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  • 1.
    Garthwaite, Taru
    et al.
    Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Sjöros, Tanja
    Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Laine, Saara
    Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Koivumäki, Mikko
    Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Vähä-Ypyä, Henri
    UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Eskola, Olli
    Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Rajander, Johan
    Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Petri
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Saarenhovi, Maria
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Löyttyniemi, Eliisa
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Sievänen, Harri
    UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Houttu, Noora
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Laitinen, Kirsi
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kalliokoski, Kari
    Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Vasankari, Tommi
    UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland; University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Knuuti, Juhani
    Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Associations of sedentary time, physical activity, and fitness with muscle glucose uptake in adults with metabolic syndrome2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 353-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the associations of sedentary time, physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness with skeletal muscle glucose uptake (GU). Methods: Sedentary time and physical activity were measured with accelerometers and VO2max with cycle ergometry in 44 sedentary adults with metabolic syndrome. Thigh muscle GU was determined with [18F]FDG-PET imaging. Results: Sedentary time (β = −0.374), standing (β = 0.376), steps (β = 0.351), and VO2max (β = 0.598) were associated with muscle GU when adjusted for sex, age, and accelerometer wear time. Adjustment for body fat-% turned all associations non-significant. Conclusion: Body composition is a more important determinant of muscle GU in this population than sedentary time, physical activity, or fitness. © 2022 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • 2.
    Garthwaite, Taru
    et al.
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Sjöros, Tanja
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Laine, Saara
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Vähä-Ypyä, Henri
    Ukk Institute For Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Löyttyniemi, Eliisa
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Sievänen, Harri
    Ukk Institute For Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Houttu, Noora
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Laitinen, Kirsi
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kalliokoski, Kari
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Vasankari, Tommi
    Ukk Institute For Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland; University Of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Knuuti, Juhani
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Effects of reduced sedentary time on cardiometabolic health in adults with metabolic syndrome: A three-month randomized controlled trial2022In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 579-585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate if reducing sedentary behavior improves cardiometabolic biomarkers in adults with metabolic syndrome. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Methods: Sixty-four sedentary middle-aged adults with metabolic syndrome were randomized into intervention (INT; n = 33) and control (CON; n = 31) groups. INT was guided to limit sedentary behavior by 1 h/day through increased standing and light-intensity physical activity. CON was instructed to maintain usual habits. Sedentary behavior, breaks in sedentary behavior, standing, and physical activity were measured with hip-worn accelerometers for three months. Fasting blood sampling and measurements of anthropometrics, body composition, and blood pressure were performed at baseline and at three months. Linear mixed models were used for statistical analyses. Results: INT reduced sedentary behavior by 50 (95% CI: 24, 73) min/day by increasing light-intensity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (19 [8, 30] and 24 [14, 34] min/day, respectively). Standing increased also, but non-significantly (6 [−11, 23] min/day). CON maintained baseline activity levels. Significant intervention effects favoring INT occurred in fasting insulin (INT: 83.4 [68.7, 101.2] vs. CON: 102.0 [83.3, 125.0] pmol/l at three months), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; 3.2 [2.6, 3.9] vs. 4.0 [3.2, 4.9]), HbA1c (37 [36, 38] vs. 38 [37, 39] mmol/mol), and liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase (28 [24, 33] vs. 33 [28, 38] U/l). Conclusions: Reducing sedentary behavior by 50 min/day and increasing light-intensity and moderate-to-vigorous activity showed benefits in several cardiometabolic biomarkers in adults with metabolic syndrome. Replacing some of the daily sedentary behavior with light-intensity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity may help in cardiometabolic disease prevention in risk populations. © 2022 The Authors

  • 3.
    Haapala, Eero A.
    et al.
    University Of Jyväskylä, Jyvaskyla, Finland; University Of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Sjöros, Tanja
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Laine, Saara
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Garthwaite, Taru
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Petri
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Saarenhovi, Maria
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Vähä-Ypy, Henri
    Ukk Institute For Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Löyttyniemi, Eliisa
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Sievänen, Harri
    Ukk Institute For Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Houttu, Noora
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Laitinen, Kirsi
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kalliokoski, Kari
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Knuuti, Juhani
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Vasankari, Tommi
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; University Of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Association between cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic health in overweight and obese adults2022In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, Vol. 62, no 11, p. 1526-1533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been inversely associated with insulin resistance and clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors among overweight and obese individuals. However, most previous studies have scaled CRF by body mass (BM) possibly inflating the association between CRF and cardiometabolic health. We investigated the associations of peak oxygen uptake (V?O2peak) and peak power output (Wpeak) scaled either by BM-1, fat free mass (FFM-1), or by allometric methods with individual cardiometabolic risk factors and clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors in 55 overweight or obese adults with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: VO2peak and Wpeak were assessed by a maximal cycle ergometer exercise test. FFM was measured by air displacement plethysmo- graph and glucose, insulin, HbA1c, triglycerides, and total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol from fasting blood samples. HOMA-IR and metabolic syndrome score (MetS) were computed. RESULTS: VO2peak and Wpeak scaled by BM-1 were inversely associated with insulin (β=-0.404 to -0.372, 95% CI: -0.704 to -0.048), HOMAIR (β=-0.442 to -0.440, 95% CI: -0.762 to -0.117), and MetS (β=-0.474 to -0.463, 95% CI: -0.798 to -0.127). Other measures of CRF were not associated with cardiometabolic risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that using BM-1 as a scaling factor confounds the associations between CRF and cardiometabolic risk in overweight/obese adults with the metabolic syndrome. © 2022 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA.

  • 4.
    Laine, Saara
    et al.
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Sjöros, Tanja
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Garthwaite, Taru
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Saarenhovi, Maria
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Petri
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Löyttyniemi, Eliisa
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Vähä-Ypyä, Henri
    Ukk Institute For Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Sievänen, Harri
    Ukk Institute For Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Vasankari, Tommi
    Ukk Institute For Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland; University Of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Laitinen, Kirsi
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Houttu, Noora
    University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Saukko, Ekaterina
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Knuuti, Juhani
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Saunavaara, Virva
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Relationship between liver fat content and lifestyle factors in adults with metabolic syndrome2022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 17428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between liver fat content (LFC), sedentary behaviour (SB), physical activity (PA), fitness, diet, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with metabolic syndrome. A total of 44 sedentary adults (mean age 58 [SD 7] years; 25 women) with overweight or obesity participated. LFC was assessed with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging, SB and PA with hip-worn accelerometers (26 [SD 3] days), fitness by maximal bicycle ergometry, body composition by air displacement plethysmography and nutrient intake by 4-day food diaries. LFC was not independently associated with SB, PA or fitness. Adjusted for sex and age, LFC was associated with body fat%, body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, and with insulin resistance markers. There was and inverse association between LFC and daily protein intake, which persisted after further adjusment with body fat%. LFC is positively associated with body adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors, and inversely with daily protein intake. SB, habitual PA or fitness are not independent modulators of LFC. However, as PA is an essential component of healthy lifestyle, it may contribute to liver health indirectly through its effects on body composition in adults with metabolic syndrome. © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 5.
    Norha, Jooa
    et al.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Sjöros, Tanja
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Garthwaite, Taru
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Laine, Saara
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Saarenhovi, Maria
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Petri
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Laitinen, Kirsi
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Houttu, Noora
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Vähä-Ypyä, Henri
    Ukk Institute For Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Sievänen, Harri
    Ukk Institute For Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Löyttyniemi, Eliisa
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Vasankari, Tommi
    Ukk Institute For Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland; University Of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Knuuti, Juhani
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kalliokoski, Kari K.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. University Of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Effects of reducing sedentary behavior on cardiorespiratory fitness in adults with metabolic syndrome: A 6-month RCT2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 1452-1461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction:

    Poor cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with adverse health outcomes. Previous observational and cross-sectional studies have suggested that reducing sedentary behavior (SB) might improve CRF. Therefore, we investigated the effects of a 6-month intervention of reducing SB on CRF in 64 sedentary inactive adults with metabolic syndrome in a non-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Materials and Methods:

    In the intervention group (INT, n = 33), the aim was to reduce SB by 1 h/day for 6 months without increasing exercise training. Control group (CON, n = 31) was instructed to maintain their habitual SB and physical activity. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was measured by maximal graded bicycle ergometer test with respiratory gas measurements. Physical activity and SB were measured during the whole intervention using accelerometers.

    Results:

    Reduction in SB did not improve VO2max statistically significantly (group × time p > 0.05). Maximal absolute power output (Wmax) did not improve significantly but increased in INT compared to CON when scaled to fat free mass (FFM) (at 6 months INT 1.54 [95% CI: 1.41, 1.67] vs. CON 1.45 [1.32, 1.59] Wmax/kgFFM, p = 0.036). Finally, the changes in daily step count correlated positively with the changes in VO2max scaled to body mass and FFM (r = 0.31 and 0.30, respectively, p < 0.05).

    Discussion:

    Reducing SB without adding exercise training does not seem to improve VO2max in adults with metabolic syndrome. However, succeeding in increasing daily step count may increase VO2max. © 2023 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • 6.
    Sjöros, Tanja
    et al.
    Turku PET Centre, Åbo, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Laine, Saara
    Turku PET Centre, Åbo, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Garthwaite, Taru
    Turku PET Centre, Åbo, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Vähä-Ypyä, Henri
    The UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Koivumäki, Mikko
    Turku PET Centre, Åbo, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Eskola, Olli
    Turku PET Centre, Åbo, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Löyttyniemi, Eliisa
    Department of Biostatistics, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Houttu, Noora
    Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Laitinen, Kirsi
    Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kalliokoski, Kari K.
    Turku PET Centre, Åbo, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Sievänen, Harri
    The UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.
    Vasankari, Tommi
    The UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland; Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Knuuti, Juhani
    Turku PET Centre, Åbo, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Heinonen, Ilkka H. A.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Turku PET Centre, Åbo, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    The effects of a 6-month intervention aimed to reduce sedentary time on skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity: a randomized controlled trial2023In: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 325, no 2, p. E152-E162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sedentary behavior (SB) and physical inactivity associate with impaired insulin sensitivity. We investigated whether an intervention aimed at a 1-h reduction in daily SB during 6 mo would improve insulin sensitivity in the weight-bearing thigh muscles. Forty-four sedentary inactive adults [mean age 58 (SD 7) yr; 43% men] with metabolic syndrome were randomized into intervention and control groups. The individualized behavioral intervention was supported by an interactive accelerometer and a mobile application. SB, measured with hip-worn accelerometers in 6-s intervals throughout the 6-mo intervention, decreased by 51 (95% CI 22-80) min/day and physical activity (PA) increased by 37 (95% CI 18-55) min/day in the intervention group with nonsignificant changes in these outcomes in the control group. Insulin sensitivity in the whole body and in the quadriceps femoris and hamstring muscles, measured with hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp combined with [18F]fluoro-deoxy-glucose PET, did not significantly change during the intervention in either group. However, the changes in hamstring and whole body insulin sensitivity correlated inversely with the change in SB and positively with the changes in moderate-to-vigorous PA and daily steps. In conclusion, these results suggest that the more the participants were able to reduce their SB, the more their individual insulin sensitivity increased in the whole body and in the hamstring muscles but not in quadriceps femoris. However, according to our primary randomized controlled trial results, this kind of behavioral interventions targeted to reduce sedentariness may not be effective in increasing skeletal muscle and whole body insulin sensitivity in people with metabolic syndrome at the population level.

    NEW & NOTEWORTHY Aiming to reduce daily SB by 1 h/day had no impact on skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in the weight-bearing thigh muscles. However, successfully reducing SB may increase insulin sensitivity in the postural hamstring muscles. This emphasizes the importance of both reducing SB and increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity to improve insulin sensitivity in functionally different muscles of the body and thus induce a more comprehensive change in insulin sensitivity in the whole body.

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