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  • 1.
    Agelis, Sacki
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Jacobsson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Alping, Arne
    Ericsson Microwave Systems, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Ligander, Per
    Ericsson Microwave Systems, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Modular interconnection system for optical PCB and backplane communication2002In: Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium., Proceedings International, IPDPS 2002, Abstracts and CD-ROM, Los Alamitos, Calif.: IEEE Press, 2002, p. 245-250Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a way of building modular systems with a powerful optical interconnection network. Each module, placed on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB), has a generic optical communication interface with a simple electronic router. Together with optical switching using micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) technology, packet switching over reconfigurable topologies is possible. The interconnection system gives the possibility to integrate electronics with optics without changing existing PCB technology. Great interest from industry is therefore expected and the cost advantages are several: reuse of module designs, module upgrades without changing the PCB, low-cost conventional PCB technology, etc. In the version described in this paper, the interconnection system has 48 bidirectional optical channels for intra-PCB communication on each board. For inter-PCB communication, a backplane with 192 bidirectional optical channels supports communication between twelve PCBs. With 2.5 Gbit/s per optical channel in each direction, the aggregated intra-PCB bit rate is 120 Gbit/s full duplex (on each PCB) while the aggregated inter-PCB bit rate is 480 Gbit/s full duplex. A case study shows the feasibility of the interconnection system in a parallel processing system for radar signal processing.

  • 2.
    Agelis, Sacki
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Optoelectronic router with a reconfigurable shuffle network based on micro-optoelectromechanical systems2004In: Journal of Optical Networking, ISSN 1536-5379, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An optoelectronic router with a shuffle exchange network is presented and enhanced by the addition of micro-optoelectromechanical systems (MOEMS) in the network to add the ability to reconfigure the shuffle network. The MOEMS described here are fully connected any-to-any crossbar switches. The added reconfigurability provides the opportunity to adapt the system to different common application characteristics. Two representative application models are described: The first has symmetric properties, and the second has asymmetric properties. The router system is simulated with the specified applications and an analysis of the results is carried out. By use of MOEMS in the optical network, and thus reconfigurability, greater than 50% increased throughput performance and decreased average packet delay are obtained for the given application. Network congestion is avoided throughout the system if reconfigurability is used.

  • 3.
    Agelis, Sacki
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Optoelectronic router with MOEMS–based reconfigurable shuffle network2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Agelis, Sacki
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Reconfigurable optical interconnection system supporting concurrent application-specific parallel computing2005In: 17th Symposium on Computer Architecture and High Performance Computing: SBAC-PAD 2005 : proceedings : 24-27 October, 2005, Rio de Janeiro, PR, Brazil / [ed] Claudio L. Amorim, Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society, 2005, p. 44-51Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Application specific architectures are highly desirable in embedded parallel computing systems at the same time as designers strive for using one embedded parallel computing platform for several applications. If this can be achieved, the cost can be decreased in comparison to using several different embedded parallel computing systems. This paper presents a novel approach of running several high-performance applications concurrently on one single parallel computing system. By using a reconfigurable backplane interconnection system, the applications can be run efficiently with high network flexibility since the interconnect network can be adapted to fit the application that is being processed for the moment. More precisely, this paper investigates how the space time adaptive processing (STAP) radar algorithm and the stripmap synthetic aperture radar (SAR) algorithm can be mapped on a multi-cluster processing system with a reconfigurable optical interconnection system realized by a micro-optical-electrical mechanical system (MOEMS) crossbars. The paper describes the reconfigurable platform, the two algorithms and how they individually can be mapped on the targeted multiprocessor system. It is also described how these two applications can be mapped simultaneously on the optical reconfigurable platform. Implications and requirements on communication bandwidth and processor performance in different critical points of the two applications are presented. The results of the analysis show that an implementation is feasible with today's MOEMS technology, and that the two applications can be successfully run in a time-sharing scheme, both at the processing side and at the access for interconnection bandwidth.

  • 5.
    Agelis, Sacki
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    System-Level Runtime Reconfigurablity - Optical Interconnection Networks for Switching Applications2004In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering of Reconfigurable Systems and Algorithms, ERSA'04 / [ed] Toomas P Plaks & M Gokhale, Athens, USA: CSREA Press, 2004, p. 155-162Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance requirements on data and telecommunication switches and routers are continuously increasing and it is evident that new ideas and architectures must come to light to satisfy these new demands. In this paper, a runtime reconfigurable modular design approach is presented, using state-of-the-art microoptical-electrical mechanical system (MOEMS) components. The paper introduces a novel field of reconfigurability, where reconfiguration is made on the system level instead of, e.g. fine-granularity reconfigurable logic. Different reconfigurable system solutions with support to adapt for asymmetric traffic patterns are proposed and compared to see how design choices affect flexibility, performance etc. The proposed solutions are characterized by their multistage networks with reconfigurable shuffle patterns.

  • 6.
    Agelis, Sacki
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Visualizing the Potential of Reconfigurable Shuffle-Patterns in Optoelectronic Routers by the Use of MOEMS2004In: Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference Communication Systems and Networks / [ed] Salvador C.E.P., Calgary, Canada: ACTA Press, 2004, p. 148-154Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A reconfigurable high performance multistage router architecture is presented and simulated. The router backbone network is an optical shuffle exchange network that has the power of reconfigurability through the use of micro-optical-electrical mechanical systems (MOEMS). The router is subjected to different application classes. The application classes have different characteristics in terms of symmetric/asymmetric traffic properties. We compare our reconfigurable shuffle-pattern for all three application classes for the specified router architecture.

  • 7.
    Bellalta, Boris
    et al.
    Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Belyaev, Evgeny
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Performance evaluation of IEEE 802.11p-enabled vehicular video surveillance system2014In: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 708-711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prospective IEEE 802.11p-based vehicular surveillance system, where video from the vehicle on-board camera is transmitted to the management center, is considered. Multi-hop transmission from the vehicle to the nearest roadside unit and then-via other roadside units-to the gateway is addressed. In this letter we assess the feasibility of such system by analyzing the video end-to-end distortion for a target vehicle, located several hops away from the gateway, when it is alone or there are also other vehicles transmitting video. We demonstrate the importance of dynamic adaptation of the video bit rate of each vehicle depending on the number and positions of the participating vehicles. © 2014 IEEE.

  • 8.
    Bellalta, Boris
    et al.
    Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Vinel, AlexeyDepartment of Communications Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Finland.Jonsson, MagnusHalmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).Barcelo, JaumeUniversitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.Maslennikov, RomanUniversity of Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.Chatzimisios, PeriklisAlexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki Sindos, Greece.Malone, DavidNational University of Ireland, Maynooth, Ireland.
    Multiple Access Communications: 5th International Workshop, MACOM 2012, Maynooth, Ireland, November 19-20, 2012. Proceedings2012Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proceedings contain 18 papers. The topics discussed include: network coding as a WiMAX link reliability mechanism; initialization procedure of wireless network coding with hierarchical decode and forward strategy in random connectivity networks; a coded DHA FH OFDMA system with a noncoherent ML detector under multitone jamming; analysis of inter-RSU beaconing interference in VANETs; survey of energy efficient tracking and localization techniques in buildings using optical and wireless communication media; network coding as a WiMAX link reliability mechanism: an experimental demonstration; spectrum sensing with USRP-E110; power control for wireless networks with a limited number of channels; a measurement study for predicting throughput from LQI and RSSI; reality considerations when designing a TDMA-FDMA based link-layer for real-time WSN; and wireless groupcast routing with palette of transmission methods.

  • 9.
    Belyaev, Evgeny
    et al.
    Tampere University of Technology, Tempere, Finland.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Sjöberg, Katrin
    Volvo GTT, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Live video streaming in IEEE 802.11p vehicular networks: Demonstration of an automotive surveillance application2014In: Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), 2014 IEEE Conference on, Piscataway, United States: IEEE Press, 2014, p. 131-132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prospective IEEE 802.11p-enabled automotive video applications are identified. Preliminary experimental results of inter-vehicular live video streaming for surveillance applications are presented. A test-bed for the demonstration of the achievable visual quality under different channel conditions is described.

  • 10.
    Belyaev, Evgeny
    et al.
    Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Surak, Adam
    Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Gabbouj, Moncef
    Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Egiazarian, Karen
    Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Robust vehicle-to-infrastructure video transmission for road surveillance applications2015In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 64, no 7, p. 2991-3003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IEEE 802.11p vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication technology is currently an emerging research topic in both industry and academia. Respective spectrum allocation of 10 MHz channels in the 5.9 GHz band for USA and Europe allows considering inter-vehicle transmission of a live video information as a basis, which enables a new class of safety and infotainment automotive applications such as road video surveillance. This paper is first of its kind where such a video transmission system is developed and experimentally validated. We propose a low-complexity unequal packet loss protection and rate control algorithms for a scalable video coding based on the three-dimensional discrete wavelet transform. We show that in comparison with a scalable extension of the H.264/AVC standard the new codec is less sensitive to packet losses, has less computational complexity and provides comparable performance in case of unequal packet loss protection. It is specially designed to cope with severe channel fading typical for dynamic vehicular environments and has a low complexity, making it a feasible solution for real-time automotive surveillance applications. Extensive measurements obtained in realistic city traffic scenarios demonstrate that good visual quality and continuous playback is possible when the moving vehicle is in the radius of 600 meters from the roadside unit. ©2014 IEEE

  • 11.
    Berbineau, Marion
    et al.
    IFSTTAR, Villeneuve d’Ascq, France.
    Jonsson, MagnusHalmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).Bonnin, Jean-MarieTelecom Bretagne, Cesson Sévigné, France.Cherkaoui, SoumayaUniversité de Sherbrooke, Canada.Aguado, MarinaUniversity of the Basque Country, Bilbao, Spain.Rico Garcia, CristinaDLR, German Aerospace Center, Oberpfaffenhofen-Wessling, Germany.Ghannoum, HassanSNCF, Paris, France.Mehmood, RashidUniversity of Huddersfield, UK.Vinel, AlexeyTampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Communication Technologies for Vehicles: 5th International Workshop, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains 2013, Villeneuve d' Ascq, France, May 14-15, 2013, Proceedings2013Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 12. Bergenhem, Carl
    et al.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    A pipelined fiber-ribbon ring network with heterogeneous real-time support2006In: ARTES - A network for Real-Time research and graduate Education in Sweden 1997-2006 / [ed] Hansson, H., Uppsala: Uppsala university : Department of Information Technology , 2006, p. 23-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents results of simulations done with the CCR-EDF (Control Channel based Ring network with EDF scheduling) pipelined ring network together with a case study of system area networks for radar signal processing. The topology of the network is a pipelined unidirectional fibre-ribbon ring that supports several simultaneous transmissions in non-overlapping segments. Access to the network is divided into slots. In each slot the node that has the highest priority message is permitted to transmit. This feature of the medium access protocol gives the network the functionality for earliest deadline first scheduling. Different classes of traffic are supported for the user. These are guaranteed logical real-time channels (LRTC), best effort (BE) channels and non real-time (NRT) traffic. The case study used is from an airborne radar signal processing (RSP) application. Results of the simulations indicate that the CCR-EDF network works well with the RSP application studied.

  • 13.
    Bergenhem, Carl
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    A Pipelined Ring Network - Heterogeneous Real-time in Radar Signal Processing2003In: Applied Informatics: AI 2003, ACTA Press , 2003, p. 825-832Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents results of simulations done with the CCR-EDF (Control Channel based Ring network with EDF scheduling) pipelined ring network together with a case study of system area networks for radar signal processing. The topology of the network is a pipelined unidirectional fibre-ribbon ring that supports several simultaneous transmissions in non-overlapping segments. Access to the network is divided into slots. In each slot the node that has the highest priority message is permitted to transmit. This feature of the medium access protocol gives the network the functionality for earliest deadline first scheduling. Different classes of traffic are supported for the user. These are guaranteed logical real-time channels (LRTC), best effort (BE) channels and non real-time (NRT) traffic. The case study used is from an airborne radar signal processing (RSP) application. Results of the simulations indicate that the CCR-EDF network works well with the RSP application studied.

  • 14.
    Bergenhem, Carl
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Analysis problems in a spatial reuse ring network with a simple clocking strategy2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This technical report describes the problems associated with analysis of a spatial reuse ring network with a clock strategy also used in previously studied ring networks. The aim for the analysis was to find the worst case deterministic throughput. Some results are achieved and are presented. A worst case bound is found and this can be used for analysing feasibility of message connection sets. However, the bound is pessimistic and does not utilise the bandwidth reuse features of the network. This result does not meet the expectations that where foreseen because the medium access method inherently supports distributed global deadline scheduling. It is concluded that the current clock strategy of the network is the cause of the problems. It is also concluded that the analysis is complicated by the clocking strategy and that by introducing small changes in the network (will be presented in a separate paper), the analysis of the real-time performance will be much simpler. This will lead to a network with less pessimistic assumptions and hence better support for real-time traffic.

  • 15.
    Bergenhem, Carl
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Fibre-ribbon ring network with inherent support for earliest deadline first message scheduling2002In: Proceedings: International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium : April 15-19, 2002, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA, Los Alamitos, Calif.: IEEE , 2002, p. 157-163, article id 1016235Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a network with earliest deadline first (EDF) scheduling on a per slot basis. The network is called CCR-EDF (Control Channel based Ring network with EDF scheduling). The topology is a pipelined unidirectional fibre-ribbon ring that supports several simultaneous transmissions in non-overlapping segments and with dedicated fibres for clock and arbitration. In each slot the node that has highest priority generates the clock. The clock hand over strategy together with the scheduling feature gives the network the functionality for earliest deadline scheduling of periodic messages belonging to logical real-time connections. Logical realtime connections may be added and removed during runtime, through admission control. Guaranteed realtime communication service is supported to the user. Other services include best effort traffic and special services for parallel and distributed processing such as barrier synchronisation and global reduction.

  • 16.
    Bergenhem, Carl
    et al.
    SP - Technical Research Institute of Sweden Department of Electronics, Borås, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Two Protocols with Heterogeneous Real-Time Services for High-Performance Embedded Networks2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High-performance embedded networks are found in computer systems that perform applications such as radar signal processing and multimedia rendering. The system can be composed of multiple computer nodes that are interconnected with the network. Properties of the network such as latency and speed affect the performance of the entire system. A node´s access to the network is controlled by a medium access protocol. This protocol decides e.g. real-time properties and services that the network will offer its users, i.e. the nodes. Two such network protocols with heterogeneous real-time services are presented. The protocols offer different communication services and services for parallel and distributed real-time processing. The latter services include barrier synchronisation, global reduction and short message service. A network topology of a unidirectional pipelined optical fibre-ribbon ring is assumed for both presented protocols. In such a network several simultaneous transmissions in non-overlapping segments are possible. Both protocols are aimed for applications that require a high-performance embedded network such as radar signal processing and multimedia. In these applications the system can be organised as multiple interconnected computation nodes that co-operate in parallel to achieve higher performance. The computing performance of the whole system is greatly affected by the choice of network. Computing nodes in a system for radar signal processing should be tightly coupled, i.e., communications cost, such as latency, between nodes should be small. This is possible if a suitable network with an efficient protocol is used. The target applications have heterogeneous real-time requirements for communication in that different classes of data-traffic exist. The traffic can be classified according to its requirements. The proposed protocols partition data-traffic into three classes with distinctly different qualities. These classes are: traffic with hard real-time demands, such as mission critical commands; traffic with soft real-time demands, such as application data (a deadline miss here only leads to decreased performance); and traffic with no real-time constraints at all. The protocols are analysed and performance is tested through simulation with different data-traffic patterns.

  • 17.
    Bergenhem, Carl
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Gördén, Bengt
    SUNET/KTH-NOC.
    Åhlander, Anders
    Ericsson Microwave Systems.
    Heterogeneous real-time services in high-performance system area networks - application demands and case study definitions2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To be able to verify the feasibility of high-performance networks, it is essential to evaluate them according to specific application requirements. At the same time, specifications of quite general, or understandable, application requirements are needed for the ability to make repeated analyses on different networks. Especially, heterogeneous real-time requirements must be defined to be able to analyze networks to be used in future applications. In this report, we introduce two application fields where system area networks (SANs) supporting heterogeneous real-time services are highly desirable if not required: radar signal processing and large IP routers. For each application field, a case study with heterogeneous real-time communication requirements is defined. No case studies are presented in this report. Instead, they are defined for later evaluations to determine how suitable networks are for applications with heterogeneous real-time communication requirements.

  • 18.
    Bergenhem, Carl
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Olsson, Jörgen
    VoIvo Technological Development Corporation, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Fibre-ribbon pipeline ring network with distributed global deadline scheduling and deterministic user services2001In: International Conference on Parallel Processing Workshops, 2001, Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society , 2001, p. 311-318, article id 951967Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a novel, fair medium access protocol for a pipelined optical ring network. The protocol provides global deadline scheduling of packets. Requests for sending packets are sent by the nodes in the network to a master node. The master uses the deadline information in the requests to determine which packet is most urgent. Arbitration is done in two steps, the collection and distribution phases. The protocol is therefore called two-cycle medium access (TCMA). The network is best suited for LANs and SANs (system area networks) such as a high speed network in a cluster of computers or in an embedded parallel computer. Offered services in this network include best effort messages, guarantee seeking messages, real-time virtual channels, functions used in parallel processing. These are possible without additional higher level protocols. A simulation analysis of the network with the protocol is presented. Further analysis shows minimum slot length and fairness of the protocol.

  • 19.
    Bilstrup, Katrin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Böhm, Annette
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Lidström, Kristoffer
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Strandén, Lars
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Zakizadeh, Hossein
    Volvo Technology Corporation, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Vehicle Alert System2007In: Proceedings of 14th world congress on intelligent transport system (ITS), 2007, p. 2-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Vehicle Alert System (VAS) project focuses on cooperative alert services based on timely and reliable communication under the challenging circumstances pertaining to a highly mobile vehicular network. Through a cross-layer design, we gain the flexibility needed to adapt the system to the individual requirements of three chosen application scenarios that represent different situations where cooperation between vehicles can make a significant impact. The VAS project is a collaboration involving academic as well as industrial partners and the final stage of the project is a demonstrator that implements results from the research.

  • 20.
    Bilstrup, Katrin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Böhm, Annette
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Lidström, Kristoffer
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Report on the Collaboration between CVIS and CERES in the Project Vehicle Alert System (VAS)2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In March 2007, an agreement was made for interchange of experiences between CVIS and the Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES) at Halmstad University in Sweden. The majority of the work relating to this collaboration has been conducted within the CERES project Vehicle Alert System (VAS), aiming to use vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications to provide different types of warning messages. The main focus of the VAS project is on communication and in particular the lower layers of the communication stack are investigated. VAS involves academic researchers from Halmstad University as well as researchers from Volvo Technology, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden and the company Free2move. This report presents the results of the VAS project, its publications, and other issues of interest both to the CVIS consortium as well as a broader scope.

  • 21.
    Bilstrup, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    The next challenge for the communication society: co-operating embedded systems2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Handover in IEEE 802.11p-based delay-sensitive vehicle-to-infrastructure communication2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on communication and cooperation between vehicles and roadside infrastructure, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) safety applications offer great potential to avoid traffic accidents or at least reduce their impact. As these applications usually are delay-sensitive, the delay introduced by waiting for access to the wireless communication channel should both be reduced and provided with an upper bound. The proposed IEEE 802.11p standard for short to medium range vehicular communication does not offer these guarantees. In previous work, we presented a MAC (Medium Access Control) enhancement supporting delay-sensitive, safety-critical V2I (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure) applications. Since the proposed enhancement requires a deterministic and fast mechanism to associate a vehicle to a roadside unit (RSU) so that it can be integrated into the centralized polling schedule, we now target the handover and connection setup between a vehicle and an RSU. Although the first connection setup with an RSU still underlies the randomness of the original 802.11p MAC method, we provide a deterministic solution to further enhance the handover procedures by introducing a fast, proactive handover mechanism. We show that the overhead of our solution is limited and still allows our MAC protocol to support safety-critical V2I applications in a densely trafficked highway scenario.

  • 23.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Position-based data traffic prioritization in safety-critical, real-time vehicle-to-infrastructure communication2009In: IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops, 2009. ICC Workshops 2009 / [ed] IEEE, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2009, p. 205-210Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future active-safety applications in vehicular networks rely heavily on the support for real-time inter-vehicle communication. The Medium Access Control (MAC) mechanism proposed for the upcoming IEEE 802.11p standard intended for Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) applications does not offer deterministic real-time support, i.e., the channel access delay is not upper bounded. We therefore propose a vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication solution extending IEEE 802.11p, by introducing a collision-free MAC phase with an enhanced prioritization mechanism based on vehicle positions and the overall road traffic density. A road side unit using a polling mechanism is then able to provide real-time support such that it can guarantee collision-free channel access within its transmission range. Part of the bandwidth remains unchanged such that best-effort services like ongoing vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) applications may continue. Our solution guarantees that all communication deadlines of the V2I applications are met, while minimizing the required length of the collision-free phase. This in turn maximizes the amount of bandwidth available for best-effort services and ongoing V2V applications. The position-based prioritization mechanism further improves the throughput of both real-time and best-effort data traffic by focusing the communication resources to the most hazardous areas. The concept is evaluated analytically based on a realistic task set from a V2I merge assistance scenario.

  • 24.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Position-based forwarding techniques for vehicular ad-hoc networks2008In: Proceedings of Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW 2008), 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Position-based real-time communication support for cooperative traffic safety services2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future cooperative traffic safety applications based on vehicular networks rely heavily on the support for real-time inter-vehicle communication. The Medium Access Control (MAC) mechanism proposed for the upcoming IEEE 802.11p standard intended for Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) applications does not offer deterministic real-time support, i.e., the channel access delay is not upper bounded. In this paper, we therefore propose a vehicle-to-infrastructure(V2I) communication solution extending IEEE802.11p by introducing a collision-free MAC phase based on real-time schedulability analysis. A static or semi-static access point on the road side (Road Side Unit, RSU) coordinates the vehicles’ access to the communication medium by polling them for data according to a schedule based on the Earliest Deadline First (EDF) principle. It is thereby possible to provide real-time support such that the access point can guarantee collision-free channel access within its transmission range. Part of the bandwidth remains unchanged and best-effort services like ongoing vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) applications can continue. We enhance our MAC solution by introducing a prioritization mechanism based on vehicle positions and the overall road traffic density, which leads to a more efficient use of the available bandwidth and further improves the real-time capabilities of our solution.

  • 26.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Real-Time Communication in Infrastructure-Based Safety-Critical Information Exchange2008In: 15th World Congress on Intelligent Transport Systems: New York, November 16-20, 2008 : proceedings : ITS connections: saving time, saving lives / [ed] ITS America, Ertico, ITS Japan, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Real-time communication support for cooperative, infrastructure-based traffic safety applications2011In: International Journal of Vehicular Technology, ISSN 1687-5702, E-ISSN 1687-5710, Vol. 2011, no Article ID 541903, p. 17-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The implementation of ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems) services offers great potential to improve the level of safety, efficiency and comfort on our roads. Although cooperative traffic safety applications rely heavily on the support for real-time communication, the Medium Access Control (MAC) mechanism proposed for the upcoming IEEE 802.11p standard, intended for ITS applications, does not offer deterministic real-time support, that is, the access delay to the common radio channel is not upper bounded. To address this problem, we present a framework for a vehicle-to-infrastructure-based (V2I) communication solution extending IEEE 802.11p by introducing a collision-free MAC phase assigning each vehicle an individual priority based on its geographical position, its proximity to potential hazards and the overall road traffic density. Our solution is able to guarantee the timely treatment of safety-critical data, while minimizing the required length of this real-time MAC phase and freeing bandwidth for best-effort services (targeting improved driving comfort and traffic efficiency). Furthermore, we target fast connection setup, associating a passing vehicle to an RSU (Road Side Unit), and proactive handover between widely spaced RSUs. Our real-time MAC concept is evaluated analytically and by simulation based on a realistic task set from a V2I highway merge assistance scenario.

  • 28.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Supporting real-time data traffic in safety-critical vehicle-to-infrastructure communication2008In: 33rd IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks, 2008. LCN 2008, Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, 2008, p. 614-621Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Support for real-time traffic is crucial to many ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems) safety applications. At the same time it is desirable to provide a number of non-safety services. In this paper, we propose a communication system for safety-critical V2I (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure) communication based on an extension to the upcoming IEEE 802.11p MAC standard. Real-time analysis provides the tool to adapt the resources set aside for collision-free, safety-critical data traffic to the communication needs of the current number of supported vehicles. The remaining bandwidth is available to other services according to the contention-based random access method defined in the standard. The performance of the proposed concept is evaluated through a simulation analysis based on a merge assistance scenario supported by roadside infrastructure.

  • 29.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Kunert, Kristina
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    A fibre-optic AWG-based real-time network for high-performance embedded computing2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, an architecture and a Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for a multiwavelength optical communication network, applicable in short range communication systems like System Area Networks (SANs), are proposed. The main focus lies on guaranteed support for hard and soft real-time traffic. The network is based upon a single-hop star topology with an Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) at its center. Traffic scheduling is centralized in one node (residing together with the AWG in a hub), which communicates through a physical control channel. The AWG’s property of spatial wavelength reuse and the combination of fixedtuned and tunable transceivers in the nodes enable simultaneous control and data transmission. A case study with defined real-time communication requirements in the field of Radar Signal Processing (RSP) was carried out and indicates that the proposed system is very suitable for this kind of application.

  • 30.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Kunert, Kristina
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    AWG-based Optoelectronic Router with QoS Support2005In: 2005 International Conference on Wireless and Optical Communications Networks: March 6 - 8, 2005, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2005, p. 23-28Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a router architecture with electronic queuing and a passive optical multi-channel network, which is based upon a single-hop star topology with an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) at its center. The AWG's property of spatial wavelength reuse and both fixed-tuned and tunable transceivers enable simultaneous control and data transmission. Our proposed medium access control protocol supports traffic differentiation and utilizes EOF (earliest deadline first) to schedule the traffic from input ports to output ports on the router. Our simulations show that the router treats QoS (quality of service) traffic well.

  • 31.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Kunert, Kristina
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Hoang, Hoai
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    A Fibre-Optic AWG-Based Real-Time Network and Its Applicability to High-Performance Embedded Computing2005In: 19th International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium: proceedings, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2005, p. 133b-133b, article id 1419972Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, an architecture and a Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for a multi-wavelength optical communication network, applicable in short range communication systems like System Area Networks (SANs), are proposed. The main focus lies on guaranteed support for hard and soft real-time traffic. The network is based upon a single-hop star topology with an Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) at its center. Traffic scheduling is centralized in one node (residing together with the AWG in a hub), which communicates through a physical control channel. The AWG's property of spatial wavelength reuse and the combination of fixed-tuned and tunable transceivers in the nodes enable simultaneous control and data transmission. A case study with defined real-time communication requirements in the field of Radar Signal Processing (RSP) was carried out and indicates that the proposed system is very suitable for this kind of application.

  • 32.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Kunert, Kristina
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Context-Aware Retransmission Scheme for Increased Reliability in Platooning Applications2014In: Communication Technologies for Vehicles: 6th International Workshop, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains/Nets4Aircraft 2014, Offenburg, Germany, May 6-7, 2014. Proceedings, Cham: Springer, 2014, p. 30-42Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in cooperative driving hold the potential to significantly improve safety, comfort and efficiency on our roads. An application of particular interest is platooning of vehicles, where reduced inter-vehicle gaps lead to considerable reductions in fuel consumption. This, however, puts high requirements on timeliness and reliability of the underlying exchange of control data. Considering the difficult radio environment and potentially long distances between communicating platoon members, as well as the random channel access method used by the IEEE 802.11p standard for short-range inter-vehicle communication, those requirements are very difficult to meet. The relatively static topology of a platoon, however, enables us to preschedule communication within the platoon over a dedicated service channel. Furthermore, we are able to set aside parts of the available bandwidth for retransmission of packets in order to fulfil the reliability requirements stated by the platoon control application. In this paper, we describe the platooning framework along with the scheduling algorithm used to assign retransmission slots to control packets that are most likely to need them. This retransmission scheduling scheme offers a valuable tool for system designers when answering questions about the number of safely supported vehicles in a platoon, achievable reductions in inter-vehicle gaps and periodicity of control packets. © 2014 Springer International Publishing.

  • 33.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Adaptive Cooperative Awareness Messaging for Enhanced Overtaking Assistance on Rural Roads2011In: IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Fall 2011), Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2011, p. 1-5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative traffic safety applications such as lane change or overtaking assistance have the potential to reduce the number of road fatalities. Many emerging traffic safety applications are based on IEEE 802.11p and periodic position messages, so-called cooperative awareness messages (CAM) being broadcasted by all vehicles. In Europe, ETSI defines a periodic report rate of 2 Hz for CAMs. Although a high report rate is the key to early hazard detection, the 2 Hz rate has been chosen to avoid congestion in settings where the vehicle density is high, e.g., on major highways and in urban scenarios. However, on rural roads with a limited number of communicating vehicles, a report rate of 2 Hz leads to unnecessary delay in cooperative awareness. By adapting the CAM report rate depending on the specific application and road traffic density, and by making use of the priority levels provided by the 802.11p quality of service mechanism, we show that hazards can be detected earlier and the available bandwidth is used more efficiently, while not overexploiting the network resources.

  • 34.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Co-existing periodic beaconing and hazard warnings in IEEE 802.11p-based platooning applicationsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A platoon of trucks driving at the same, mutually agreed speed while keeping a minimum inter-vehicle distance will reduce fuel consumption, enhance transport efficiency as well as improve the safety of other adjacent road users. The European profile of IEEE 802.11p for inter-vehicle communications uses a single 10 MHz control channel dedicated to safety-critical data, shared by periodic status updates, CAM (Cooperative Awareness Message), and event-triggered warnings, DENM (Decentralized Environmental Notification Message). Coupled with the random access delay inherent to the 802.11p medium access method, the strict timing and reliability requirements of platoon applications are not easily met. To this end, we evaluate by simulation the effect of IEEE 802.11p-compliant send rate adaptations and message type prioritizations and the choice of warning dissemination strategy on CAM transmissions and DENM dissemination in a platooning scenario. Simulation studies of a platoon of 10-20 vehicles in a busy highway scenario show that the context-aware choice of send rate, priority class and dissemination strategy not only reduce the dissemination delay of DENMs but even has a significant effect on the throughput of CAMs exchanged by platoon members.

  • 35.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Co-Existing Periodic Beaconing and Hazard Warnings in IEEE 802.11p-Based Platooning Applications2013In: VANET 2013 - Proceedings of the 10th ACM International Workshop on VehiculAr Inter-NETworking, Systems, and Applications, New York, NY: ACM Press, 2013, p. 99-101Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A platoon of trucks driving at the same, mutually agreed speed while keeping a minimum inter-vehicle distance will reduce fuel consumption, enhance transport efficiency as well as improve the safety of other adjacent road users. The European profile of IEEE 802.11p for inter-vehicle communications uses a single 10 MHz control channel dedicated to safety-critical data, shared by periodic status updates, and event-triggered warnings. Coupled with the random access delay inherent to the 802.11p medium access method, the strict timing and reliability requirements of platoon applications are not easily met. To this end, we evaluate the effect of IEEE 802.11p-compliant send rate adaptations and message type prioritizations and the choice of warning dissemination strategy in a platooning scenario. Simulation studies of a platoon of 10-20 vehicles in a busy highway scenario show that a context-aware choice of send rate, priority class and dissemination strategy not only reduces the hazard warning dissemination delay but also has a significant effect on the throughput of periodic beacons.

  • 36.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Performance comparison of a platooning application using the IEEE 802.11p MAC on the control channel and a centralized MAC on a service channel2013In: 2013 IEEE 9th International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2013, p. 545-552, article id 6673411Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in cooperative driving hold the potential to significantly improve safety, comfort and efficiency on our roads. An application of particular interest is platooning of trucks, where it has been shown that keeping a minimum inter-vehicle distance results in considerably reduced fuel consumption.This, however, puts high requirements on timeliness and reliability of the underlying exchange of control messages betweenplatoon members. The European profile of IEEE 802.11p, recently adopted by ETSI, defines two message types to this end, periodic beacons for basic cooperative awareness (CAM) and event-triggered decentralized environmental notification messages (DENM), both of which will use one common control channel. IEEE 802.11p employs a random medium access protocol, which may experience excessive delays during high network loads. To mitigate these effects, ETSI standardizes a decentralized congestion control algorithm to, e.g., lower the CAM update frequency during high loads. However, this may prevent proper functionality of a platooning application. In this paper we propose a solution that instead uses a dedicated service channel for platooning applications and compare its performance to standard-compliant IEEE 802.11p inter-platoon communication on the control channel. Service channels typically have less strict requirements on send rates, data traffic types and medium access methods. Our service channel solution combines a random access phase for DENM with a centralized, scheduled access phase for CAM. Using a service channel enables us to guarantee timely channel access for all CAM packets before a specified deadline while still being able to provide a reasonable DENM dissemination delay. © 2013 IEEE.

  • 37.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Performance evaluation of a platooning application using the IEEE 802.11p MAC on a control channel vs. a centralized real-time MAC on a service channelManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in cooperative driving hold the potential to significantly improve safety, comfort and efficiency on our roads. An application of particular interest is platooning of trucks, where it has been shown that keeping a minimum inter-vehicle distance results in considerably reduced fuel consumptions. This, however, puts high requirements on timeliness and reliability of the underlying exchange of control messages between platoon members. The European profile of IEEE 802.11p, recently adopted by ETSI, defines two message types to this end, periodic beacons for basic cooperative awareness (CAM) and event-triggered decentralized environmental notification messages (DENM), both using the common control channel. The IEEE 802.11p employs a random medium access protocol, with excessive delays that may prevent proper functionality of a platooning application. To mitigate the effects of this, ETSI standardizes a decentralized congestion control algorithm to, e.g., lower the CAM frequency when needed. Some service channels with less strict requirements on send rates, data traffic types or medium access methods are available. In this paper we compare the performance of decentralized, standard-compliant inter-platoon communication using IEEE 802.11p on the control channel with a solution based on a service channel, which combines a random access phase for DENM with a centralized, scheduled access phase for CAM. A dedicated service channel for platooning applications enables us to always guarantee timely channel access of CAM packets before a specified deadline and our simulations show that this is achieved at very small sacrifices in DENM dissemination delay.

  • 38.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Zakizadeh, Hossein
    Volvo Technology.
    Vehicular ad-hoc networks to avoid surprise effects on sparsely trafficked, rural roads2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes the main results from a project focusing on the development and evaluation of communication protocols for inter-vehicle communication on sparsely trafficked, rural roads,ensuring the reliable and timely delivery of safety critical data. The project is motivated by traffic safety applications, especially warning systems to avoid surprise effects of unexpected vehicle encounters on sparsely-trafficked, rural roads. The key issue in suchan application is to make sure that the vehicles become aware of each other’s existence by the help of communication as soon as possible. The driver can then be warned in time to avoid a possible accident.The challenge is to gain high probabilities of successful delivery in time, especially when having to cope with bad communication performance caused by e.g. crests.

  • 39.
    Böhm, Annette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Lidström, Kristoffer
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Evaluating CALM M5-based vehicle-to-vehicle communication in various road settings through field trials2010In: Proceedings - Conference on Local Computer Networks, LCN, (2010 12 01): 613-620, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2010, p. 613-620Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) applications aimed to improve safety, efficiency and comfort on our roads put high demands on the underlying wireless communication system. To gain better understanding of the limitations of the 5.9 GHz frequency band and the set of communication protocols for medium range vehicle to vehicle (V2V) communication, a set of field trials with CALM M5 enabled prototypes has been conducted. This paper describes five different real vehicle traffic scenarios covering both urban and rural settings at varying vehicle speeds and under varying line-of-sight (LOS) conditions and discusses the connectivity (measured as Packet Reception Ratio) that could be achieved between the two test vehicles. Our measurements indicate a quite problematic LOS sensitivity that strongly influences the performance of V2V-based applications. We further discuss how the awareness of these context-based connectivity problems can be used to improve the design of possible future cooperative ITS safety applications.

  • 40.
    Campolo, Claudia
    et al.
    Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Molinaro, Antonella
    Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Lyamin, Nikita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Service Discovery and Access in Vehicle-to-Roadside Multi-Channel VANETs2015In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Communication Workshop, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2015, p. 2477-2482Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide portfolio of safety and non-safety services will be provided to drivers and passengers on top of Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs).

    Non-safety services are announced by providers, e.g., road-side units (RSUs), on a channel that is different from the one where the services are delivered. The dependable and timely delivery of the advertisement messages is crucial for vehicles to promptly discover and access the announced services in challenging vehicle-to-roadside scenarios, characterized by intermittent and short lived connectivity.

    In this paper, we present an analytical framework that models the service advertisement and access mechanisms in multichannel vehicular networks.

    The model accounts for dual-radio devices, and computes the mean service discovery time and the service channel utilization by considering the disruption periods due to the switching of the RSU from the advertising channel (where announcements are transmitted) to the advertised channel (where services are exchanged), under different channel and mobility conditions. It provides quick insights on parameter settings to allow providers to improve service provisioning. © 2015 IEEE

  • 41.
    Fan, Xing
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Jan
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Guaranteed Real-Time Communication in Packet-Switched Networks with FCFS queuing: Analysis and Simulations2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, we present a real-time analytical framework and the performance evaluation on our analysis. We propose a feasibility analysis of periodic hard real-time traffic in packet-switched networks using First Come First Served (FCFS) queuing but no traffic shapers. We choose switched Ethernet as an example to present the idea of our analysis and our experimental evaluations in this report.The remainder of the report is organized as follows. In Chapter 2, we define the network models, important concepts and terminology for real-time analysis. Chapter 3 presents our real-time analysis for isolated network elements. Chapter 4 gives end-to-end real-time analysis. Chapter 5 presents the performance evaluation of our results by simulation and comparison study and summarizes this report.

  • 42.
    Fan, Xing
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Admission control for switched real-time Ethernet: scheduling analysis versus network calculus2005In: Proc. of the Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW’05), Halmstad, Sweden, Nov. 23-24, 2005, 2005, p. 4 s.-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many approaches have been developed to give an estimation of the upper bound of the end-to-end delay or the response-time for real-time application, e.g., the Network Calculus (NC) model and the scheduling analysis. In this paper, we present an approach based on scheduling analysis to support guaranteed real-time services over standard switched Ethernet. Furthermore, we conduct a comparative study between these two admission control schemes, our novel algorithm and an NC-based algorithm. The simulation analysis shows that our feasibility analysis gives up to 50% higher utilization than the popular NC. Another advantage of our solution is that no additional hardware or software modification of the switch and the underlying standard. In our proposal, the traffic differentiation mechanism introduced by the IEEE 802.1D/Q standard and the standard hardware-implemented First Come First Served (FCFS) priority queuing are used in the switch and the source nodes. We have derived a feasibility analysis algorithm to ensure that the real-time requirements can be met. The algorithm also gives, as a sub-result, the needed buffer space in the end nodes and the switch. Moreover, our feasibility analysis supports variable-sized frames and switches with different bit-rates ports.

  • 43.
    Fan, Xing
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Efficient many-to-many communication using an intelligent Ethernet switch2002Report (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Fan, Xing
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Efficient Support for High Traffic-Volumes of Short-Message Real-Time Communication Using an Active Ethernet Switch2004In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Real-time and Embedded Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA’04), 2004, p. 517-533Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several different types of communication traffic with real- time demands apparent in distributed industrial and embedded systems, for example, group communication and process synchronization. The length of these messages is often very short but the traffic volume might be really high. Standard network protocols do not normally reach very high utilization for such small messages. This paper presents a solution to efficiently support real-time short message communication over switched Ethernet. In our proposal, the Ethernet switch and the end-nodes are enhanced to combine several short messages into an Ethernet frame to improve the performance, and to give the short-message traffic real-time support on two levels, short-frame level and Ethernet frame level. Earliest Deadline First (EDF) scheduling is used in the switch and in the source nodes on both these two levels. We have characterized the performance of the network in terms of channel utilization and the number of accepted real-time channels, by simulations of the network assuming Fast Ethernet. We also show, by example, that we can reach an improvement of the possible short-message rate of 66%.

  • 45.
    Fan, Xing
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Guaranteed Real-Time Services in Switched Ethernet Networks with Deadline Scheduling in the End Nodes2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a switched Ethernet network that supports real-time communication with guaranteed bit rate and end-to-end delay bound. In our proposal, the source nodes use Earliest Deadline First (EDF) scheduling, while the switch uses First Come First Served (FCFS) to control periodic real-time traffic belonging to logical realtime connections. The schedulability condition is drawn and the end-to-end worst-case delay bound is derived for guaranteed real-time traffic, which also gives, as a sub-result, the needed buffer space in the switch. Moreover, different traffic classes are prioritized and put into different output queues in the end nodes and the switch, which minimizes the interference with other traffic when transmitting periodic time-critical messages. The solution requires no additional hardware or software modifications of the switch and the underlying standard. It is based purely on software implementation in the end nodes. Furthermore, the EDF scheduling strategy used in the source nodes allows good resource utilization, while the FCFS scheduling used in the switch limits the switch processing overhead. The paper presents simulation analysis for Fast Ethernet, which verifies our approach of guaranteeing real-time transmission at the same time as achieving high utilization.

  • 46.
    Fan, Xing
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Guaranteed real-time services over standard switched Ethernet2005In: The IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks, 30th Anniversary: proceedings, Sydney, Australia, November 15-17, 2005, New York, NY: IEEE Computer Society, 2005, p. 490-492Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we contribute with an approach to support guaranteed real-time services over standard switched Ethernet without additional hardware or software modification of the switch and the underlying standard. In our proposal, the traffic differentiation mechanism introduced by the IEEE 802.1D/Q standard and the standard hardware-implemented first come first served (FCFS) priority queuing are used in the switch and the source nodes. We have derived a feasibility analysis algorithm that can be used to ensure that the real-time requirements can be met. The algorithm also gives, as a sub-result, the needed buffer space in the end nodes and the switch. Moreover, our feasibility analysis supports variable-sized frames and switches with different bit-rates ports. The simulation analysis verifies our feasibility analysis.

  • 47.
    Fan, Xing
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Network component architectures from a real-time perspective2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, we survey different architectural features of network components for packet-switched networks. Especially, we have a real-time perspective in the study. We also discuss how different architectural features vary with different implementations of two standards, RapidIO and switched Ethernet.

  • 48.
    Fan, Xing
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Hoang, Hoai
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Efficient Many-to-Many Real-Time Communication Using an Intelligent Ethernet Switch2004In: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Parallel Architectures, Algorithms and Networks, 2004 / [ed] D.F. Hsu, K. Hiraki, S. Shen, H. Sudborough, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE , 2004, p. 280-287Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a solution for efficient many-to-many communication over switched Ethernet. The performance of using an ordinary switch and an intelligent switch is compared, and the results of the analysis based on 100 Mbit/s fast Ethernet show that an intelligent switch used to handle many-to-many communication can give better performance (shorter latency and higher utilization) than an ordinary switch. We also extend the network to serve many-to-many traffic with real-time demands by adding a thin software layer to the intelligent Ethernet switch and the end-nodes. Earliest deadline first (EDF) scheduling is used.

  • 49.
    Fan, Xing
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Jonsson, Jan
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg.
    Guaranteed real-time communication in packet-switched networks with FCFS queuing2009In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 400-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a feasibility analysis of periodic hard real-time traffic in packet-switched networks using first come first served (FCFS) queuing but no traffic shapers. Our work constitutes a framework that can be adopted for real-time analysis of switched low-cost networks like Ethernet without modification of the standard network components. Our analysis is based on a flexible network and traffic model, e.g., variable-sized frames, arbitrary deadlines and multiple switches. The correctness of our real-time analysis and the tightness of it for network components in single-switch networks are given by theoretical proofs. The performance of the end-to-end real-time analysis is evaluated by simulations. Moreover, our conceptual and experimental comparison studies between our analysis and the commonly used Network Calculus (NC) shows that our analysis can achieve better performance than NC in many cases.

  • 50.
    Forsberg, Håkan
    et al.
    Department of Computer Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    A scalable and pipelined embedded signal processing system using optical hypercube interconnects2000In: Proceedings of the 12th IASTED International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing and Systems (PDCS 2000), Las Vegas, NV, USA, Nov. 6-9, 2000, Las Vegas: IASTED , 2000, p. 265-272Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a system suitable for embedded signal processing with extreme performance demands. The system consists of several computational modules that work independently and send data simultaneously in order to achieve high throughput. Each computational module is composed of multiple processors connected in a hypercube topology to meet scalability and high bisection bandwidth requirements. Free-space optical interconnects and planar packaging technology make it possible to transform the hypercubes into planes and to take advantage of many optical properties. For instance, optical fan-out reduces hardware cost. This, altogether, makes the system capable of meeting high performance demands in, e.g., massively parallel signal processing. An example system with eleven computational modules and an overall peak performance greater than 2.8 TFLOPS is presented. The effective inter-module bandwidth in this configuration is 1,024 Gbit/s.

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