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  • 1.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.
    Bertollo, Maurizio
    “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy & University of Suffolk, Ipswich, United Kingdom.
    Debois, Nadine
    National Institute of Sport, Expertise and Performance (INSEP), Paris, France.
    de Oliveira, Rita F.
    London South Bank University, London, United Kingdom.
    Fritsch, Julian
    Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.
    Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis
    University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece.
    Moesch, Karin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). The Swedish Sports Confederation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Raab, Markus
    London South Bank University, London, United Kingdom & German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Sanchez, Xavier
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Vaisetaite, Lina
    National Olympic Committee of Lithuania, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Preface to the special issue: 50 years of FEPSAC2019In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 42, p. 5-7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis
    University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece.
    Morela, Eleftheria
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece.
    Ries, Francis
    University of Seville, Seville, Spain.
    Kouli, Olga
    Democritus University of Thrace, Komotini, Greece.
    Sanchez, Xavier
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Acculturation through sport: Different contexts different meanings2018In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251X, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 178-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on the role of sport as a social integrative agent for migrants has provided equivocal results. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between ethnic–cultural identity and sport environmental factors. Young migrant male athletes from two different societal and sport contexts were studied: migrants from Eastern European countries living in Greece (n=60) and from Latin America living in Spain (n=60). Participants completed measures of ethnic and cultural identity, task-oriented motivational climate, and autonomy- supportive coaching behaviour. Analysis of variance revealed that Eastern European inhabitants of Greece scored higher on fringe and assimilation, and lower on lack of interaction compared to Latin American inhabitants of Spain. In addition, for the former group, a mastery motivational climate and autonomy-supportive coaching predicted an integrative identity, whereas for the latter group, the motivational environment did not predict acculturation patterns. The results suggest that sport may serve different acculturation purposes, thus explaining to a degree the lack of consistent results regarding the integrative role of sport. The study provides preliminary support for the importance of the sport motivational environment for the facilitation of integration. © 2016 International Society of Sport Psychology.

  • 3.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Strahler, Katharina
    Institute of Sport & Exercise Science, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany.
    Krustrup, Peter
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Stelter, Reinhard
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Experiencing flow in different types of physical activity intervention programs: three randomized studies2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 20, no Suppl. 1, p. 111-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores whether inactive individuals can experience flow, a rewarding, psychological state, during an exercise intervention and if there are differences according to the type of intervention they perform. Furthermore, the study investigates if experiencing flow is connected to physiological improvements attained during the exercise intervention. The 12‐ to 16‐week interventions included six randomized intervention groups, two female and four male groups performing continuous running, football, interval running and strength training. The results indicate that all six randomized exercise intervention groups experience rather high levels of flow regardless of whether the intervention is a team or individual sport. Differences in experiencing flow, worry and exertion as well as physiological improvements could be found for the different types of sports and the two genders, with the male football group having the highest score for physiological improvement and the lowest score for worry. A connection between experiencing flow and physiological improvement could not be found. Future research should investigate the influence that the participant's gender and also the type of sport have on experiencing flow, worry and perceived exertion. Furthermore, it should be investigated whether experiencing flow is linked to the long‐term compliance of regular physical activity. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S

  • 4. Elbe, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    Elitesportsskoler – og deres indflydelse på talentudvikling2008In: Inspiration til talentudvikling: Et psykologisk perspektiv / [ed] Kristoffer Henriksen, Odense: Syddansk Universitetsforlag , 2008, 1, p. 171-184Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Psychological factors in developing high performance athletes2017In: Routledge Handbook of Talent Identification and Development in Sport / [ed] Joe Baker, Stephen Cobley, Jörg Schorer, Nick Wattie, Oxon: Routledge, 2017, p. 169-180Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Copenhagen Centre of Team Sport and Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Copenhagen Centre of Team Sport and Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Zheng, Miky
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Copenhagen Centre of Team Sport and Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Larsen, Malte Nejst
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Copenhagen Centre of Team Sport and Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Glen
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports,, Copenhagen Centre of Team Sport and Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Krustrup, Peter
    Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark & Sport and Health Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom.
    The importance of cohesion and enjoyment for the fitness improvement of 8–10-year-old children participating in a team and individual sport school-based physical activity intervention2017In: European Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1746-1391, E-ISSN 1536-7290, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 343-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the enjoyment and cohesion of school children participating in a school-based high-intensity physical activity (PA) intervention. Both enjoyment and cohesion have been found to be important factors for adherence to regular physical and sport activity, an important outcome of PA interventions. The sample consisted of 300 pupils (mean age: 9.3 years; 52.7% female) assigned to a team sport intervention, an individual sport intervention, or a control group for 10 months. The Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire were used to measure enjoyment and cohesion. The Yo-Yo IR1C test determined fitness improvements. Results showed that enjoyment and cohesion (social) measured at the beginning of the intervention significantly predict fitness improvements achieved after 10 months. No differing developmental effects over time could be found in the intervention groups with regard to cohesion and enjoyment when comparing them to the control group. However, enjoyment and cohesion (social) significantly decreased in the groups that performed individual sports. Team sports seem to be more advantageous for the development of enjoyment and cohesion, which are both factors that positively impact the health outcomes of the intervention. © 2016 European College of Sport Science.

  • 7.
    Elsborg, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise, and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise, and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Glen A.
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise, and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Tolver, Anders
    Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise, and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Development and Initial Validation of the Volition in Exercise Questionnaire (VEQ)2016In: Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, ISSN 1091-367X, E-ISSN 1532-7841, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 57-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study describes the development and validation of an instrument to measure volition in the exercise context. Volition describes an individual’s self-regulatory mental processes that are responsible for taking and maintaining a desirable action (e.g., exercising regularly). The scale structure was developed in an exploratory factor analysis which resulted in a reliable structure of the following six factors: Volitional Inhibition—Reasons, Volitional Inhibition—Postponing Training, Volitional Facilitation—Self-Confidence, Volitional Inhibition—Unrelated Thoughts, Volitional Inhibition—Approval From Others, and Volitional Facilitation—Coping with Failure. A sound theoretical explanation for these six factors is based on the Personal System Interaction Theory. This six-factor structure was also confirmed in a new sample in a confirmatory factor analysis, delivering an 18-item questionnaire with strong model fit and good internal consistency. In addition, the Volition in Exercise Questionnaire showed convergent validity because it was able to predict exercise participation. It showed incremental validity by explaining additional variance to the Sport Motivation Scale’s well-established predictors of exercise participation. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

  • 8.
    Henriksen, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Syddansk Universitet, Odense, Danmark, Team Danmark, Brøndby, Danmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    Institut for Idræt, Københavns Universitet, København, Danmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    Institut for Idræt, Københavns Universitet, København, Danmark.
    Højintensitetssportsgrene i et psykologisk perspektiv2010In: Elitesport med høj intensitet: anbefalinger der fremmer toppræstationer / [ed] Eva W. Helge, Brøndby: Institut for Idræt, Københavns Universitet , 2010, p. 5-8Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Moesch, Karin
    et al.
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hauge, Marie-Louse Trier
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Late specialization: the key to success in centimeters, grams, or seconds (cgs) sports2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 21, no 6, p. e282-e290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A controversial question within elite sports is whether young athletes need to specialize early, as suggested by Ericsson et al., or if it is more beneficial to follow the path of early diversification proposed by Côté et al., which includes sampling different sport experiences during childhood and specializing later on during adolescence. Based on a Danish sample of 148 elite and 95 near‐elite athletes from cgs sports (sports measured in centimeters, grams, or seconds), the present study investigates group differences concerning accumulated practice hours during the early stages of the career, involvement in other sports, career development, as well as determining whether or not these variables predict membership in the elite group. The results clearly reveal that elite athletes specialized at a later age and trained less in childhood. However, elite athletes were shown to intensify their training regime during late adolescence more than their near‐elite peers. The involvement in other sports neither differs between the groups nor predicts success. It can be concluded that factors related to the organization of practice during the mid‐teens seem to be crucial for international success within cgs sports. Future research should adopt a longitudinal design with means of drawing causal inferences. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S

  • 10.
    Moesch, Karin
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Mayer, Cecilie
    (University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Reasons for career termination of female Danish elite athletes2011In: Sport and Exercise Psychology: Human Performance, Well-Being and Health : Proceedings of the 13th FEPSAC European Congress of Sport Psychology / [ed] Sidónio Serpa, Nelson Teixeira, Maria João Almeida, António Rosado, Madeira: Institute of Sport of the Autonomous Region of Madeira , 2011, p. 193-193Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past, career termination research has focused on many different aspects (e.g. cultural differences, transitional phases, adaptation processes, psychological problems, etc.). Research on gender differences of these aspects, however, is rather scarce.The aim of this study is to investigate gender-specific reasons for why elite athletes competing at the highest international level stop their careers. In one of the few existing studies on the topic Reints and Wylleman (2010) identified gender differences concerning career lengths as well as reasons for career termination.The purpose of this study is to analyze the lengths of the different career stages as well as career end of 32 female and 38 male Danish top-level athletes who all achieved either a medal at European level or placed among the top ten at world level.The data was collected in an online study in 2009. Results indicate that on average Danish female elite athletes end their career at the age of 28.5 years and that the three most frequent reasons for ending are injury (28%), starting a family (22%) and lack of motivation / achieved it all (17%). No gender differences appear concerning career length or length of the different career stages. However, females and males differ on reasons for career termination.These differences will be discussed on the basis of how to improve the situation of female athletes ending their career and how career support services could be better designed to match their needs.

  • 11.
    Moesch, Karin
    et al.
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Trier Hauge, Marie-Louise
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Talent Development in Danish Elite Athletes2011Report (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Moesch, Karin
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Trier Hauge, Marie-Louise
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Volition distinguishes elite football players from near elites and talented dropouts2011In: Sport and Exercise Psychology: Human Performance, Well-Being and Health: Proceedings of the 13th FEPSAC European Congress of Sport Psychology / [ed] Sidónio Serpa, Nelson Teixeira, Maria João Almeida, António Rosado, Madeira: Institute of Sport of the Autonomous Region of Madeira , 2011, p. 155-155Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivational and volitional characteristics are considered important factors for athletic success but can also be connected to drop-out from elite sports (Elbe et al., 2003; Ericsson et al., 1993). This study investigates volitional and motivational factors of top-level Danish football players. Sixty five female and 42 male players (N = 107; age: M = 21.03 years, SD = 4.89) completed an online survey requesting information about sport success, career development and reasons for retirement (if applicable). In addition they filled in the short version of the Achievement Motives Scale -Sport (Elbe & Wenhold, 2005) and four scales of the Volitional Components Questionnaire-Sport (Wenhold et al., 2009).The sample was divided into elite (n = 23), near-elite (n = 65) and dropouts (n = 19) based on athletic success and reasons for retirement. A one-way between-subjects ANOVA was used to calculate differences between these three groups concerning motivational and volitional factors. The ANOVA revealed significant differences regarding the volitional scales self-determination (p < .05), avoiding effort (p < .01) and postponing training (p < .01).The elite athletes showed the most beneficial values in all three scales, whereas the dropouts showed the lowest scores. No significant differences were found regarding the other variables. The results identify volition as a crucial personality factor for elite football players, which might also be connected to dropping out of sport.

  • 13.
    Moesch, Karin
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hauge, Marie-Louise Trier
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Making It to the Top in Team Sports: Start Later, Intensify, and Be Determined!2013In: Talent Development and Excellence, ISSN 1869-0459, E-ISSN 1869-2885, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 85-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is debated whether young athletes need to specialize early, or if it is more beneficial to follow the path of early diversification. The present study investigates the career paths and related motivational and volitional factors of Danish elite and nearelite team sport athletes. Seventy-six athletes matched by sport, age and sex participated in the study. Elite athletes started their career later and showed higher self-determination and lower values in postponing training. The logistic regression showed that fewer accumulated training hours up to age 12, but more up to age 15 significantly predicted elite group membership. All other investigated variables did not show significant results. It is concluded that there are more similarities than differences between the two groups. © 2013 International Research Association for Talent Development and Excellence

  • 14.
    Moesch, Karin Silvia
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Trier Hauge, Marie-Louise
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Is late specialization the key to success in CGS sports?2010In: Sport Science: Where the Cultures Meet: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Feza Korkusuz, Hayri Ertan & Elias Tsolakidis, Antalya: European College of Sport Science , 2010, p. 511-512Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Moesch, Karin Silvia
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Trier Hauge, Marie-Louise
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Späte Spezialisierung als Erfolgsfaktor in cgs-Sportarten?2010In: Psychophysiologie im Sport - zwischen Experiment und Handlungsoptimierung: 42. Jahrestagung der Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Sportpsychologie (asp) vom 13.–15. Mai 2010 in Salzburg / [ed] Günter Amesberger, Thomas Finkenzeller, Sabine Würth, Hamburg: Feldhaus Verlag , 2010, p. 140-140Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [de]

    Einleitung: Das „Developmental model of sport participation“ (Côté, Baker & Abernethy, 2007) beschreibt zwei Wege die zu Expertise im Sport führen: Die frühe Spezialisierung wird gekennzeichnet durch einen Trainingseinstieg in der Kindheit und dem Verfolgen von zielgerichtetem und intensivem Training („deliberate practice“). Dies wird von einigen Autoren (z. B. Ericsson, Krampe & Trösch, 1993) als Notwendigkeit angesehen um sportliche Höchstleistungen zu erzielen und von vielen Befunden bestätigt. Auf dem Weg zur Höchstleistung durch frühe Diversifikation dagegen beginnt die Karriere durch einen spielorientierten Einstieg in verschiedene Sportarten, während die Spezialisierung auf die Hauptsportart erst in der Adoleszenz erfolgt. Dies soll zu bewegungsintelligenteren und intrinsisch motivierteren AthletInnen führen und dadurch längerfristig mehr Erfolg versprechen (Côté et al., 2007). Die vorliegende Studie mit dänischen SpitzensportlerInnen aus cgsSportarten geht der Frage nach, welcher dieser Wege mehr Erfolg verspricht.

    Methode: Mittels einer retrospektiven Online-Erhebung wurden 114 Athletinnen und 181 Athleten (N = 295; Alter: M = 24.4 Jahre, SD = 7.3) aus cgs-Sportarten zu folgenden Bereichen befragt: sportliche Erfolge, Entwicklung der Trainingsumfänge, Karriereeckpunkte und Engagement in anderen Sportarten. Mittels Gruppenvergleichen und logistischen Regressionen werden Unterschiede zwischen TopathletInnen und AthletInnen der erweiterten Kader analysiert.

    Ergebnisse und Diskussion: Gruppenvergleiche zeigen u. a. auf, dass TopathletInnen weniger Jahre im Juniorennationalkader verbringen (t = 2.89, df = 153, p < .005) und bis zum Alter von 15 Jahren weniger trainieren (t = 3.46, df = 165, p < .005). Zudem können eine kürzere Zugehörigkeit im Juniorennationalkader, ein zusätzliches Jahr im Seniorennationalkader, weniger Trainingsstunden im Alter von 15 Jahren sowie mehr Trainingsstunden im Alter von 18 Jahren den internationalen Erfolg vorhersagen (χ2(4) = 79.01, p < .001). Das Engagement in anderen Sportarten hingegen liefert keinen signifikanten Erklärungswert. Die Resultate zeigen, dass späte Spezialisierung in cgs-Sportarten vorteilhaft ist. Entgegen den Annahmen der frühen Diversifikation erfolgt kein Vorteil durch das Engagement in zusätzlichen Sportarten. Diese Schlussfolgerung muss allerdings vorsichtig betrachtet werden, da keine Angaben zum Trainingsinhalt in der Hauptsportart erhoben wurden und somit nicht ausgeschlossen werden kann, dass dort polysportive Erfahrungen gesammelt werden konnten. © 2010 EDITION CZWALINA FELDHAUS VERLAG

  • 16.
    Moesch, Karin
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Trier Hauge, Marie-Louise
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Do elite and sub-elite athletes show different career development paths? A study with Danish athletes involved in individual sports2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Moesch, Karin
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Trier Hauge, Marie-Louise
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Welche Faktoren können Erfolg in Teamsportarten hervorsagen?2010In: Höchstleistungen in den Sportspielen. Vom Talent zur Expertise: 7. Symposium der dvs-Kommission Sportspiele gemeinsam mit dem Bundesinstitut für Sportwissenschaft (BISp). Abstractband des Symposiums in Münster 22. – 24. September 2010 / [ed] Bernd Strauss, Hamburg: Deutsche Vereinigung für Sportwissenschaft , 2010, p. 29-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [de]

    Das ”Developmental model of sport participation” (Côté, Baker & Abernethy, 2007) beschreibt zwei Wege die zu Expertise im Sport führen: Die frühe Spezialisierung (z.B. Ericsson, Krampe & Tesch-Römer, 1993) wird gekennzeichnet durch einen frühen Trainingseinstieg und dem Verfolgen von zielgerichtetem und intensivem Training („deliberate practice“). Um dies erfolgreich zu bewältigen sind u.a. hohe Motivation und Anstrengungsbereitschaft erforderlich. Auf dem Weg zur Höchstleistung durch frühe Diversifikation beginnt die Karriere durch einen spielorientierten Einstieg in verschiedene Sportarten, während die Spezialisierung auf die Hauptsportart erst in der Adoleszenz erfolgt. Dies soll zu bewegungsintelligenteren und intrinsisch motivierteren Athlet/innen führen und längerfristig mehr Erfolg versprechen (Côté et al., 2007). Die vorliegende Studie mit dänischen SpitzensportlerInnen aus Teamsportarten geht der Frage nach, welcher Weg mehr Erfolg verspricht.

    Methode: Mittels einer retrospektiven Online-Erhebung wurden 115 Athletinnen und 130 Athleten (N = 245; Alter: M = 21.96 Jahre, SD = 5.52) aus Teamsportarten zu folgenden Bereichen befragt: sportliche Erfolge, Entwicklung der Trainingsumfänge, Karriereeckpunkte, Training in anderen Sportarten sowie motivationale und volitionale Persönlichkeitsfaktoren. Mit t -Tests und logistischen Regressionen wurden Unterschiede zwischen Topathlet/innen und Athlet/innen der erweiterten Kader analysiert.

    Ergebnisse und Diskussion: Gruppenvergleiche zeigen u. a. auf, dass Topathlet/innen höhere Werte in Selbstbestimmung (t = -2.09, df = 178, p < .05) und niedrigere Werte in Anstrengungsvermeidung (t = 2.37, df = 178, p < .05) aufweisen. Zudem können eine längere Zugehörigkeit im Seniorennationalkader und eine niedrigere Ausprägung von Anstrengungsvermeidung den internationalen Erfolg vorhersagen (Χ2 = 21.99, df = 5, p < .001). Die anderen untersuchten Faktoren hingegen liefern keinen signifikanten Erklärungswert. Die Trainingsgestaltung während der Kindheit und Adoleszenz unterscheidet sich nicht signifikant zwischen den beiden Gruppen. Folglich können sowohl eine frühe Spezialisierung als auch eine frühe Diversifikation in Teamsportarten zu späterem Erfolg führen. Volitionale Aspekte scheinen hingegen bedeutungsvoll zu sein.

  • 18.
    Ryba, Tatiana
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Jyvaskyla, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Schinke, Robert J.
    School of Human Kinetics, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Elbe, Anne-Mari
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    ISSP position stand: Transnationalism, mobility, and acculturation in and through sport2018In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251X, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 520-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The historically unprecedented pace of internationalising sport industry and transnational movement of athletic talent in the last 20 years has heightened the need for developing new competencies in research and daily practice of sport psychology professionals. While academic literature in cultural sport psychology and praxis has been increasing, sport professionals and local organisations seem to give scant time and resources to stay abreast of complex social changes in transnational industry and to the development of cultural competencies. Stemming from the continuing need for qualified athletic personnel to support transitioning athletes and to achieve intercultural effectiveness in daily practices, our objectives in this position statement are to critically review and analyse the growing scholarship pertinent to various forms of transnational mobility and acculturation of athletic migrants, and subsequently provide recommendations for further use in research and applied contexts. © 2017 International Society of Sport Psychology

  • 19.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.
    Ryba, Tatiana
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    ”We Were Sometimes Invisible but Never Absent”: The Contribution of Women to FEPSAC and European Sport Psychology2019In: 50 Years of FEPSAC – Recent Developments in European Sport Psychology / [ed] Anne-Marie Elbe & Roland Seiler, Brussels: European Federation of Sport Psychology (IVZW) , 2019, p. 22-36Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    Department of Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Study, Research and Careers at the Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark2008In: Ze-phir – Informationen für den sportwissenschaftlichen Nachwuchs, E-ISSN 1438-4132, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 18-20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    et al.
    Institute of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    Institute of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Stelter, Reinhard
    Institute of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Can goal setting training reduce fear of failure in young elite athletes?2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Stelter, Reinhard
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    The effects of a team building intervention on group integration-social in young elite football2011In: Sport and Exercise Psychology Human Performance, Well-Being and Health: Proceedings of the 13th FEPSAC European Congress of Sport Psychology / [ed] Sidonio Serpa, Nelson Teixeira, Maria Joao Almeida, Antonio Rosado, Madeira: Institute of Sport of the Autonomous Region of Madeira , 2011, p. 156-157Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Group cohesion has shown to positively correlate with adherence in sport teams, role involvement, adherence to group norms, collective efficacy and team performance.The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of a team building intervention on team cohesion in teams of young elite football players.

    Method: One hundred and fifty two male football players aged 12 to 19 were enrolled in the study (mean age = 15.69, SD = 1.75). Four teams were assigned to an intervention group (n = 74) and four teams to a control group (n = 78). A Danish version of the Group Environment Questionnaire (Carron, Widmeyer & Brawley, 2002) measures four dimensions of team cohesion, one of these being Group Integration - Social, and it was administered at baseline (T1), six weeks after intervention start (T2), and at the end of the intervention, after twelve weeks (T3).The intervention sessions took place once per week for 12 weeks and lasted 60 minutes each.The aim of the sessions was to increase overall team cohesion through individual exercises, discussions in small groups, discussions with the whole team and team building exercises.

    Results: A paired samples t-test revealed that Group Integration - Social significantly increased from T2 to T3 in the intervention group, but not in the control group (0.33, p = 0.46, r = 0.25).

    Discussion: The results suggest that team building can be used as an effective method to increase social group integration in young elite football teams.

  • 23.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ryom, Knud
    Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Melby, Paulina S.
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elsborg, Peter
    Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Health Promotion Research, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.
    Motivational aspects of Football as Medicine2020In: Football as Medicine: Prescribing Football for Global Health Promotion / [ed] Peter Krustrup & Daniel Parnell, London: Routledge, 2020, 1, p. 102-115Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order for football to be effective as medicine it is important that participants actively engage in playing football on a regular basis. One of the key factors for regular participation in football activities is the participant’s motivation. As motivation is an interplay between the person and situation, the chapter is divided into two major sections: Personal motivational factors and situational motivational sectors. The first section, focusing on personal motivational factors, gives an overview of two frequently used motivational frameworks in physical activity, namely the Self-Determination Theory and the flow concept. It is then argued that football and similar team sports elicit more intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, as well as more flow experiences, compared to individual physical activity. Lastly, it is investigated why football and similar team sports are more motivating, and suggested that it is due to a higher degree of satisfaction of the basic psychological needs, a higher degree of social relations and better conditions for eliciting flow. The second section, focusing on situational motivational factors, starts by giving an overview of the mastery and performance climate distinction in the Achievement Goal Theory. It is subsequently argued that the theory-driven TARGET and Empowering Coaching frameworks can inform football as medicine activities that will engage participants and contribute to their long-term participation in recreational football activities.

  • 24.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    et al.
    Department for Nutrition, Exercise and Sports University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Ryom, Knud
    Department of Public Health, Humanistic Sport Research, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Stelter, Reinhard
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sport, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Effects of a School-Based Relaxation Intervention on Recovery in Young Elite Athletes in High School2016In: Sport Science Review, ISSN 2066-8732, E-ISSN 2069-7244, Vol. 25, no 3-4, p. 199-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports the effects of a recovery intervention in young elite athletes in high school. The scissors model (Kellmann & Kallus, 2001) was used as a theoretical foundation for the intervention. An intervention group (n = 40) participated in 12 weekly intervention sessions, while the control group (n = 58) did not. A Danish version of the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes measured recovery levels in the participants, at baseline and at the end of intervention. Qualitative interviews were conducted with four of the participants. Quantitative results did not show an improvement in recovery and stress levels. Qualitative results showed that the intervention had an effect on the participants, and also revealed areas, in which the intervention could be improved. Suggestions for future interventions are given.

  • 25.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Stelter, Reinhard
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Melzer, Marcus
    AMEOS Clinic for Psychiatry, Ueckermuende, Germany.
    Trier Hauge, Marie-Louise
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Effects of goal setting on fear of failure in young elite athletes2014In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251X, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 185-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports the effects of a goal-setting intervention on fear of failure in young elite athletes. Using the hierarchical model of approach and avoidance motivation as a theoretical vantage point, a goal-setting intervention using mastery-approach goals and existing goalsetting recommendations was used as intervention. The goal-setting group (n = 33) attended 12 weekly, one-hour goal-setting sessions, while the control group (n = 16) did not. A Danish version of the short form of the Achievement Motives Scale-Sport was tested with a confirmatory factor analysis and showed good fit. It was used to measure fear of failure at baseline, at the end of intervention and at follow-up, 12 weeks after intervention had ended. Results showed that in the goal-setting group, fear of failure decreased significantly from baseline to end of intervention, but increased again from end of intervention to follow-up. This indicates that fear of failure is an achievement motive disposition that can be changed through certain achievement experiences. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. © 2014 International Society of Sport Psychology.

  • 26.
    Wikman, Johan Michael
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Stelter, Reinhard
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Petersen, Niklas Kaysen
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Effects of a team building intervention on social cohesion in adolescent elite football players2017In: Swedish Journal of Sport Research, ISSN 2001-6018, E-ISSN 2001-9475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes a team building intervention and the effects on team cohesion in adolescent elite football players. The team building group (3 teams, n = 55) attended 12 weekly 60-minute team building sessions, while the control group (3 teams, n = 57) did not. The intervention used the work of Carron and Spink (1993) and Carron, Widmeyer and Brawley (1985) to plan and conduct a practically sound and effective intervention. A Danish version of the Group Environment Questionnaire was used to measure social and task cohesion at baseline and at the end of the intervention, and qualitative interviews with the participants were conducted. Results show that the sub-variable group integration–social increased significantly from baseline to end of intervention in the intervention group compared to the control group. The qualitative analysis indicated that the intervention had an effect on the intervention group. Results are discussed regarding practical implications and research.

1 - 26 of 26
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