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  • 1.
    Nehez, Jaana
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Gyllander Torkildsen, Lisbeth
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Lander, Rolf
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Olin, Anette
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Blossing, Ulf
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    På väg mot uppdrags- och processdrivna organisationer: Uppföljning av införandet av processledare i förskolor och skolor i Helsingborg2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In a previous report, 2013, results from questionnaires and interviews showed how a new middle leader role among preschool teachers and teachers had been implemented 1,5 years after a course focusing on leading processes. The course took place in one school district in the city of Helsingborg, Sweden. The present report tells the story of what has happened within the 13 schools and 13 preschools and with the 62 middle leaders three years after the first report.

    The middle leaders were originally called process leaders. Their main function was to stimulate and guide their colleagues in developmental work, in close cooperation with principals. They have been working as administrative assistants, mentors to colleagues, leaders of improvement projects and consultants for larger school development. During the years an emphasis on micro tasks together with colleagues, have further developed to include an emphasis on macro tasks for the whole units. The preschools are all still using the process leaders, while nine of the schools have chosen other options. Some schools use first teachers (a government sponsored teacher role) as middle leaders instead. Some schools have stopped using middle leaders all-together since they do not fit principals’ view of an efficient and strict organisation. The staff at half the units do not consider process leaders as useful as before, while the staff at the other half of the units view them as just as or even more useful.

    Middle leaders are one facet of organisational change in the school district. The introduction of process leaders correspond with an increased tendency for 6 staff to engage in different change projects. This coincides with the organising of a task and process driven organisation for both routine work and development. During interviews at four sites, we noticed and named the emergence of such organisations. Teachers are assigned tasks (communicated with the rest of the staff) directly from the principal. Most preschool teachers and teachers have had tasks within specific areas, in which they are resources for their colleagues. Middle leaders, more often than their colleagues, have coordinating tasks.

    The four sites show considerable improvements in staff attitudes in relation to cooperation, perceived job relevance of in-service training, developmental projects and evaluation, and most of all support when having problems in class and needing help in order to achieve change. There is also an increase in the perception of empowerment in work correlated with an increase in taking on tasks. This was registered by staff questionnaires, which also measured individual teacher efficacy, and collective efficacy within staffs. Over the three years, these two measures have got a higher correlation, especially for preschool teachers. Thus, teachers let their own self-efficacy be more influenced by cooperative achievement at the sites, or vice versa.

    No special factor was especially outstanding in influencing collective efficacy. Instead, the numbers and direction of change played the most important role. Many negative changes in attitudes correlated with decreased collective efficacy. Both positive and negative changes correlated with no change in collective efficacy, while many improvements in measured factors predicated improved collective efficacy. What worked as enhancing or depressing on collective efficacy seems to be a contextual and local affair.

    Certain generative mechanisms were found to have important impact on the emergence and growth of task and process driven organisations. The generative mechanisms are: staff opens for visibility, cooperation across borders, improved deliberative structure of meetings, better coupling between leadership and staff, getting staff ownership from many tasks and wide participation in activities, more systematic developmental processes, improvements visible for children and students, in-take of news from other sites and research. These mechanisms also express meaning to staffs’ use of the concept ‘process driven’. In many of these processes especially process leaders used artifacts and templates learned during the course. Our analyses indicate that an important facet of task and process driven organisations were that a temporary developmental organisation was drawn up and modelled. Similar structures were not in place, or malfunctioned, in the operative organisation for routine work. © 2017 Nehez, Gyllander Torkildsen, Lander, Olin & Blossing.

  • 2.
    Nehez, Jaana
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för lärande, humaniora och samhälle, Centrum för lärande, kultur och samhälle (CLKS), Lärande, Profession och Samhällsutveckling.
    Olin, Anette
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Blossing, Ulf
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gyllander Torkildsen, Lisbeth
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lander, Rolf
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Organisations Interacting with Teacher Middle Leadership2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Olin, Anette
    et al.
    Department of Education and Special Education, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lander, Rolf
    Department of Education and Special Education, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Blossing, Ulf
    Department of Education and Special Education, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nehez, Jaana
    Department of Education and Special Education, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gyllander, Lisbeth
    Department of Education and Special Education, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Processledare för skolutveckling. Uppföljning av införandet av processledare i ett verksamhetsområde i Helsingborg2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The report details a follow-up study commissioned by the municipality of Helsingborg and conducted by a research group in School Development at Gothenburg University. The study is designed to build a partnership between the municipality and the research group, where the results from this study will serve as a starting point for further collaborative projects. A new kind of middle leaders has been introduced into the school and preschool organisations, socalled process leaders. In previous research, similar roles as development leaders or change agents have been described. The local authority aims at promoting school improvement and professional development. The study aims at reviewing the introductory phase of implementing process leaders in the school and preschool organisations. The questions in focus are: • How is the process leaders’ work organised? • How is the process leaders’ work steered? • What tasks do the process leaders work with? Two types of methods have been used: (a) a survey to all schools/preschools where process leaders have been implemented and (b) interviews with all principals at those schools/preschools and the head of the school administration department. All teachers at the schools and preschools in the area, including the process leaders, have answered the survey. The results from the survey, focusing on collective self-efficacy, show that so far the process leaders’ have not influenced their colleagues’ work in any major way, especially not for those already having a good and critical collaboration going on. The impact of the process leaders’ work in this phase, also to a small extent, reaches the class room work. However, impact is apparent in the practice of meetings between teachers. The interviews were conducted as focus group discussions with two to four principals in each group. The topics focused on (a) what the process leaders were doing at each school/preschool and (b) what the principals thought about their work. Results show that the process leaders so far mostly work with micro processes such as facilitating peer meetings about pedagogical issues, which therefore have been improved. Still there is a general aspiration among the principals that the process leaders should be more involved in macro processes of the organisational work, such as planning and leading the strategic work of school development. However, we notice that the study also reveals that there are different opinions about the benefit of having process leaders in the schools/preschools at all. Some principals, describing the need to be in control of all the processes going on in their organisations, see the process leaders as somewhat of a threat. On the other hand, other principals describe a distributed leadership as their vision, and highlight the possibility to better improve school development with the help of their process leaders’ work.

  • 4.
    Schildkamp, Kim
    et al.
    Faculty of Behavioural, Management, and Social Sciences, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.
    Nehez, Jaana
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för lärande, humaniora och samhälle, Centrum för lärande, kultur och samhälle (CLKS), Lärande, Profession och Samhällsutveckling. Youth Services Department, City of Helsingborg, Helsingborg, Sweden & University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Blossing, Ulf
    Department of Education and Special Education, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    From data to learning: A data team Professional Learning Network2018Ingår i: Networks for Learning: Effective Collaboration for Teacher, School and System Improvement / [ed] Chris Brown & Cindy L. Poortman, London: Taylor & Francis, 2018, 1, s. 75-91Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on a data team as a Professional Learning Network. Data teams are teams of teachers and school leaders who collaboratively use data to solve a specific educational problem in their school. The focus is on school improvement and professional development in data use. The chapter explains the concept of data use or data-based decision making. Examples of data include student achievement results, student background information, surveys, and classroom observations. Data-based decision making pertains to using these systematically collected quantitative and/or qualitative data to base decisions on. The chapter describes the specific data team intervention. The data team intervention focuses on professional development of teachers and school leaders in the use of data, with the ultimate goal of school improvement. The chapter also focuses on one specific data team from Sweden. It provides the factors that can enable or hinder the work of a data team.

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