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  • 1.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Experiences of data collection issues in qualitative studies involving people diagnosed with schizophrenia2016In: Abstracts: Narrative Nursing: Nordic Conference Of Mental Health Nursing: 14-16 September 2016, 2016, p. 41-41Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The viewpoint and special needs of individuals with severe mental illness are crucial for the development of mental health nursing. In-depth knowledge of the perspectives of people with schizophrenia is primarily established in dialogue with individuals with experience of the phenomenon investigated. Attaining trustworthiness in the findings in qualitative studies is of great importance and the interview approach used should assure trustworthiness in the data collection at different levels with regard to the perspectives of the individual, which is essential for developing nursing research and practice.

    Aim: The aim of the paper was to describe and discuss the issues related to data collection in qualitative studies involving people diagnosed with schizophrenia.

    Method: Six qualitative interview studies regarding experiences of different aspects of life among people diagnosed with schizophrenia were reflected on and discussed in terms of issues related to data collection involving people with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia (N=75).

    Results: The discussions that generated the results revealed three topics in qualitative studies involving individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia: 1) Selection of research context with respect to participants’ different aspects of life, 2) Sampling issues with regard to judgements of participants’ ability to contribute with information and 3) Choice of data collection methods to meet the aim of the enquiry.

    Conclusion: Three crucial areas in data collection in qualitative studies with individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia were revealed. Further studies regarding sampling procedures and analysis of collected data are needed to ensure trustworthiness of findings regarding interviews involving people with severe mental illness.

  • 2.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Sandgren, Anna
    Linneaus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    How to facilitate healthy living described by persons with persistent psychiatric disorders in psychiatric out-patient settings – challenging health care professionals2016In: Abstracts: Narrative Nursing: Nordic Conference Of Mental Health Nursing: 14-16 September 2016, 2016, p. 13-13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Over the previous decades, scientific research has demonstrated that people with persistent mental illness like schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders have a reduced life expectancy and have a higher risk of being affected of preventable physical illnesses such as developing metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Additionally it have made evident for lower quality of life as well. These risk factors make health promoting essential in the care providing and therefore it ́s important for the health professionals to have a deeper knowledge about the facilitating factors to healthy living described by persons themselves.

    Aim: The aim of this qualitative study was to describe the experiences of persons affected by persistent mental illness such as schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders what facilitates healthy living in their everyday life. The presentation has the focus on the facilitative factors applying health professionals when providing care for persons in psychiatric out-patient settings.

    Method: The study was carried out in three different psychiatric out-patient settings in the southern Sweden. The data was collected through qualitative interviews (N= 16) and analyses by qualitative, inductive approach abased on Granheim and Lundmans ́ conceptualization of content analysis.

    Results: First, it is essential for persons with persistent and severe mental illness that they get support to bring out their needs to healthier living by having a dialogue about the issues of healthy living in their everyday life. In this dialog they may also need support to reflect and find out their own motivating factors to healthier living. Additionally, in this dialogue it is important to be aware of that they will be regarded as a whole person and include many areas of life like daily structure and social life. The professionals should show a truly involvement and active interest to persons when increasing healthy living.

    Conclusion: Many persons with persistent mental illness need practical support in their everyday life to maintaining healthier living. This requires the close cooperation between psychiatric out-patient settings, the housing support professionals from municipalities and the social services.

  • 3.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Sandgren, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Center for Collaborative Palliative Care , Department of Health and Caring Sciences , Växjö , Sweden.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Health Risks among People with Severe Mental Illness in Psychiatric Outpatient Settings2018In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life expectancy is greatly reduced in patients with schizophrenia, and cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of mortality. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and to investigate the relationships between self-rated health, sense of coherence, CVD risk, and body mass index (BMI) among people with severe mental illness (SMI) in psychiatric outpatient settings. Nearly 50% of the participants were exposed to moderate/high risk of CVD and over 50% were obese. The results showed no statistically relationships between the subjective and objective measures (Bayes factor <1) of health. The integration of physical health into clinical psychiatric nursing practice is vital. © 2018 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  • 4.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Experiences of methodological issues in qualitative studies involving people with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia2016In: Programme: Second Nordic Conference in Nursing Research, 2016, p. 60-60Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The viewpoint and special needs of individuals with severe mental illness is crucial in development of mental health nursing. In-depth knowledge of the perspectives of people with severe mental illness is primarily established in dialog with individuals experienced in the phenomenon investigated. To reach trustworthiness of findings in qualitative studies is central and the interview approach used should assure trustworthiness in data collection regarding perspectives of the individual essential in developing nursing research and practice.

    Aim: The aim of the paper was to describe and discuss methodological issues related to research interviews involving people with severe and persistent mental illness.

    Method: Five qualitative interview studies regarding experiences of different aspects of life among people with severe mental illness were reflected and discussed regarding methodological issues related to the interview situation involving people with severe and persistent mental illness (N=51).

    Results: The discussions forming the results revealed three crucial topics in qualitative interview studies with individuals with severe mental illness. Use previous experiences of interactions with persons with mental disabilities with an open mind without prejudices. Balance the interviewee’s need of support and encouragement during the interview without manipulating contents of statements. Comprehend the essential meaning in the interviewee’s statements even when statements are short and narrow.

    Discussion: Three crucial topics in qualitative interview studies with individuals with severe mental illness were revealed. Further studies regarding sampling procedures and analysis of collected data are needed to ensure trustworthiness of findings regarding interviews involving people with severe mental illness.

  • 5.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Sandgren, Anna
    Linneaus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Enabling healthy living: Experiences of people with severe mental illness in psychiatric outpatient services2018In: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1445-8330, E-ISSN 1447-0349, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 236-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that people with severe mental illness have a reduced life expectancy and a greater risk of being affected by preventable physical illnesses such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. There are still, however, only a few published studies focusing on what enables healthy living for this group. This study thus aimed to describe what enables healthy living among people with severe mental illness in psychiatric outpatient services. The data were collected in qualitative interviews (n = 16) and content analysis was used to analyze the data. The interviews resulted in an overall theme "Being regarded as a whole human being by self and others", which showed the multidimensional nature of health and the issues that enable healthy living among people with severe mental illness. Three categories emerged: (i) everyday structure (ii), motivating life events and (iii) support from significant others. The results indicate that a person with severe mental illness needs to be encountered as a whole person if healthy living is to be enabled. Attaining healthy living requires collaboration between the providers of care, help and support. Health care organizations need to work together to develop and provide interventions to enable healthy living and to reduce poor physical health among people with severe mental illness. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  • 6.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ethical and methodological issues in qualitative studies involving people with severe and persistent mental illness such as schizophrenia and other psychotic conditions: a critical review2017In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 12, no Sup. 2, article id 1368323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Undertaking research studies in the field of mental health is essential in mental health nursing. Qualitative research methodologies enable human experiences to become visible and recognize the importance of lived experiences. This paper argues that involving people with schizophrenia in research is critical to promote their health and well-being. The quality of qualitative research needs scrutinizing according to methodological issues such as trustworthiness and ethical standards that are a fundamental part of qualitative research and nursing curricula. The aim of this study was to critically review recent qualitative studies involving people with severe and persistent mental illness such as schizophrenia and other psychotic conditions, regarding descriptions of ethical and methodological issues in data collection and analysis. A search for relevant papers was conducted in three electronic databases, in December 2016. Fifteen qualitative interview studies were included and reviewed regarding methodological issues related to ethics, and data collection and analysis. The results revealed insufficient descriptions of methodology regarding ethical considerations and issues related to recruitment and sampling in qualitative interview studies with individuals with severe mental illness, putting trustworthiness at risk despite detailed descriptions of data analysis. Knowledge from the perspective of individuals with their own experience of mental illness is essential. Issues regarding sampling and trustworthiness in qualitative studies involving people with severe mental illness are vital to counteract the stigmatization of mental illness.

  • 7.
    Dahlqvist Jönsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. Department of Research, Development and Education (FoUU), Region of Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Nunstedt, Håkan
    Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Johansson Berglund, Inger
    Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Hedman Ahlström, Britt
    Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Hedelin, Birgitta
    Department of Nursing, Gjøvik University College, Gjøvik, Norway.
    Skärsäter, Ingela
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Problematization of perspectives on health promotion and empowerment in mental health nursing – within the research network “MeHNuRse” and the Horatio conference, 20122014In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 22945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental illness is increasing worldwide, while a trend towards an ever more specialized health care takes place. This development creates great demands on nurses to work from a holistic perspective of nursing. The health perspective emphasizes cooperation and communication with those who suffer from long-term mental illness, focusing on their independence and health. From a health perspective, every human being is an actor in his/her own life with an inherent ability to make their own choices. However, persons who suffer from long-term mental illness are at risk of losing power and control over areas of their lives and their health. Mental health nurses are in position to support these persons in promoting health and to regain control over their lives. The emphasis of this paper is thus to discuss mental health nurses responsibility to provide health promoting nursing care, through interpretation of the concepts of empowerment, emancipation, self-efficacy and self-management how can mental health nurses work from a health-promoting perspective in relation to these concepts. The focus of this paper is the challenge of real health promotion in mental health nursing discussed at a workshop at the European Horatio festival in Stockholm 2012 with over 600 participating mental health nurses and researchers from European countries. © 2014 P. D. Jönsson et al.

  • 8.
    Doyle, Louise
    et al.
    Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Ellilä, Heikki
    Turku University of Applied Science, Turku, Finland.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Lahti, Mari
    Turku University of Applied Science, Turku, Finland.
    Higgins, Agnes
    Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Keogh, Brian
    Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Meade, Oonagh
    University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Sitvast, Jan
    Utrecht University of Applied Sciences, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Skärsäter, Ingela
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Stickley, Theodore
    University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Kilkku, Nina
    Tampere University of Applied Sciences, Tampere, Finland.
    Preparing master-level mental health nurses to work within a wellness paradigm: Findings from the eMenthe project2018In: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1445-8330, E-ISSN 1447-0349, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 823-832Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental health promotion remains an important component of mental health nursing practice. Supporting wellness at both the individual and societal levels has been identified as one of the key tenets of mental health promotion. However, the prevailing biomedical paradigm of mental health education and practice has meant that many nurses have not been equipped to incorporate a wellness perspective into their mental health practice. In the present study, we report on an exploratory study which details the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required by master-level mental health nurses to practice within a wellness paradigm from the perspective of three groups of key stakeholders: (i) service users and family members (n = 23); (ii) experienced mental health nurses (n = 49); and (iii) master-level mental health nursing students (n = 37). The findings, which were reported from individual and focus group interviews across five European countries, suggested a need to reorientate mental health nursing education to include a focus on wellness and resilience to equip mental health nurses with the skills to work within a strengths-based, rather than a deficits-based, model of mental health practice. Key challenges to working within a wellness paradigm were identified as the prevailing dominance of the biomedical model of cause and treatment of mental health problems, which focusses on symptoms, rather than the holistic functioning of the individual, and positions the person as passive in the nurse-service user relationship. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  • 9.
    Ellilä, Heikki
    et al.
    Turku University of Applied Sciences, Turku, Finland.
    Kilkku, Nina
    Turku University of Applied Sciences, Turku, Finland.
    Callaghan, Patrick
    University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    van Dommelen, Riet
    Utrecht University of Applied Sciences, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Doyle, Louise
    Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.
    Higgins, Agnes
    Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Keogh, Brian
    Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.
    van de Sande, Roland
    Utrecht University of Applied Sciences, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Sitvast, Jan
    Utrecht University of Applied Sciences, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Skärsäter, Ingela
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Stickley, Theodore
    University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Vuokila-Oikkonen, Päivi
    Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Helsinki, Finland.
    eMenthe: a European co-operation project to enhance Master’s level education in mental health practice with eLearning material2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Hallén, Malin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), The Wigforss Group.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Covering Mental Illness – Journalistic Views and Perspectives on Scientific Uncertainty and Social Stigma in News Media2016In: ECREA 2016 Abstract Book, Prague: Czech-In , 2016, p. 573-573Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The news media are one of the most important public sources of information on psychiatric disorders. However, research on news media content has established that journalistic coverage of mental illness is largely characterized by inaccuracies, exaggerations, and misinformation. Studies consistently show that both entertainment and news media provide overwhelmingly dramatic and distorted images of mental illness that emphasize dangerousness, criminality and unpredictability. According to previous research, newspapers might even contribute to mental illness stigma through negative news content. For example, insufficient stories on recovery may promote the belief that mental illness cannot be treated effectively. Also, news media can contribute to the maintaining of mental illness stigma by negative portrayals of individuals with these illnesses, making them vulnerable to social rejection and discrimination. Research on journalistic coverage of mental illness has also problematized the tendency to use incorrect or inappropriate language, thus devaluing the degree of scientific accuracy (for example, the incorrect or careless use of psychiatric terms). There is also a significant tendency to overestimate the explanatory value of genetics regarding the causes of mental illnesses and methods of treatment. There is a need for more research on how news about mental illness is produced, for example, what resources reporters use in covering stories and how reporters select, frame, and develop stories. Further, little information exists on how journalists overcome barriers to quality health reporting, for example, lack of time, lack of space, and commercialism. This paper analyzes journalistic views and perspectives regarding mental illness and the news media coverage of issues regarding mental illness. In particular, challenges in reporting scientific issues such as causes of mental disorders and their treatments will be focused. This study is based on qualitative semi-structured interviews with 8 journalists from Swedish metropolitan newspapers. The interview protocol served the function of “wide” questions for the purposes of allowing respondents to generate their own key terms. The journalists were chosen based on a newspaper article database search (focusing mental health issues), and the most frequent journalists in the article sample were contacted by email. The interviews were conducted by phone between February and March 2016 and were audio recorded. The journalists interviewed were initially asked to reflect upon different issues regarding mental illness; possible causes, different diagnosis, chances of recovery etc. Thereafter the interview focused the journalists view on media coverage of mental illness with special focus on news media, eg perspectives/bias in the journalistic representations, absent theories/approaches, choice of sources, strategies for research, journalistic work routines and procedures, most difficult challenges and journalistic responsibilities. Finally, they were asked to reflect upon possible changes in public attitudes and opinions regarding mental illness over the last few decades and the potential role of the news media in such a development.

  • 11.
    Hansson, Lars
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Svensson, Bengt
    Lunds Universitet.
    Mental health professionals’ attitudes towards people with mental illness: Do they differ from attitudes held by people with mental illness?2011In: International Journal of Social Psychiatry, ISSN 0020-7640, E-ISSN 1741-2854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: Studies investigating mental health professionals' attitudes towards people with mental illness are scarce and there is a lack of comparative studies including both patients' and mental health professionals' attitudes. The aim of the present study was to investigate mental health staff's attitudes towards people with mental illness and compare these with the attitudes of patients in contact with mental health services. A further aim was to relate staff attitudes to demographic and work characteristics.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed including 140 staff and 141 patients. The study included a random sample of outpatients in contact with mental health services in the southern part of Sweden and staff working in these services. Attitudes were investigated using a questionnaire covering beliefs of devaluation and discrimination of people with a mental illness.

    RESULTS: Negative attitudes were prevalent among staff. Most negative attitudes concerned whether an employer would accept an application for work, willingness to date a person who had been hospitalized, and hiring a patient to take care of children. Staff treating patients with a psychosis or working in inpatient settings had the most negative attitudes. Patient attitudes were overall similar to staff attitudes and there were significant differences in only three out of 12 dimensions. Patients' most negative attitudes were in the same area as the staff's.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study points to the suggestion that mental health care staff may hold negative attitudes and beliefs about people with mental illness with tentative implications for treatment of the patient and development and implementation of evidence-based services. Since patients and staff in most respects share these beliefs, it is essential to develop interventions that have an impact on both patients and staff, enabling a more recovery-oriented staff-patient relationship.

  • 12.
    Hedelin, Birgitta
    et al.
    Karlstad Universitet.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Hälsobegreppet: synen på hälsa och sjuklighet2014In: Omvårdnadens grunder: perspektiv och förhållningssätt / [ed] Febe Friberg & Joakim Öhlén, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, 2, p. 361-385Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Hedelin, Birgitta
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, Sverige.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Group for Research on health promotion and disease prevention.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Group for Research on health promotion and disease prevention.
    Hälsobegreppet: synen på hälsa och sjuklighet2009In: Omvårdnadens grunder: Perspektiv och förhållningssätt / [ed] Febe Friberg & Joakim Öhlén, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, p. 237-260Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjuksköterskan har en unik och central ställning för att genomföra hälsofrämjande arbete. Forskning visar dock att sjuksköterskor i klinisk verksamhet inte alltid är medvetna om att det övergripande målet med omvårdnaden är att stärka patientens hälsa. Fokus i omvårdnaden ligger i stället till stor del på att medverka i behandling av sjukdom. Förståelsen för hur patienten uppfattar sin situation och förmedlar sina behov för att stärka sin hälsa får ofta en mindre framträdande roll. För att omvårdnaden ska bli mer hälsofrämjande behövs ökad kunskap om vad hälsa och hälsofrämjande insatser innebär för den enskilde individen men också för olika grupper i befolkningen. Forskning om hälsofrämjande omvårdnad fokuserar ofta på att förebygga sjukdom. Därför behövs forskning som syftar till att öka hälsofokus i omvårdnaden, både vad det gäller utveckling av grundläggande perspektiv liksom kliniska strategier och modeller för hälsofrämjande omvårdnad på alla nivåer – på såväl individ-, grupp- som samhällsnivån.

  • 14.
    Holmqvist, Gärd
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lundqvist Persson, Cristina
    Skaraborg Institute for Research and Development, Skövde, Sweden.
    Women’s experiences of change through art therapy2017In: Arts and Health, ISSN 1753-3015, E-ISSN 1753-3023, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 199-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Art therapy is based on the conception that image making in a therapeutic context may facilitate processes of change.

    Methods: A semi-structured interview with focus on the image was conducted with 17 women in order to explore change, after which a qualitative content analysis was performed.

    Results: The women experienced internal change as a sudden, unexpected turning point or as a more gradual process, although some reported no internal change whatsoever. Five themes reflecting the women’s experiences of what was important for internal change emerged: Trust in the therapist, Belief in the method, Creative impulse, Meaning of the image and The art therapy process.

    Conclusions: Art therapy may contribute to change in the sense of moving from an inadequate to a healthier state. Even when art therapy does not lead to internal change it may be supportive and provide short-term help in everyday life.

    © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

  • 15.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Att förebygga kroppslig ohälsa i psykiatrisk hälso- och sjukvård – den specialistutbildade psykiatrisjuksköterskans ansvar2013In: Omvårdnad på avancerad nivå: Kärnkompetenser inom sjuksköterskans specialistområden / [ed] A-K. Edberg, A. Ehrenberg, F. Friberg, L. Wallin, H. Wijk & J. Öhlén, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Attitudes towards health among patients and staff in mental health services: a comparison of ratings of importance of different items of health2010In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 225-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    In mental health services, the concept of health is often perceived, from a biomedical perspective, as the absence of disease, involving several negative consequences together with a lack of systematic health-promoting activities. The subjective experiences of health among patients in mental health services are crucial to reinforce the experience of health throughout different phases of life. Positive dimensions of health include interaction between the individual and the environment, subjective experience of individual power as well as possibilities to influence important aspects of the life situation. The aim of the study was to describe and compare attitudes to health among patients and staff in mental health services in terms of the importance of health as measured by the attitude version of the Health Questionnaire.

    METHODS:

    A cross-sectional study including a randomly selected sample of 141 outpatients in contact with the mental health services and 140 mental health staff was performed.

    RESULTS:

    Patients and staff share most attitudes towards health, which indicates that health is a concept that applies to human beings irrespective of mental disease in the context of mental health services.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The possibility to be able to define, measure, and compare positive dimensions of health may be important in the attempts to divert the focus towards one that promotes health and resources in mental health services and away from one on illness and deficits.

  • 17.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Dimensions of Health among Patients in Mental Health Services2010In: Nordic Conference of Mental Health Nursing, The Role of Nursing in the Process of Recovery: Global Perspectives, Helsinki: Finnish Nurses Association , 2010, p. 47-47Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical studies focusing on the subjective experience of health among patients in contact with the mental health services has been rare and questionnaires used to assess outcome of care are often based on a medical model that emphasizes objectively observed disease-oriented health indicators.

    Method: In studies I and II perceptions of the concept of health among patients and nurses in mental health services were explored and described using a phenomenographic approach. The perceptions and description categories that emerged from these studies were transformed into a number of items forming a questionnaire intended to measure subjectively experienced health among patients in mental health services. In study III, a randomly selected sample was used to test the psychometric properties of the new Health Questionnaire. A factor analysis revealed three factors labelled Autonomy, Social Involvement and Comprehensibility. The purpose of study IV was to examine the construct validity of the Health Questionnaire. The hypothesis was that subjectively experienced health would be positively associated to self-esteem, empowerment and quality of life, and negatively associated to psychiatric symptoms, perceived stigmatization experiences and perceived attitudes of devaluation and discrimination.

    Results: This hypothesis was mainly confirmed insofar that overall health was positively correlated to self-esteem, empowerment and quality of life and negatively correlated to symptoms, attitudes of devaluation and discrimination and rejection experiences. The results of this thesis show that health is more than just absence of disease and support a focus on health promotion interventions in mental health care.

  • 18.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Dimensions of Health among Patients in Mental Health Services2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical studies focusing on the subjective experience of health among patients in contact with the mental health services are rare and most questionnaires are based on a medical model that emphasizes objectively observed disease-oriented health indicators. In studies I and II perceptions of the concept of health among patients and nurses in mental health services were explored and described using a phenomenographic approach. The perceptions and description categories that emerged from these studies were transformed into a number of items forming a questionnaire intended to measure subjectively experienced health among patients in mental health services. In study III, a randomly selected sample was used to test the psychometric properties of the new Health Questionnaire. A factor analysis revealed three factors labelled Autonomy, Social Involvement and Comprehensibility. The purpose of study IV was to examine the construct validity of the Health Questionnaire. The hypothesis was that subjectively experienced health would be positively associated to self-esteem, empowerment and quality of life, and negatively associated to psychiatric symptoms, perceived stigmatization experiences and perceived attitudes of devaluation and discrimination. This hypothesis was mainly confirmed insofar that overall health was positively correlated to self-esteem, empowerment and quality of life and negatively correlated to symptoms, attitudes of devaluation and discrimination and rejection experiences. The results of this thesis show that health is more than just an absence of disease and support a focus on health promotion interventions in mental health care.

  • 19.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hälsa i psykiatrisk omvårdnad: autonomi, gemenskap och meningsfulla handlingar2006In: Psykiatrisk omvårdnad: att stödja hälsofrämjande processer / [ed] Barbro Arvidsson & Ingela Skärsäter, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2006, p. 21-37Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Kartläggning av suicid i Varberg under år 20102011Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Perceptions of the concept of health among nurses working in mental health services: A phenomenographic study2006In: Proceeding of the 4th Nordic Interdisciplinary Conference on Qualitataive Methods in the Service of health / [ed] Lillemor Hallberg, Taylor & Francis Group, 2006, p. 19-19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    A new understanding of the concept of health is needed to meet the goal of mental health nursing, which besides reducing disease is to strengthen the patient’s health.

    Aim

    To describe perceptions of the concept of health among nurses working in mental health services.

    Methods

    The present study had a descriptive qualitative design with a phenomenographic approach. Phenomenography has been developed over the last 25 years based on research findings in the area of learning within higher education, and distinguishes between the actual state of something and how it is perceived. Perceptions often represent something that is implicit, and barely can be verbalized because it has not previously been reflected upon even though it fosters most actions of the individual. Twelve Swedish nurses working in mental health services were interviewed and data were analysed with a phenomenographic approach. The approach was chosen to ascertain the qualitative variations in the participants’ perceptions of the concept of health.

    Results

    The nurses expressed ten perceptions, which constituted three description categories: autonomy, process and participation. The result showed that health explicitly was described as more than absence of disease. Simultaneously perceptions were expressed indicating that health was perceived as absence of disease, which implies that the concept is not sufficiently defined.

    Conclusions

    The result emphasizes the need to clarify the concept of health if it is to be used as a goal in mental health nursing and to integrate a clarified definition of health at all hierarchical levels in mental health services.

  • 22.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Perspectives on health and well-being in human vulnerability2016In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 11, article id 31477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a guest editor of the special edition of the International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being I would like to present seven designated articles. The current thematic cluster represents qualitative research illustrating the challenges in supporting the central aspects of health and wellbeing for individuals in various situations linked to human vulnerability. This theme cluster will provide the reader with a new and greater understanding of the inner meaning of vulnerability and greater insights into how health and well-being, achieved through different forms of support and care, can enhance empowerment in spite of obstacles such as illness, disease, impairment, old or young age, or gender. Different kinds of qualitative methodologies have been used to elucidate the phenomenon of vulnerability. Data collection procedures vary from qualitative interviews and diaries to focus group interviews. Qualitative content analysis, phenomenographical approach, and grounded theory are used to analyse the data in the different studies. The common denominator for the included articles is the commitment of the authors to impart knowledge in terms of greater understanding of the core aspects of health and well-being among humans in different vulnerable situations. © 2016 H. Jormfeldt.

  • 23.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Perspectives on health and well-being in nursing2014In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 23026Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As a Guest Editor of the International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being’s special edition on perspectives on health and well-being in nursing, it is my wish to present four original articles embracing some essential core aspects of nursing science irrespective of their specialization. They represent different aspects of qualitative research that focus on; the challenge of integrating core concepts of health into mental health nursing praxis, the experiences in psychiatric rehabilitation from the perspective of both patients and their relatives, and the nurses’ experiences of giving support to patients during the transition to hospital-bound hemodialysis. The common basis for the articles is the authors’ ambition to generate nursing knowledge in terms of core elements for the provision of health and well-being among individuals with a need for nursing care.

  • 24. Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Psykiatrisjuksköterskan central för hälsofrämjande insatser vid psykiska funktionsnedsättningar2013In: Psyche: Psykiatriska riksföreningen för sjuksköterskors tidskrift, ISSN 0283-3468, no 3, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Psykiatrisjuksköterskor har en viktig uppgift i att samordna förebyggande och hälsofrämjande insatser och underlätta patientens delaktighet och motivation i sitt eget hälsoarbete. Den specialistutbildade sjuksköterskan har de kunskaper som krävs för att stödja och bistå patienter att tillägna sig och behålla en sund livsstil.

  • 25. Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Psykiatrisjuksköterskans specialistkompetens nödvändig för patientsäkerhet, vårdkvalitet och effektivitet i psykiatrisk vård2009In: Psyche, ISSN 0283-3468, no 5, p. 10-12Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Med anledning av Utredningen om trygghet och säkerhet för individen - behörighet för personal i hälso- och sjukvård och socialtjänst ( S 2009:02) samt Högskoleverkets uppdrag från Utbildningsdepartementet att föreslå hur specialistsjuksköterskeexamen bör utformas för att skapa förutsättningar för att utbildningen ska kunna följa kunskapsutvecklingen inom vården samt föreslå hur förändringar av befintliga inriktningar och införande av nya inriktningar bör hanteras (U2009/3072/UH) bjöd Svensk sjuksköterskeförening och Vårdförbundet torsdagen den 22 oktober in representanter från de olika specialistsjuksköterskeföreningarna till en dag med information om dessa båda utredningar och dialog om förväntningar, funderingar och eventuella krav på en framtida specialistkompetens utifrån de olika specialistområdena. 

  • 26. Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Salutogenes i psykiatrisk vård – psykiatrisjuksköterskans utmaning2011In: Psyche, ISSN 0283-3468, no 2, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Supporting positive dimensions of health - the challenge for mental health nurses2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Supporting positive dimensions of health, challenges in mental health care2011In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 7126-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will explore two contrasting paradigms in mental health care and their relationship to evidence-based practice. The biomedical perspective of pathogenesis and the health perspective of salotogenesis are two major diverse views in mental health care. Positive dimensions of health are traditionally viewed as software not suitable for statistical analysis, while absence of symptoms of disease are regarded as measurable and suitable for statistical analysis and appropriate as a foundation of evidence-based practice. If the main goal of mental health care is to enhance subjectively experienced health among patients, it will not be sufficient to evaluate absence of symptoms of disease as a measure of quality of care. The discussion focuses on the paradox of evidence-based absence of illness and disease versus subjectively experienced health and well-being as criterions of quality of care in mental health care.

  • 29.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Traditionellt sjukdomsfokus och nya psykosociala riktlinjer – var finns psykiatrisjuksköterskan?2012In: Psyche : psykiatrisk vårdtidskrift, ISSN 0283-3468, no 1, p. 18-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Arvidsson, Barbro
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Svensson, Bengt
    Lunds universitet.
    Hansson, Lars
    Lunds Universitet.
    Construct validity of a health questionnaire intended to measure the subjective experience of health among patients in mental health services2008In: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1351-0126, E-ISSN 1365-2850, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 238-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental health services have been lacking systematic health-promoting activities, and health is often perceived as the absence of disease from a biomedical perspective. It is vital to develop methods to assess perceived health among patients in a broader perspective. The aim of the study was to investigate construct validity of a newly developed health questionnaire intended to measure subjectively experienced health among patients in mental health services. A cross-sectional study, including a randomly selected sample of 139 outpatients in contact with the mental health services, was performed in order to explore the relationship between perceived health and self-reported levels of self-esteem, symptoms, empowerment, quality of life and experiences of stigmatization. Self-esteem, symptoms, empowerment and quality of life altogether accounted for 70% of the variation in overall perceived health. Overall perceived health showed positive associations to self-esteem, empowerment and quality of life and negative associations to psychiatric symptoms, discrimination and rejection experiences. The findings suggest that perceived health as measured by the health questionnaire can be a meaningful and valid construct that may be useful for measuring health in clinical mental healthcare practice and in mental health services research.

  • 31.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Brunt, David
    Linnaeus University, School of Health and Caring Sciences, Växjö, Sweden.
    Rask, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, School of Health and Caring Sciences, Växjö, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Agneta
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Staffs’ experiences of a person-centered health education group intervention for people with a persistent mental illness2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patient education in mental health care is a conventional intervention to increase patients' knowledge about their illness and treatment. A provider-centered focus in patient education may put patients in a passive role, which can counteract their processes of recovery. There is an increasing emphasis on recovery-oriented practice, an approach that is aligned with the service user perspective, but little is known about health care staff's perspectives on person-centered mental health care. A qualitative approach was used to describe staff's experiences of being group leaders in a person-centered health education intervention in municipal services for persons with a persistent mental illness. The analysis of staff experiences revealed three core categories: (1) implications of the division of responsibility among local authorities, (2) awareness of facilitating factors of growth, and (3) the meaning of dialogue. These formed the theme Preconditions for Person-Centered Care. Further research is required to explore larger economic, political, and social structures as backdrops to person-centered mental health care, from the perspective of service users, families, health professionals, and the community at large. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

  • 32.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Brunt, David
    Linnaeus University, School of Health and Caring Sciences, Växjö, Sweden .
    Rask, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, School of Health and Caring Sciences, Växjö, Sweden .
    Bengtsson, Agneta
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Staffs’ experiences of a person-centered health education group intervention for people with a persistent mental illness.2013In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 34, no 7, p. 488-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patient education in mental health care is a conventional intervention to increase patients' knowledge about their illness and treatment. A provider-centered focus in patient education may put patients in a passive role, which can counteract their processes of recovery. There is an increasing emphasis on recovery-oriented practice, an approach that is aligned with the service user perspective, but little is known about health care staff's perspectives on person-centered mental health care. A qualitative approach was used to describe staff's experiences of being group leaders in a person-centered health education intervention in municipal services for persons with a persistent mental illness. The analysis of staff experiences revealed three core categories: (1) implications of the division of responsibility among local authorities, (2) awareness of facilitating factors of growth, and (3) the meaning of dialogue. These formed the theme Preconditions for Person-Centered Care. Further research is required to explore larger economic, political, and social structures as backdrops to person-centered mental health care, from the perspective of service users, families, health professionals, and the community at large. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

  • 33.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Hallén, Malin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), The Wigforss Group.
    Experiences of housing support in everyday life for persons with schizophrenia and the role of the media from a societal perspective2016In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 11, article id 30571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The mental health-care system in Sweden, as in many other counties, has its main focus on the reduction of psychiatric symptoms and the prevention of relapses. People diagnosed with schizophrenia often have significant health issues and experience reduced well-being in everyday life. The social imaginary of mental illness as an imbalance of the brain has implications concerning general attitudes in society. The news media are an important source of information on psychiatric disorders and have an important role in cultivating public perceptions and stigma. News media can contribute to the mental illness stigma and place individuals with mental illnesses at risk of not receiving adequate care and support.

    The aim of this preliminary study was to describe users’ experiences of housing support in everyday life.

    Results: The results revealed three themes of housing support, which were needed, but frequently insufficiently fulfilled in the municipality. The three themes were: ‘‘Support to Practice Healthy Routines in Daily Life,’’ ‘‘Support to Shape Meaningful Contents in Everyday Life,’’ and ‘‘Support to Meet Needs of Integrity and Respect.’’

    Conclusions: The findings support previous studies arguing that current health care and housing support fails to meet basic needs and may lead to significant and unnecessary health risks. Further investigation is needed regarding the links between attitudes to mental illness in society and political and financial principles for health care and housing support for persons with schizophrenia. Further research is needed regarding the role of the media in policymaking concerning health promotion interventions for people diagnosed with schizophrenia. © 2016 H. Jormfeldt & M. Hallén.

  • 34.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Hansson, Lars
    Institutionen för hälsa, vård och samhälle, Lunds universitet, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bengt
    Institutionen för hälsa, vård och samhälle, Lunds universitet, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Differences in self-reported importance of elements of health and subjectively experienced health among outpatients in community mental health services2011In: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, ISSN 0883-9417, E-ISSN 1532-8228, Vol. 25, no 5, p. e19-e26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Positive dimensions of mental health are strong protective factors against physical and mental illness in general population. A cross-sectional study including a randomly selected sample of 141 outpatients was performed to explore differences in patients' self-reported importance of elements of health and subjective experiences of health related to sociodemographic background variables. The examination of differences in self-reported importance of elements of health showed differences regarding gender, and the analyses of subjectively experienced health showed differences regarding age and diagnosis. Clinical interventions aiming at strengthening positive dimensions of health are required in community mental health services to meet the patients' individual needs of enhanced health.

  • 35.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Rask, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Brunt, David
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Agneta
    Psychiatry in Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Experiences of a person-centred health education group intervention - A qualitative study among people with a persistent mental illness2012In: Programme and Abstract Book, Horation: 2nd European Festival of Psychiatric Nursing - in Stockholm 2012 / [ed] Patrik Dahlqvist Jönsson, Psykiatriska Riksföreningen för Sjuksköterskor , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Psychoeducation is an established intervention to increase patients’ knowledge about their illness and treatment in mental health services. Psychoeducational programmes generally have a providercentered focus and the content is usually based on professionals’ perceptions of what knowledge is best suited for the patients. A person-centered health education intervention focuses on personal development and positive dimensions of the individuals’ subjectively experienced health. Furthermore, no study has to our knowledge highlighted the patients’ experiences of person-centered health education in mental health services.

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe participants’ experiences of a person-centered health education intervention in community mental health care for persons with a persistent mental illness.

    The intervention: The project was carried out in cooperation between the municipal services for persons with psychiatric disabilities and the outpatient specialist psychiatric services in the county. During the autumn of 2008 and the spring of 2009 two person-centered health education groups met on six occasions each term. The content of the sessions were determined by the participants in collaboration with the group leaders and were based on the participants’ preferences containing both theoretical information and practical activities.

    Methods: A qualitative approach was used and the sample consisted of 13 persons who had participated in the group intervention. Data were collected by focus group interviews, which consist of small groups of people who talk about a certain topic lead by a moderator. The data was analyzed with a qualitative content analysis method.

    Results: The findings that emerged from the data could be summarized in the theme “Health processes” consisting of three categories: The first category “Stimulating contents” contained two subcategories, experiencing something more than the average and experiencing variation. Then the category “Towards personal growth” included three subcategories; experiencing the possibility to grow, experiencing courage to do something new and experiencing freedom. Finally the category “Group context with equality” comprised three subcategories; experiencing support, experiencing that you are accepted as you are as well as experiencing that the group is important and to feel important.

    Conclusion: The medical perspective of what causes and cures disease in services for persons with a persistent mental illness could be enriched with an enlarged focus on positive dimensions of health and interventions that aim to promote them. Further research about person-centred interventions should increase to meet the needs of persons with persistent mental illness.

  • 36.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Rask, Mikael
    School of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Brunt, David
    School of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Agneta
    Psychiatry in Halland, Varberg, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Experiences of a Person-Centred Health Education Group Intervention–A Qualitative Study Among People with a Persistent Mental Illness2012In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 209-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main focus of psychoeducative interventions for people with persistent mental illnesses has been on providing information about symptoms of disease and its treatment. Supporting group contexts have been described as essential for the achievement of personal goals. A qualitative approach was used to describe participants’ experiences of a person-centered health education intervention in community mental health care. Participants expressed experiences of health processes in terms of stimulating content, development towards personal growth and group context with equality, when participating in the intervention. The findings support further investigation of health promotion approaches emphasizing individual preferences throughout the process of psychoeducation.

  • 37.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hopp: En förutsättning för återhämtning2006In: Psykiatrisk omvårdnad: att stödja hälsofrämjande processer / [ed] Barbro Arvidsson & Ingela Skärsäter, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2006, p. 169-182Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Hälsa och hälsofrämjande arbete i psykiatrisk omvårdnad2014In: Vårdande vid psykisk ohälsa: på avancerad nivå / [ed] Lena Wiklund Gustin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, 2, p. 77-97Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Perspektiv på hälsa och ohälsa i psykiatrisk omvårdnad2010In: Vårdande vid psykisk ohälsa: på avancerad nivå / [ed] Wiklund Gustin, Lena, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, p. 63-85Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Arvidsson, Barbro
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Nurses' conceptions of how health processes are promoted in mental health nursing2003In: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1351-0126, E-ISSN 1365-2850, E-ISSN 1365-2850, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 608-615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The health and well-being of the individual is a central goal in nursing, and health promotion seeks to enable people to increase control over and improve their health. In mental health care, health is often described in negative terms such as the absence of mental illness, which may create hopelessness and constitute a barrier to a policy of health promotion. The aim of this study was to describe nurses' conceptions of how health processes are promoted in mental health nursing. Twelve nurses working in mental health care were interviewed and the data were analysed using a phenomeographic approach. The nurses expressed 11 different conceptions of the phenomenon, which were summarized into three descriptive categories: presence, balance of power, and focus on health. The findings show that the nurses expressed ambiguous attitudes towards meeting the patient in mental health care. It is suggested that the goal of nursing care should be clarified for nurses in practice, otherwise they may adopt the perspectives of other mental health professionals.

  • 41.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Arvidsson, Barbro
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Perceptions of the concept of health among nurses working in mental health services: a phenomenographic study2007In: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1445-8330, E-ISSN 1447-0349, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 50-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new understanding of the concept of health is needed to meet the goal of mental health nursing, which besides reducing disease is to strengthen the patient's health. The aim of the present study was to describe perceptions of the concept of health among nurses working in mental health services. Twelve Swedish nurses working in mental health services were interviewed and data were analysed with a phenomenographic approach. The nurses expressed 10 perceptions, which constituted three description categories: autonomy, process, and participation. The result showed that health was more than absence of disease. Simultaneously, perceptions were expressed indicating that health was viewed as absence of disease, which implies that the concept is not sufficiently defined. The result emphasizes the need to clarify the concept of health if it is to be used as a goal in mental health nursing and to integrate a clarified definition of health at all hierarchical levels in mental health care services.

  • 42.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    et al.
    Centrum för evidensbaserade psykosociala insatser för personer med psykiska funktionshinder (CEPI), Lund, Lunds universitet, Sverige.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Centrum för evidensbaserade psykosociala insatser för personer med psykiska funktionshinder (CEPI), Lund, Lunds universitet, Sverige.
    Hansson, Lars
    Centrum för evidensbaserade psykosociala insatser för personer med psykiska funktionshinder (CEPI), Lund, Lunds universitet, Sverige.
    Svensson, Bengt
    Centrum för evidensbaserade psykosociala insatser för personer med psykiska funktionshinder (CEPI), Lund, Lunds universitet, Sverige.
    Utvärdering av rehabiliteringsprojektet. Rapport del 2: Programtrohet och erfarenheter av implementering i psykiatrin i Halland2011Report (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Svensson, Bengt
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Lars
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    The Boston Psychiatric rehabilitation approach – evaluation of an implementation project in Sweden2012In: Programme and Abstract Book, Horatio: 2nd European Festival of Psychiatric Nursing – in Stockholm 2012 / [ed] Patrik Dahlqvist Jönsson, Göteborg: Psykiatriska Riksföreningen för Sjuksköterskor , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite the potential impact of psychiatric rehabilitation on wellbeing and health, there is a lack of research regarding the model called Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach from Boston University. To our knowledge no empirical studies have been made regarding the model in Sweden.

    Aim: The aims of the present study were to investigate outcome of the intervention regarding changes in life situation, use of health care services, quality of life, health, psychosocial functioning and empowerment. Further aims were to investigate to what extent the personal rehabilitation goals were attained and clients’ experiences of the intervention.

    The intervention: Seven mental health services who worked according to the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach in the county of Halland in Sweden were included. The purpose of the intervention was to support and guide the patient to formulate and achieve his/her own goals for various life areas such as work/occupation, housing, education and leisure time. All staff working in the chosen services had completed education in the methodology and supervised training in providing the different phases of the rehabilitation process.

    Methods: The study had a prospective longitudinal design and the data collection at baseline started in August 2007 and a 2-year follow-up data collection ended in December 2010. In total 71 patients completed the assessment at baseline and of these 49 completed the 2-year follow-up data collection. Of these 49 clients, a sample of 10 clients was participated in interviews. Statistical analysis and qualitative content analysis were used.

    Results: The result showed a clear indication that Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach lead to a better life situation with respect to quality of life, health, empowerment and psychosocial functioning as well decreased utilization of psychiatric care. Thirty-two of the clients (65%) considered that they largely or almost completely had achieved their goals. Clients’ experiences of the intervention was summarized in the theme “Recovery ingredients” consisting of three interweaved categories: “Relationship”, “Structure” and “Participation”.

    Conclusion: The clients’ subjective experience of quality of the relationship to the staff do not seem to relate to goal attainment regarding exterior life situation concerning housing situation, work situation, education, leisure time and social relationships but rather between the clients’ goal attainment and other positive results of the rehabilitation as clients’ perceived.

  • 44.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bengt
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Arvidsson, Barbro
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Hansson, Lars
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Dimensions and reliability of a questionnaire for the evaluation of subjective experiences of health among patients in mental health services2008In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 51-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though the concept of health and its importance has been widely discussed in health care during recent decades, mental health services have been criticised for adopting a biomedical perspective, which does not sufficiently consider the concept of health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Health Questionnaire, a newly developed questionnaire to measure patients' subjective experience of health in mental health services. A cross sectional study was performed using a sample of 139 outpatients in mental health services. A principal component analysis with varimax rotation was used to test the factor structure of the questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha was employed to test internal consistency and Cohen's Kappa assessed test-retest reliability. The final scale, which contained 22 items, derived from three factors (autonomy, social involvement, and comprehensibility) and showed a good reliability in terms of internal consistency. Test-retest reliability was moderate or better for 17 out of 22 items. The Health Questionnaire may enable further empirical studies on subjectively experienced health in mental health services and serve as a measure of outcome and to monitor quality of care.

  • 45.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Svensson, Bengt
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Lars
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Clients’ experiences of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach: A qualitative study2014In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 22916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach (PR) has been described as neither being a particular technique nor a single intervention but a service model within the mental health system aiming to promote recovery and the achievement of a meaningful life, rather than simply supporting adaptation or survival in the community. A qualitative approach was used to describe clients’ experiences of a BR implementation project in a county in Sweden. The findings from the interviews could be summarized in the theme “The process of rehabilitation” consisting of three categories: Structure, Participation and Relationship. The results suggest that clients do not often realize nor are able to verbalize their goals before they have been given the possibility to reflect their thoughts in collaboration with a trusted person. It is thus important that PR schedules its special structure to secure client participation by giving the clients opportunity to get their thoughts reflected to be able to participate in decision making regarding their own care. © 2014 H. Jormfeldt et al.

  • 46.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), The Wigforss Group.
    Svensson, Bengt
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Lars
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Relatives’ experiences of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach: A qualitative study2014In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 22918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation approach (BPR) is individualized and characterized by being based entirely on the individual´s unique needs and preferences in the areas of working, learning, social contacts, and living environment. Relatives of clients in mental health services influence the client’s possibilities to recovery by their everyday relationship. Nonetheless traditionally relatives have had a subordinated role in the care of their mentally ill family member. The perspective of relatives is an importance aspect in the development of new approaches to psychiatric rehabilitation. Thus the purpose of the present study was to describe and explore relatives’ experiences of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach. Ten relatives to clients in mental health services approached with the BPR were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed with a qualitative content analysis method to explore relatives’ experiences of the BPR intervention in a county of Sweden. The findings from the interviews could be summarized in the theme “To meet the clients’ needs” consisting of three categories: “Dependence in staffs’ competence”, “Responsibility of participation and self-determination” and “The necessity of coordination between authorities and care-givers”.  The findings suggest that relatives may contribute with important information about clients’ needs related to outcome of care. Relatives’ perspectives may be of importance in further development of BPR. Further research about relatives’ role in psychiatric rehabilitation is needed as well as studies comparing different kinds of psychiatric rehabilitation from the perspective of relatives.

  • 47.
    Keogh, Brian
    et al.
    Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Doyle, Louise
    Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Ellilä, Heikki
    University of Applied Science, Turku, Finland.
    Higgins, Agnes
    Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Lahti, Mari
    University of Applied Science, Turku, Finland.
    Meade, Oonagh
    University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Sitvast, Jan
    University of Applied Sciences, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Skärsäter, Ingela
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Stickley, Theodor
    University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Kilkku, Nina
    University of Applied Sciences, Tampere, Finland.
    Developing e-learning materials in mental health: the eMenthe Project2017In: Mental Health Practice, ISSN 1465-8720, E-ISSN 2047-895X, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 36-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes a European collaborative project that developed master’s degree level e-learning materials for mental health nurses. The e-learning materials are freely available online at www.ementhe.eu

  • 48.
    Keogh, Brian
    et al.
    Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.
    Doyle, Louise
    Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.
    Higgins, Agnes
    Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.
    Killku, Nina
    Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Ellilä, Heikki
    Turku University, Turku, Finland.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Kalevo, Camilla
    Läksy, Marja-Liisa
    Sitvast, Jan
    University of Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Skärsäter, Ingela
    Stickley, Theodore
    University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Vuokila-Oikkonen, Päivi
    Diaconia University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Developing Master’s level eLearning material in mental health – Phase one, consulting with key stakeholders2014In: Book of Abstracts, 2014, p. 116-116Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The need to develop education programmes for mental health nurses that are responsive to the needs of key stakeholders is essential to ensuring that mental health nursing practices remain contemporary and consistent with national and international mental health policy. To this end, a group of mental health nursing faculty from seven European countries came together to develop transferable eLearning materials for Masters Levels mental health nursing students focusing on a three of key areas; 1)recovery and social inclusion, 2) mental health promotion and prevention and 3) working with families and caregivers. This poster provides details of how the European partners will conduct the first phase of the project which is consultation with the key stakeholders (MSc Students, senior and expert mental health nurses, family and carer organisations and mental health service users).

    Aim and objectives: The aim of this project is to develop e-learning materials for Masters level mental health nursing education programmes based on the identified needs of key stakeholders.

    Methods: This research follows an action research design and this first phase will involve consultation with key stake holders using a qualitative approach. Data will be collected in three phases: 1. One focus group will be conducted with current MSc in Mental Health Nursing Students. 2. The participants (MSc Students) involved in phase one will be required to return to their areas of practice and gather information from 2 senior and expert mental health nurses using a prepared data collection template. 3. The researchers will collect data from the family carer organisations and mental health service users using telephone interviews using a prepared data collection template. This process will be repeated in all the European universities involved and will form the basis for the eLearning content.

    Analysis and Results: Data collection is due to start in December 2013.

    Recommendations: This collaborative approach to postgraduate mental health nursing education will ensure that a consistent, contemporary and needs driven eLearning package will be developed. 

  • 49.
    Keogh, Brian
    et al.
    Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Skärsäter, Ingela
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Doyle, Louise
    Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Ellilä, Heikki
    University of Applied Science Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Lahti, Mari
    University of Applied Science Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Higgins, Agnes
    Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Meade, Oonagh
    University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Sitvast, Jan
    University of Applied Sciences HU, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Stickley, Theodor
    Tampere University of Applied Sciences, Tampere, Finland.
    Kilkku, Nina
    Tampere University of Applied Sciences, Tampere, Finland.
    Working with Families Affected by Mental Distress: Stakeholders' Perceptions of Mental Health Nurses Educational Needs2017In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 38, no 10, p. 822-828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Family and informal caregivers provide a substantial amount of care and support to people who experience mental health problems. The aim of this study was to explore mental health nurses', students' and service users' perceptions of the knowledge, skills and attitudes that are required by mental health nurses to work with families and carers using a qualitative methodology. Three themes emerged from the data: Knowledge of the family and how mental distress affects the family; working with the family - support and education; and valuing the role of the family. The three themes demonstrate the complexity of preparing mental health nurses to work with families and carers, and the article offers recommendations about how this might be achieved. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  • 50.
    Kilkku, Nina
    et al.
    Tampere University of Applied Sciences, Tampere, Finland.
    Callaghan, Patrick
    University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Van Dommelen, Riet
    Utrecht University of Applied Sciences, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Doyle, Louise
    Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.
    Ellilä, Heikki
    Turku University of Applied Sciences, Turku, Finland.
    Higgins, Agnes
    Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Henrika.Jormfeldt@hh.se.
    Keogh, Brian
    Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.
    Van De Sande, Roland
    , Utrecht University of Applied Sciences, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Skärsäter, Ingela
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Stickley, Theodore
    Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.
    Vuokila-Oikkonen, Päivi
    Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Helsinki, Finland.
    eMenthe: a European co-operation project to enhance Master’s level education in mental health practice with eLearning materials2013In: Horatio, European Psychiatric Nursing Congress 2013: Abstract book / [ed] Neslihan Keser Özcan & Hülya Bilgin, 2013, p. 152-152Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are wide differences in the quality and content of mental health nurse education throughout Europe. These are evident in the course structures, emphasis and specific content. This diversity between programmes creates possibilities for countries to learn from one another and to share and benefit from the diverse approaches. As the concerns and development needs regarding mental health practices are shared, it is wise to identify best practices and to share these for mutual benefit to ensure the highest quality education and practice. To this end, seven European universities from Finland, Ireland, Sweden, United Kingdom and the Netherlands have commenced a collaboration to enhance  Master’s level education in mental health practice. The project’s aim is to develop eLearning materials with an action research approach in collaboration with Master’s level students from these universities and associated partners from clinical practice. eLearning materials on three central themes: recovery, mental health promotion and prevention, the role of families and caregivers will be launched for students in Master’s level and clinical practice to use.  International co-operation is seen as a quality assurance process; each of the partners are highly esteemed universities with extensive experience in mental health education, research and strong links with practice. With this kind of co-operation it is possible to enhance the quality of Master’s level education in Europe in the future. Funding for the project has been applied for from the Erasmus LLP-programme. At the time of the conference the project will have commenced if the funding decision is positive.

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