announcements are transmitted) to the advertised channel (where services are exchanged), under different channel and mobility conditions. It provides quick insights on parameter settings to allow providers to improve service provisioning. © 2015 IEEE

  • 6.
    Díez Rodríguez, Victor
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Detournay, Jérôme
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    An Approach for Receiver-Side Awareness Control in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks2018In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1227-1236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicular Ad hoc networks (VANET) are a key element of cooperative intelligent transport systems. One of the challenges in VANETs is dealing with awareness and congestion due to the high amount of messages received from the vehicles in communication range. As VANETs are used in critical applications, congestion on the receiver side caused by the buffering of the packets is a safety hazard. In this paper, we propose a streamwise queuing system on the receiver side and show how it improves the timeliness of the messages received and maintains the awareness of the system in a congestion situation. © Copyright 2017 IEEE

  • 7.
    Evdokimova, Ekaterina
    et al.
    Department of Telecommunications and Information, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Department of Electrical Engineering, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Bergen, Norway.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Fiems, Dieter
    Department of Telecommunications and Information, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium.
    Internet Provisioning in VANETs: Performance Modeling of Drive-Thru Scenarios2019In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drive-thru-Internet is a scenario in cooperative intelligent transportation systems (C-ITSs), where a road-side unit (RSU) provides multimedia services to vehicles that pass by. Performance of the drive-thru-Internet depends on various factors, including data traffic intensity, vehicle traffic density, and radio-link quality within the coverage area of the RSU, and must be evaluated at the stage of system design in order to fulfill the quality-of-service requirements of the customers in C-ITS. In this paper, we present an analytical framework that models downlink traffic in a drive-thru-Internet scenario by means of a multidimensional Markov process: the packet arrivals in the RSU buffer constitute Poisson processes and the transmission times are exponentially distributed. Taking into account the state space explosion problem associated with multidimensional Markov processes, we use iterative perturbation techniques to calculate the stationary distribution of the Markov chain. Our numerical results reveal that the proposed approach yields accurate estimates of various performance metrics, such as the mean queue content and the mean packet delay for a wide range of workloads. © 2019 IEEE.

  • 8.
    Kleyko, Denis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Hostettler, Roland
    Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Birk, Wolfgang
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Umea Univ, Dept Biomed Engn & Informat, Umea, Sweden..
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Vehicle Classification using Road Side Sensors and Feature-free Data Smashing Approach2016In: 2016 IEEE 19th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), Piscataway: IEEE , 2016, p. 1988-1993, article id 7795877Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main contribution of this paper is a study of the applicability of data smashing - a recently proposed data mining method - for vehicle classification according to the "Nordic system for intelligent classification of vehicles" standard, using measurements of road surface vibrations and magnetic field disturbances caused by passing vehicles. The main advantage of the studied classification approach is that it, in contrast to the most of traditional machine learning algorithms, does not require the extraction of features from raw signals. The proposed classification approach was evaluated on a large dataset consisting of signals from 3074 vehicles. Hence, a good estimate of the actual classification rate was obtained. The performance was compared to the previously reported results on the same problem for logistic regression. Our results show the potential trade-off between classification accuracy and classification method's development efforts could be achieved.

  • 9.
    Kleyko, Denis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Modified Algorithm of Dynamic Frequency Hopping (DFH) in the IEEE 802.22 Standard2014In: Multiple Access Communications: 7th International Workshop on Multiple Access Communications, MACOM 2014: Halmstad, Sweden, August 27-28, 2014: Proceedings, Cham: Springer, 2014, Vol. 8715, p. 75-83Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IEEE 802.22 Cognitive Wireless Regional Area Networks is a first standard of wireless terrestrial system relying on cognitive radio concept and operating as an opportunistic system in the the vacant unoccupied frequency spaces of the licensed TV-frequency band. Concept of the proposed standard assumes special functionality to protect the operation of the primary licensed subscribers. Dynamic Frequency Hopping is the mechanism for providing connectionless operation of Wireless Regional Area Networks systems while ensuring protection of transmissions from the primary users. During its operation regular time gaps appear on the involved frequency channels. This paper introduces the concept of the efficient reuse of the vacant frequency resources appearing when using the Dynamic Frequency Hopping mode. The scheme for consecutive-parallel inclusion of the new Dynamic Frequency Hopping Communities-members in the Dynamic Frequency Hopping mode is presented. The proposed approach allows significantly decrease time of inclusion the new members into a new Dynamic Frequency Hopping Communities. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

  • 10.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Performance evaluation of C-ACC/platooning under ITS-G5 communications2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) are aiming to provide innovative services related to different modes of transport and traffic management, and enable various users to be better informed and make safer, more coordinated and smarter use of transport networks. Cooperative-ITS (C-ITS) support connectivity between vehicles, vehicles and roadside infrastructure, traffic signals as well as with other road users. In order to enable vehicular communications European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI) delivered ITS-G5 -- a of set of C-ITS standards. Considering the goals of C-ITS, inter-vehicle communications should be reliable and efficient.

    In this thesis we study the performance, efficiency, and dependability of ITS-G5 communications for Cooperative adaptive cruise control (C-ACC) and platooning C-ITS applications. We provide an overview of currently available and ongoing standardization targeting communications in C-ACC/platooning. We study the performance of ITS-G5 beaconing in a C-ACC/platooning scenario, where we show that its performance may deteriorate when implemented in cooperative driving applications due to the kinematic-dependent design of the message triggering mechanism. We explain in detail the cause of this phenomenon and test it for a wide range of parameters. Also, we study the influence of different available ITS-G5 legitimate setups on the C-ACC/platooning fuel efficiency and demonstrate that proper communication setup may enhance fuel savings. This thesis also proposes a jamming denial-of-service attack detection algorithm for platooning. The main advantage of our detector is its short learning phase that not exceed a second and low detection delay of a few hundreds of milliseconds. Under some assumptions, the proposed algorithm demonstrates the ability to detect certain types of attacks with average probability above 0.9.

  • 11.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Performance evaluation of safety critical ITS-G5 V2V communications for cooperative driving applications2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) are aiming to provide innovative services related to different modes of transport and traffic management, and enable various users to be better informed and make safer, more coordinated and smarter use of transport networks. Cooperative-ITS (C-ITS) support connectivity between vehicles, vehicles and roadside infrastructure, traffic signals as well as with other road users. In order to enable vehicular communications European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI) delivered ITS-G5 -- a of set of C-ITS standards. Considering the goals of C-ITS, inter-vehicle communications should be reliable and efficient.

    The subject of this thesis is evaluation of the performance, efficiency, and dependability of ITS-G5 communications for cooperative driving applications support. This thesis includes eight scientific papers and extends the research area in three directions: evaluation of the performance of ITS-G5 beaconing protocols; studying the performance of ITS-G5 congestion control mechanisms; and studying the radio jamming Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks and their detection methods.

    First, an overview of currently available and ongoing standardization targeting communications in C-ACC/platooning cooperative driving applications is provided. Then, as part of the first research direction, we demonstrate via a number of studies, that the adaptive beaconing approach where message generation is coupled to the speed variation of the originating ITS-s may lead to a message synchronization effect in the time domain when vehicles follow mobility scenarios that involve cooperative speed variation. We explain in detail the cause of this phenomenon and test it for a wide range of parameters. In relation to the second problem, we, first, study the influence of different available ITS-G5 legitimate setups on the C-ACC/platooning fuel efficiency and demonstrate that proper communication setup may enhance fuel savings. Then we thoroughly study the standardization of the congestion control mechanism for ITS-G5, which will affect the operation of all cooperative driving C-ITS applications as a mandatory component. We study the influence of congestion control on application performance and give recommendations for improvement to make the congestion control to target at optimizing the applications performance metrics. In the scope of the last research direction, we propose two real-time jamming DoS detection methods. The main advantage of our detection techniques is their short learning phase that not exceed a few seconds and low detection delay of a few hundreds of milliseconds. Under some assumptions, the proposed algorithms demonstrates the ability to detect certain types of attacks with high detection probability.

  • 12.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Deng, Qichen
    Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Study of the Platooning Fuel Efficiency under ETSI ITS-G5 Communications2016In: 2016 IEEE 19th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2016, p. 551-556Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we evaluate the performance of platoon enabled by contemporary ITS-G5 vehicular communications through a number of simulation experiments. We assess platooning fuel consumption performance under two communication setups and estimate the potential influence of the communication system on the efficiency of the platooning. We also make an attempt to transform our results on platoon fuel efficiency into potential cost reduction gain. Our study shows that platooning fuel-efficiency may vary depending on the communication setup.

  • 13.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Kleyko, Denis
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Delooz, Quentin
    University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    AI-Based Malicious Network Traffic Detection in VANETs2018In: IEEE Network, ISSN 0890-8044, E-ISSN 1558-156X, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 15-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inherent unreliability of wireless communications may have crucial consequences when safety-critical C-ITS applications enabled by VANETs are concerned. Although natural sources of packet losses in VANETs such as network traffic congestion are handled by decentralized congestion control (DCC), losses caused by malicious interference need to be controlled too. For example, jamming DoS attacks on CAMs may endanger vehicular safety, and first and foremost are to be detected in real time. Our first goal is to discuss key literature on jamming modeling in VANETs and revisit some existing detection methods. Our second goal is to present and evaluate our own recent results on how to address the real-time jamming detection problem in V2X safety-critical scenarios with the use of AI. We conclude that our hybrid jamming detector, which combines statistical network traffic analysis with data mining methods, allows the achievement of acceptable performance even when random jitter accompanies the generation of CAMs, which complicates the analysis of the reasons for their losses in VANETs. The use case of the study is a challenging platooning C-ITS application, where V2X-enabled vehicles move together at highway speeds with short inter-vehicle gaps.

  • 14.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Kleyko, Denis
    Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Delooz, Quentin
    Center of Automotive Research on Integrated Safety Systems and Measurement Area (CARISSMA), Ingolstadt, Germany.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Real-time jamming DoS detection in safety-critical V2V C-ITS using data mining2019In: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 442-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A data mining-based method for real-time detection of radio jamming Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks in IEEE 802.11p vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications is proposed. The method aims at understanding the reasons for losses of periodic cooperative awareness messages (CAM) exchanged by vehicles in a platoon. Detection relies on a knowledge of IEEE 802.11p protocols rules as well as on historical observation of events in the V2V channel. In comparison to the state-of-the-art method, the proposed method allows operating under the realistic assumption of random jitter accompanying every CAM transmission. The method is evaluated for two jamming models: random and ON-OFF. 

  • 15.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bellalta, Boris
    Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain.
    Configuring the Decentralized Congestion Control for ETSI ITS-G5 C-ITS Applications2019In: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decentralized Congestion Control (DCC) is one the central components of inter-vehicular communications protocol stack enabling Cooperative Intelligent Transportation System (C-ITS). In this letter we first present an analytical framework that allows to tune parameters of the DCC algorithm specified by ETSI. Then we suggest two approaches to optimize the DCC configuration using our framework. Finally, we evaluate the performance of the proposed approaches using detailed simulation experiments. We demonstrate that proposed approaches are able to control channel busy ratio stably, while proposed analytical model precisely estimates application level metrics.

  • 16.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Does ETSI beaconing frequency control provide cooperative awareness?2015In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Communication Workshop (ICCW), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2015, p. 2393-2398Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Platooning is an emergent vehicular application aiming at increasing road safety, efficiency and driving comfort. The cooperation between the vehicles in a platoon is achieved by the frequent exchange of periodic broadcast Cooperative Awareness Messages (CAMs) also known as beacons. CAM triggering conditions are drafted in the standard ETSI EN 302 637–2 and are based on the dynamics of an originating vehicle. These conditions are checked repeatedly with a certain sampling rate. We have discovered that the improper choice of the sampling rate value may increase the number of collisions between CAMs at the IEEE 802.11p medium access control layer and, therefore, diminish the efficiency of beaconing in a platoon. © 2015 IEEE

  • 17.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Poster: On the Performance of ETSI EN 302 637-2CAM Generation Frequency Management2014In: 2014 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC) / [ed] Falko Dressler, Onur Altintas, Suman Banerjee, Björn Scheuermann & David Eckhoff, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2014, p. 107-108Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ETSI EN 302 637-2 draft standard defines the triggering rules for Cooperative Awareness Messages (CAMs). It specifies how the frequency of CAM generation shall depend on the dynamics of an originating vehicle. We have discovered that for a group of vehicles in the proximity, which follow similar movement patterns, the performance of the CAM generation frequency management might deteriorate over time.

  • 18.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Bellalta, Boris
    Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Cooperative awareness in VANETs: On ETSI EN 302 637-2 performance2018In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 17-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative Awareness on the road is aiming to support the road users with knowledge about the surroundings relying on the information exchange enabled by vehicular com- munications. To achieve this goal European Telecommunication Standard Institute (ETSI) delivered the standard EN 302 637-2 for Cooperative Awareness Messages (CAM). The CAM trig- gering conditions are based on the dynamics of the originating vehicle, which is checked periodically. In this paper, we show that standardized ETSI protocol may demonstrate a decrease in communication performance under several realistic mobility patterns. The potential influence of the discovered phenomena on two typical mobility scenarios is studied.

  • 19.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Loo, Jonathan
    Middlesex University, London, United Kingdom.
    Real-time Detection of Denial-of-Service Attacks in IEEE 802.11p Vehicular Networks2014In: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 110-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for real-time detection of Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks in IEEE 802.11p vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) is proposed. The study is focused on the "jamming" of periodic position messages (beacons) exchanged by vehicles in a platoon. Probabilities of attack detection and false alarm are estimated for two different attacker models. © 2014 IEEE

  • 20.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Smely, Dieter
    Kapsch TrafficCom, Vienna, Austria.
    Bellalta, Boris
    Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.
    ETSI DCC: Decentralized Congestion Control in C-ITS2018In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 56, no 12, p. 112-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ETSI DCC: Decentralized Congestion Control in C-ITS is a mandatory component of the 5.9 GHz ITS-G5 vehicular communication protocol stack that reduces radio channel overload, range degradation, and self interference. In this tutorial article we explain its principle, describe related ongoing standardization activities, evaluate its performance for emerging cooperative driving applications, and identify ways for improvement. We show that failure to use a proper DCC parameterization can impact negatively on the performance of cooperative vehicular applications.

  • 21.
    Nelson, Christian
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Gustafson, Carl
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Tufvesson, Fredrik
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Geometry Based Channel Models with Cross- and Autocorrelation for Vehicular Network Simulations2018In: 2018 IEEE 87th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Realistic network simulations are necessary to assess the performance of any communication system. In this paper, we describe an implementation of a channel model for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication in the OMNeT++/Plexe simulation environment. The model is based on previous extensive measurements in a V2V multilink highway scenario and cover line-of-sight (LOS) as well as obstructed LOS (OLOS) scenarios, which occurs when one or more vehicles obstruct the LOS component. The implementation captures both the temporal autocorrelation and the joint multilink cross-correlation processes to achieve a realistic behavior. Preliminary results show that the implementation now generates stochastic large-scale fading with an autocorrelation function that agrees well with measured data. A representation of the cross-correlation process is now implemented through proper channel model selection since the geometry and location of objects are known in Plexe. We also show the impact of the suggested V2V physical layer (PHY) on the performance evaluation results observed at the facilities layer. As a metric, we use the data age, which is a measure how old the information about a vehicle is. When considering the autocorrelation in simulations, the experienced data-age increases. Examples show an increase of the 10% percentile data-age from 0.1s to 1.5s, which may affect the application performance significantly in critical situations. © 2018 IEEE.

  • 22.
    Thunberg, Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Sjöberg, Katrin
    Scania, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications for Platooning: Safety Analysis2019In: IEEE Networking Letters, ISSN 2576-3156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication is the key technology enabling platooning. This paper proposes an analytical framework that combines the characteristics of V2V communication (packet loss probabilities and packet transmission delays) with the physical mobility characteristics of vehicles (speed, distance between vehicles and their brake capacities). First, we present the feasible region of communications delays which guarantees safe emergency braking in platooning scenarios. Second, we derive a bound on the probability of safe braking. The presented framework is applied to understand the performance of the state-of-the-art V2V communication protocol for platooning.

  • 23.
    Vinel, Alexey
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Lan, Lin
    Hitachi Europe SAS, Sophia-Antipolis, France.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Vehicle-to-vehicle communication in C-ACC/platooning scenarios2015In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 53, no 8, p. 192-197, article id 7180527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative adaptive cruise control (C-ACC) and platooning are two emerging automotive intelligent transportation systems (ITS) applications. In this tutorial article we explain their principles, describe related ongoing standardization activities, and conduct performance evaluation of the underlying communication technology. © Copyright 2015 IEEE

  • 24.
    Vinel, Alexey
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Isachenkov, Pavel
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Modeling of V2V Communications for C-ITS Safety Applications: A CPS Perspective2018In: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 1600-1603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tight coupling between the performance of vehicleto-vehicle (V2V) communications and the performance of Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems (C-ITS) safety applications is addressed. A Cyber-Physical System (CPS) analytical framework is developed that links the characteristics of V2V communications (such as packet loss probability and packet transmission delay) with the physical mobility characteristics of the vehicular system (such as safe inter-vehicular distance). The study is applied to the Day 1 C-ITS application, Emergency Electronic Brake Lights (EEBL), enabled by ETSI ITS-G5 and IEEE 802.11p standards. © 2018 IEEE

1 - 24 of 24
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