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  • 1.
    Cooney, Martin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology. teraction Science Laboratories (ISL), Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International (ATR), Kyoto, Japa.
    Shiomi, Masahiro
    teraction Science Laboratories (ISL), Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International (ATR), Kyoto, Japa.
    Kochenborger Duarte, Eduardo
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology. stitute of Applied Informatics and Formal Description Methods (AIFB), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany.
    A Broad View on Robot Self-Defense: Rapid Scoping Review and Cultural Comparison2023In: Robotics, E-ISSN 2218-6581, Vol. 12, no 2, article id 43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With power comes responsibility: as robots become more advanced and prevalent, the role they will play in human society becomes increasingly important. Given that violence is an important problem, the question emerges if robots could defend people, even if doing so might cause harm to someone. The current study explores the broad context of how people perceive the acceptability of such robot self-defense (RSD) in terms of (1) theory, via a rapid scoping review, and (2) public opinion in two countries. As a result, we summarize and discuss: increasing usage of robots capable of wielding force by law enforcement and military, negativity toward robots, ethics and legal questions (including differences to the well-known trolley problem), control in the presence of potential failures, and practical capabilities that such robots might require. Furthermore, a survey was conducted, indicating that participants accepted the idea of RSD, with some cultural differences. We believe that, while substantial obstacles will need to be overcome to realize RSD, society stands to gain from exploring its possibilities over the longer term, toward supporting human well-being in difficult times. © 2023 by the authors.

  • 2.
    Kochenborger Duarte, Eduardo
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Shiomi, Masahiro
    Advanced Telecommunications Research, Institute International Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Cooney, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology. The Interaction Science Laboratories, Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International, Kyoto, Japan.
    Robot Self-defense: Robots Can Use Force on Human Attackers to Defend Victims2022In: IEEE RO-MAN 2022: 31st IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Social, Asocial, and Antisocial Robots, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2022, p. 1606-1613Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Could a social robot use force to prevent violence directed toward humans in its care?-Might crime be eradicated, or conversely could excessive use of force proliferate and human dignity become trampled beneath cold robotic wheels? Such speculation is one part of a larger, increasingly important question of how social robots will be expected to behave in our societies, as robotic technologies develop and become increasingly widespread. Here, to gain some insight into this topic of "robot self-defense", we proposed a simplified heuristic based on perceived risk of loss to predict acceptability, and conducted a user survey with 304 participants, who watched eight animated videos of robots and humans in a violent altercation. The results indicated that people largely accept the idea that a humanoid robot can use force on attackers to help others. Furthermore, self-defense was perceived as more acceptable when the appearance of the defender was humanoid rather than mechanical, and when the force disparity between attacker and defender was high. The immediate suggestion is that it could be beneficial to re-examine common assumptions that a robot should never harm or risk harming humans, and to discuss and consider the possibilities for robot self-defense. © 2022 IEEE.

  • 3.
    Kochenborger Duarte, Eduardo
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Shiomi, Masahiro
    Advanced Telecommunications Research, Institute International (ATR), Kyoto, Japan.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Cooney, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology. Advanced Telecommunications Research, Institute International (ATR), Kyoto, Japan.
    Trust in Robot Self-Defense: People Would Prefer a Competent, Tele-Operated Robot That Tries to Help2023In: 2023 32nd IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN), New York, NY: IEEE, 2023, p. 2447-2453Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivated by the expectation that robot presence at crime scenes will become increasingly prevalent, the question arises of how they can protect humans in their care or vicinity. The current paper delves into the concept of 'robot self-defense' and explores whether a robot should be tele-operated or autonomous, and how humans perceive imperfections in robot performance. To gain insight into how people feel, an online survey was conducted with 180 participants, who watched six videos of a robot defending a victim. The study provides insights into trust in human-robot interactions and sheds light on the complex dynamics involved in robot self-defense. The results indicate that people found a tele-operated robot to be more accepted, and that attempting to help but failing is more acceptable than just observing. © 2023 IEEE.

  • 4.
    Shiomi, Masahiro
    et al.
    ATR, Kyoto, Japan.
    Sakamoto, Daisuke
    Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.
    Iio, Takamasa
    Doshisha University, Kyoto, Japan.
    Cooney, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Baba, Jun
    Cyberagent, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kimoto, Mitsuhiko
    ATR, Kyoto, Japan.
    Tian, Leimin
    Monash University, Clayton, Australia.
    Special issue on social interaction with more than one robot2024In: Advanced Robotics, ISSN 0169-1864, E-ISSN 1568-5535, Vol. 38, no 7, p. 439-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

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