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  • 1.
    Andersen, Mark
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Working with an anxious and psychologically abused athlete: A mindful, neuropsychotherapy approach2014In: Neuropsychotherapy: Theoretical concepts and clinical applications / [ed] Rossouw, Pieter J., Brisbane: Mediros , 2014, p. 193-207Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Andersen, Mark B.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Hanrahan, Stephanie J.University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Doing exercise psychology2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Andersen, Mark
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Barney, Steve T.
    South Utah University, Cedar City, Utah, USA.
    Waterson, Andrew K.
    High Performance Sport New Zealand, Cambridge, Waikato, New Zealand.
    Mindfully Dynamic Meta-Supervision: The Case of AW and M2016In: Global Practices and Training in Applied Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology: A Case Study Approach / [ed] J. Gualberto Cremades & Lauren S. Tashman, New York: Routledge, 2016, p. 330-342Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Andersen, Mark
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Waterson, Andrew K.
    High Performance Sport New Zealand, North Dunedin, New Zealand.
    A brief impressionistic history of paying attention: The roots of mindfulness2017In: Being mindful in sport and exercise psychology: Pathways for practitioners and students / [ed] Sam J. Zizzi & Mark B. Andersen, Morgantown: FiT Publishing , 2017, p. 5-27Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Back, Jenny
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Mechanisms of Exercise Dependence – A person centred approach to study the predictiveability of anxiety, obsessive passion and appearance orientation on exercise dependence2017In: Sport Psychology: Linking theory to practice / [ed] Gangyan, S., Cruz, J., & Jaenes, J.C., 2017, p. 537-538Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exercise dependence is a maladaptive pattern of exercise with a craving for physical activity that results in extreme exercise that may generate mental health problems such as anxiety and depression. Previous research suggests that individuals with certain personality traits are more prone to develop exercise dependence. However, research on personality traits and exercise dependence is still limited. In the current study, predictive abilities of anxiety, obsessive passion and appearance orientation on exercise dependence were investigated. A longitudinal design was adopted to investigate if personality related factors could predict exercise dependence. The sample consisted of 206 regular exercisers (100 males and 106 females) from various exercise groups, sport clubs and sport science classes in Sweden (Mage = 28,5 years; SD = 9,97). The LPA (Latent Profile Analysis) showed that a model with two profiles provided best fit to the data, and that profile belonging at T1 could predict measures of exercise dependence at T2. Profile 1: “high risk exercisers” reported significantly higher levels of exercise dependence, anxiety, obsessive passion and appearance orientation compared to Profile 2: “low risk exercisers”. This study highlights factors that may characterize people who develop exercise dependence. High-risk exercisers are obsessively passionate about their training and exercise may function as a tool to cope with anxiety. If the individual for some reason is prevented from training, feelings of anxiety and guilt are often experienced. Furthermore, these individuals tend to be self-conscious about how they look and appear to other people. To them, exercise may also work as a way to achieve body ideals. The results of the current study suggest plausible mechanisms of why exercise behaviours become unhealthy and uncontrollable for some exercisers whereas others manage to remain healthy.

  • 6.
    Back, Jenny
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and sports.
    Profiles of Exercise Dependence – A person centred approach to study potential mechanisms2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 7.
    Back, Jenny
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Who becomes exercise dependent? Exploring psychological risk factors for exercise dependence through a person centred approach2017In: Proceedings of the Nordic Sport Science Conference – ‘The Double-Edged Sword of Sport: Health Promotion Versus Unhealthy Environments’ / [ed] Hertting, K. & Johnson, U., Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2017, p. 65-66Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Battochio, Randy C.
    et al.
    Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada.
    Schinke, Robert J.
    Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Career barriers in the National Hockey League: An inductive thematic analysis of first-hand data from Canadian professional ice hockey players2016In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of the study were: (a) to examine the Canadian National Hockey League (NHL) players’ internal and external barriers associated with the demands at each NHL career stage and status together with across-career barriers, and (b) to feature the Canadian NHL players’ barriers in the empirical career model. Five rookies, five veterans, and 13 retirees agreed to participate in conversational interviews before their transcripts underwent an interpretive thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2012). Prospects face draft year pressure and team camp anxiety. Rookies and sophomores deal with insecurity with teammates and roster spot uncertainty. Prime veterans have to manage ruminating over missed chances while seasoned veterans struggled with social connections. Across career stages and statuses, NHL players deal with career threatening injuries and conflicts with head coach. After discussing how these results contribute to the empirical career model of Canadian NHL players and also extend the career transition and maladaptation literatures, delimitations and future directions are proposed for sport psychology researchers.

  • 9.
    Battochio, Randy C.
    et al.
    Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada.
    Schinke, Robert J.
    Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Coping strategies and resources in the National Hockey League: An inductive thematic analysis with Canadian professional ice-hockey players2017In: Conference Abstracts: 32nd Annual Conference AASP2017, Orlando, FL, October 18-21, Indianapolis: Association for Applied Sport Psychology , 2017, p. 17-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Canadian ice-hockey players must overcome numerous stressors throughout their National Hockey  League (NHL) careers. Though sport psychology researchers have conducted preliminary studies, theoretical restrictions, small participant numbers, and the use of a structured interview guide have limited breadth of knowledge. Our authors constructed a comprehensive empirical career model by eliciting 23 Canadian NHL players. The intent in the presentation is to feature the stressors, barriers, coping strategies and resources utilised at each status and career stage. Five rookies, five veterans, and 13 retirees agreed to participate in conversational interviews before their transcripts underwent an interpretive thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2012). Prospects seeking to gain entry into the NHL needed (a) realistic expectations of draft pressures, (b) training camp expectations, (c) identify the team’s needs, and (d) if demoted, readjust their expectations. Rookies developing  as NHL p layers needed a high compete level when called-up while sophomores developed by (a) knowing their opponents, (b) generating role player production, and (c) made friendships. Veterans seeking to be All-Stars coped by (a) practicing scoring and creating scoring chances, and (b) showing Stanley Cup determination. Seasoned veterans extended their careers by preserving their physique. The authors will discuss the practical applications for sport psychology consultants tasked with ensuring that professional ice-hockey players move effectively through career transitions including entering the NHL, developing as an NHL players, reaching the NHL elite, and maintaining NHL play involvement. The authors will also speak about teammates, coaches, and support staff hoping to be effective resources to their players’ career progression. © 2017 by the Association for Applied Sport Psychology 

  • 10.
    Bean, Corliss
    et al.
    School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University British Columbia, Kelowna, Canada.
    Solstad, Bård Erlend
    Department of Coaching and Psychology, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Forneris, Tanya
    School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University British Columbia, Kelowna, Canada.
    Longitudinal associations between perceived programme quality, basic needs support and basic needs satisfaction within youth sport: A person-centred approach2018In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acknowledging the importance of longitudinal data to test process-based psychological theories of motivation is critical. The purpose of this study was to use a person-centred approach to identify unique subgroups (i.e. profiles) of youth athletes based on their level of self-reported programme quality (PQ) and basic needs support mid-way through their sport season and investigate potential differences between the subgroups on their self-reported basic needs satisfaction at the end of the sport season. The current study involved 541 Canadian youth athletes (males n = 289; females n = 250; gender-fluid n = 2) within 52 sport programmes over the course of 18 months. Youthathletes ranged in age from 8 through 19 (M = 13.76, SD = 2.61). A latent profile analysis (LPA) in Mplus 8.0 was used to carry out the analyses. The LPA revealed three distinct profiles based on youth athletes’ levels of self-reported PQ and basic needs support. Specifically, athletes who perceived their sport experience to be of higher quality and supported their basic psychological needs midway through the sport season also reported higher levels of basic needs satisfaction at season end. Results from this study contribute to the field of sport psychology through understanding how basic needs theory contributes to the dimensions of programme quality and by informing recommendations for future coach education on how to satisfy youth athletes’ basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness through programmedelivery. © 2018 International Society of Sport Psychology

  • 11.
    Becker-Larsen, Astrid
    et al.
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Henriksen, Kristoffer
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    "Organizing for excellence": stress-recovery states in the Danish national orienteering team during a training camp and the 2015 World Championship2017In: Sport psychology: Linking theory to practice: Proceedings of the 14th ISSP World Congress of Sport Psychology / [ed] G. Si, J. Cruz and J.C. Jaenes, 2017, p. 639-640Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elite level athletes are under considerable pressure to perform, why energy management is a natural part of the life of elite athletes. Energy management is particularly important during periods of high demand on their resources, such as during training camps and competitions, which are often intense and do not allow sufficient time for recovery. Research on recovery has mainly focused on individual physical and physiological strategies. In the 2015 World Championship, the Danish national orienteering team was the best nation, winning four gold medals. In the present study we examined: (a) the stress-recovery states of the Danish orienteers during a three-week preparatory training camp and the following 2015 World Championship, and (b) their perceived sources of stress and recovery during the two events. The study was designed as mixed-method with the RESTQ-sport questionnaire, semi-structured interviews, and a coach’s journal as the data sources used longitudinally during the camp and the championship. Results revealed: (a) well-balanced stress-recovery states among all athletes during the entire period; and (b) perceived sources of stress and recovery classified into organizational, social, personal, and athletic. The athletes themselves stated that their well-balanced stress-recovery states positively affected their learning, well-being, and performance. The organizational strategies played a key role in reducing athletes’ unnecessary stress and in facilitating individual recovery. We suggest that “organizing for excellence”, keeping in mind athletes' energy management, is a special task for coaches and managers when preparing for camps and competitions. 

  • 12.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Sandgren, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Center for Collaborative Palliative Care , Department of Health and Caring Sciences , Växjö , Sweden.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Health Risks among People with Severe Mental Illness in Psychiatric Outpatient Settings2018In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life expectancy is greatly reduced in patients with schizophrenia, and cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of mortality. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and to investigate the relationships between self-rated health, sense of coherence, CVD risk, and body mass index (BMI) among people with severe mental illness (SMI) in psychiatric outpatient settings. Nearly 50% of the participants were exposed to moderate/high risk of CVD and over 50% were obese. The results showed no statistically relationships between the subjective and objective measures (Bayes factor <1) of health. The integration of physical health into clinical psychiatric nursing practice is vital. © 2018 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  • 13.
    Clement, Damien
    et al.
    West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, United Kingdom.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Investigating the influence of intra-individual changes in perceived stress symptoms on injury risk in soccer2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 1461-1466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that high levels of stress and stress responsivity can increase the risk of injuries. However, most of the research that has supported this notion has focused on between-person relationships, ignoring the relationships at the within-person level. As a result, the objective of this study was to investigate if within-person changes in perceived stress symptoms over a 1-month time period could predict injury rates during the subsequent 3 months. A prospective design with two measurement points (Time 1—at the beginning of the season and Time 2—1 month into the season) was utilized. A total of 121 competitive soccer players (85 males and 36 females; Mage = 18.39, SD = 3.08) from Sweden and the United States completed the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (KPDS) and a demographic sheet at Time 1. The KPDS was also completed at Time 2, and all acute injuries that occurred during the subsequent 3-month period were recorded. A Bayesian latent change scores model was used to determine whether within-person changes in stress symptoms could predict the risk of injury. Results revealed that there was a credible positive effect of changes in stress symptoms on injury rates, indicating that an increase in reported stress symptoms was related to an increased risk for injury. This finding highlights the importance of creating caring and supportive sporting environments and relationships and teaching stress management techniques, especially during the earlier portion of competitive seasons, to possibly reduce the occurrence of injuries. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  • 14.
    Cruz, Jaume
    et al.
    Autonomous Univeristy of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Garcia-Mas, Alexandre
    Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma, Illes Balears, Spanien.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Lucidi, Fabio
    University of La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.
    Márquez, Sara
    University of León, León, Spain.
    Reyes, Santiago
    ONECO.
    Serpa, Sidonio
    University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Jaenes, Jose Carlos
    University Pablo de Olavide, Seville, Spain.
    PsyTool design and theoretical background2017In: Sport psychology: Linking theory to practice: Proceedings of the 14th ISSP World Congress of Sport Psychology / [ed] G. Si, J. Cruz and J.C. Jaenes, 2017, p. 212-212Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PsyTool is a European project, funded by Erasmus+ Sport Programme, led by the Universidad Pablo de Olavide (Sevilla, Spain). It brings together 13 partners from Spain, Portugal, Italy, United Kingdom and Sweden, running from January 2016 to December 2017. PsyTool is based theoretically on the concept of youth development through the practice of sport in positive and safe environments. The central idea is that this type of practice leads to a psychological wellbeing in all areas of personal development of athletes. Through sport programs that are free of bullying; zero permissiveness towards substance use; low acceptance of gamemanship and cheating, and at the same time promoters of fair play and clean competition, young athletes are more likely to increase their psychological well-being while they practice the sport to their best level of capacity. One of the most important assets of PsyTool is the formation of Agents of Change as inductors of this well-being promoter environment, according to their different responsibilities, from the politics to grassroot coaching. The AoCs’ selection, training and certification is one of the key points of this program. This so-called “targeted snowball” approach is expected to produce a spreading impact on the young athletes, which can be evaluated in the short and medium term, depending of the nature of the different AoCs. Coming form this design and theoretical background, this program –once the results have been analyzed- has to lead to a more ambitious development both in its scope and on the educational methods involved with.

  • 15.
    Defruyt, Simon
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Wylleman, Paul
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    De Brandt, Koen
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Linnér, Lukas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Helping dual career athletes to recover from injury: a dual career support providers’ (DCSPs’) perspective2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The combination of elite sport and study, called a dual career (DC), can be challenging for athletes. DC Athletes can encounter co-occurring challenges at different domains of development (athletic, psychological, psychosocial, educational/vocational and financial) (Wylleman & Lavallee, 2004). In this challenging period and environment, the burden of an injury is likely to be stressful for DC athletes. Although previous research have looked at how sports stakeholders can support the athletes within the athletic domain, no research up to our knowledge addressed how elite athletes can be supported holistically (i.e. in the different domains of development) outside of the club context. Therefore, current research aimed at gathering good practices of holistic support for DC athletes from a dual career support provider (DCSP) perspective.

    Methods

    Within the ‘Gold in education and Elite Sport’ (GEES) project, co-funded by the Erasmus+ Programme of the European Union, focus groups were conducted with a selection of DCSPs. As inclusion criterion for the participants, a DCSP was defined as: ‘a professional consultant, related to an educational institute and/or an elite sport organization – or certified by one of those – that provides support to elite athletes in view of optimizing their DC (combination of elite sport and education).’ One focus group in Sweden with six DCSPs and two focus groups in Belgium with two and three DCSPs were held. Using a phenomenological approach, participants were asked to share their methods used to holistically support DC athletes in coping with an injury.

    Results

    Five main themes of support emerged from the DCSPs discussions: a) practical support (e.g. support with transport problems if necessary), b) emotional support (e.g. empathic listening), c) reframing the injury in a holistic perspective (e.g. athletes will have more time for studies and family), d) empowerment of self-regulation competences (e.g. encourage the use of a recovery agenda), e) multidisciplinary and multi-organizations’ cooperation (e.g. structural meetings between different DC stakeholders).

    Conclusion

    Findings underscore the importance of a developmental and empowering approach in holistically supporting DC athletes to recover from an injury. Moreover, the cooperation between stakeholders in a DC support environment is crucial for an optimal recovery. Future research and practice could use current findings to develop injury recovery programs in a DC setting.

    References

    Wylleman P, Lavallee D. (2004). A Developmental Perspective on Transitions Faced by Athletes. In M Weis (Ed.), Developmental sport psychology. Morgantown, WV: Fitness International Technology.

  • 16.
    Ekengren, Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    From career initiation to discontinuation: an empirical career model of Swedish handball players2017In: Sport psychology: Linking theory to practice: Proceedings of the 14th ISSP World Congress of Sport Psychology / [ed] G. Si, J. Cruz and J.C. Jaenes, 2017, p. 190-191Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral project was inspired by a set of challenges articulated in the cultural praxis of athletes’ careers paradigm (Stambulova & Ryba, 2013), and especially in regard of contextualizing career research and existing ‘general’ frameworks. Innovative aspects of this study consisted of: (a) exploring career experiences of Swedish handball players with foci on stages and transitions in their athletic and non-athletic development, and (b) consolidating the players’ first-hand data into an empirical career model of Swedish handball players (further – the empirical model). The holistic athletic career model (Wylleman, Reints & De Knop, 2013) served as a prototype for the empirical model and was useful in structuring the players’ career experiences. Eighteen elite Swedish handball players (retiring or just recently retired) took part in narrative type interviews about their whole careers with an interest in both athletic and non-athletic developments. Thematic analysis initially took a deductive turn to identify the handball career structure, and then the empirical data relevant to each stage/sub-stage were analysed inductively to identify themes describing players’ career experiences at each stage. Finally, the themes were incorporated into the stage-like structure, and the empirical model was completed. The model describes careers of Swedish handball players as having four stages – initiation, development (with three sub-stages), mastery (with four sub-stages), and discontinuation. It also contains eight layers – athletic categorisation in terms of age, pathways of the Swedish Handball Federation, academic/vocational, psychological, psychosocial, and financial developments – all aligned with age markers and complemented by sets of themes describing players’ stage-by-stage career experiences from the holistic perspective. Further in the project the empirical model will be used to create the ‘whole career’ psychological support system for Swedish handball players.

  • 17.
    Ekengren, Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    No rest for the weary: Swedish elite handball players’ perceived demands in the transition to the national team2017In: Proceedings of the Nordic Sport Science Conference – ‘The Double-Edged Sword of Sport: Health Promotion Versus Unhealthy Environments’ / [ed] Krister Hertting & Urban Johnson, Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2017, p. 31-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Athletes have to pay a price to make their dream true, and for many this dream is to become professional and play in the national team (NT). Playing in the NT is often seen as the pinnacle of an athletic career but also as a period when athletes experience new demands due to their dual responsibility of playing in the club and in the NT. This dual responsibility brings additional performance demands, increased workload, extended travelling, many days away from home, etc., and in a combination with too little recovery, and various role conflicts leads to a stressful living. The transition to the NT can be classified as a quasi-normative (Stambulova, 2016) that is relevant only to elite level athletes. Challenging nature of this transition in a combination with its personal and social significance might put players at risk of poor coping and mental health problems (Frank, Nixdorf, & Beckmann, 2015; Stambulova & Wylleman, 2014; Stambulova 2017).

     Aim and theoretical framework: The transition to the NT was identified as a topic specific for the mastery stage of the players’ careers in the empirical career model of Swedish handball players (Ekengren, Stambulova, Johnson, & Carlsson, submitted). This model complemented by the athletic career transition model (Stambulova, 2003; 2009) served as theoretical frameworks for this study. The aim of this study was to examine Swedish elite handball players’ experiences of participating in both a professional club and the NT with a specific focus on their perceived demands.

     Method: In the narrative-type interviews 18 Swedish elite handball players (9 men, 9 women) were encouraged to talk about their careers with foci on both athletic and non-athletic development (Ekengren et al., submitted). Narratives about their experiences of playing both in professional club and the NT were extracted from a larger data set and thematically analysed (Braun, Clarke & Terry 2015).

     Results: The national team was described as a great reward for their performance efforts and achievements, but also as a burden of being time and energy consuming:

     It’s a great honour to play in the national team, and you don’t want to turn it down. But I didn’t get the recovery I required to be able to play in both. So, I had to say “no”, because it tears greatly. It wasn’t right to my club that pays my salary. (Female player 7)

     Major themes outlining the players’ perceived demands in the NT transition were:

    • it wears and tears a lot physically and psychologically” (e.g., brings higher performance demands but also leaves small time for recovery);
    • you are caught in the treadmill of recurrent events (e.g., difficult to maintain good life quality being away from family)
    • you are torn between the two team” (e.g., conflicting interests in professional and national team)
    • “you are torn between different roles” (e.g., between being the NT player and a club player, a players and a family member)

     Discussion and conclusions: The project reveals how professional athletes appraised the increasing demands when selected to the NT. On the one hand, the NT transition was seen as a reward, but on the other hand, the transition demands put players under risk of too high life stress with possible negative consequences (e.g., injuries, burnout, and depression) to follow (e.g., Ivarsson, Stambulova, & Johnson, 2016; Stambulova, 2017). Based on the research findings recommendations will be provided for psychological support of NT-players and their coaches/managers in club and federation. This will include, for example, promoting a holistic view of the players’ situation, individual recovery plans and communication skills.

  • 18.
    Ekengren, Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Returning home after playing abroad: re-adaptation challenges of elite Swedish handball players2017In: Sport psychology: Linking theory to practice: Proceedings of the 14th ISSP World Congress of Sport Psychology / [ed] G. Si, J. Cruz and J.C. Jaenes, 2017, p. 531-531Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In cultural sport psychology and athlete migration literature (Ryba, Schinke, Stambulova, & Elbe, 2017) there is a call for studying athletes’ transnational mobility and cultural transitions out of, and back to the country of origin. This call is also echoed in the cultural praxis of athletes’ careers paradigm (Stambulova & Ryba, 2013) attracting attention of career researchers. This study is aimed at exploring “back home” re- adaptation challenges of elite Swedish handball players after several years of playing professionally abroad. Eleven players (six females) were interviewed about their careers from the beginning to the end, and their narratives about the transition back to Sweden were extracted from the larger data set and thematically analysed (Braun & Clarke, 2013). Participants spent abroad for M=7.2±2.8 years, and many of them came back having families and kids. Several informants narrated that the transition was more challenging than they expected, and they (especially at the beginning) felt themselves as strangers in their own land. Five major themes describing the transition challenges were: “to rethink self-identity”, “to renew family life”, “to re- establish links with relatives and family”, “to understand local laws and regulations”, “to keep in pace with the society”. The identity issue was addressed through a sense of being “in between” the identities of the home and the foreign cultures that elevated emotional discomfort, especially at the early phase of re-adjustment. Three themes describing coping strategies used in the re-adaptation were: “don’t give up” (i.e., attempt to change own attitude and the situation to the better), “use social skills” (e.g., be alert and communicate) and “search for social support” (e.g., from a spouse and close family). Based on the findings, recommendations will be provided for pre-retirement planning of elite athletes and psychological support in their cultural transition and re-adaptation back home.

  • 19.
    Ekengren, Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Svenska handbollsspelares karriär: En empirisk modell och ett psykologiskt stödsystem2015In: Program Svebi 2015, 2015, p. 25-25Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion

    Handboll har en lång tradition inom svensk idrottsrörelse och tillhör de mest populära lagidrotterna. I Sverige finns 110 000 utövare, lika många män och kvinnor, som är aktiva i landets 400 föreningar. Internationella Handbollförbundet har 190 medlemsländer och Sverige är en ledande nation inom världshandbollen med 21 medaljer i OS, VM och EM. Att satsa på en karriär som elitspelare i handboll är attraktivt. I Sverige finns ett Riksidrottsgymnasium och 38 Nationellt godkända idrottsutbildningar som kvalitetssäkras av Svenska Handbollförbundet (SHF). Det innebär att drygt 400 spelare årligen tar examen från ett elithandbollsgymnasium. Trots handbollens utbredning och popularitet finns lite kunskap om handbollskarriären, utifrån övergångar och utmaningar som aktiva ställs inför. Kunskapen är av vikt för aktiva liksom tränare, föräldrar och stödpersoner t.ex. idrottspsykologiska rådgivare. Forskningen är relevant för föreningar, förbund, gymnasier och SHF:s spelarutbildning, landslagsverksamhet och tränarutbildning. Ökad kunskap medför att fler fullföljer och optimerar sin karriär, samt stannar kvar och är välmående en längre period. Dagens idrottsforskning inom karriärområdet och aktuell studie belyser betydelsen av förklaringsmodeller som ser karriären från ett idrottsspecifikt och holistiskt kontext. Forskning som dels fångar den verksamma kulturen, dels studerar den livslånga processen och hela karriären, tillskillnad från enstaka moment.

    Syfte & teoretisk ram

    Syftet i delstudie 1 är att utifrån intervjuer med etablerade svenska landslagsspelare i handboll studera handbollskarriären och utveckla en Empirisk karriärmodell (EKM) för svenska handbollsspelare. Modellen valideras i tre separata fokusgrupper, bestående av tränare, herr- och damspelare. Syftet i delstudie 2 är att utveckla och validera ett Psykologiskt stödsystem (PSS) för svenska elithandbollsspelare. Utifrån EKM och doktorandens gedigna erfarenhet av tillämpat arbete med svenska elit- och landslagsspelare skapas ett stödsystem, som validering i fyra fokusgrupper; tränare, herr-, damspelare och idrottspsykologiska rådgivare. Utifrån diskussioner och slutsatser sammanställs PSS. Det teoretiska ramverket består av: Cultural praxis of athletes’ careers (Stambulova & Ryba, 2014), Holistic athletic career model (Wylleman, Reints & De Knop, 2013) och Athletic career transition model (Stambulova, 2003).

    Metod

    Studiens urval är strategiskt och baseras på att informanterna ska ha spelat minst 20 tävlingslandskamper på seniornivå för Sverige, de ska ha varit professionella idrottare på internationell klubbnivå i minst fem år och vara i slutet av sin karriär, alternativt ha avslutat sin idrottsliga karriär. Om idrottskarriären är avslutad ska avskedet skett inom de närmsta tre åren. Under 2015 har pilotintervju och 18 stycken narrativa intervjuer genomförts. Studien har en jämn fördelning mellan kvinnor och män. De kvinnliga informanternas ålder är mellan 28 och 34 år (M = 30,6, SD = 2,2), de manliga informanternas ålder är mellan 27 och 38 år (M = 34,4, SD = 3,1). I snitt har kvinnorna spelat 83 landskamper (SD = 36,5), männen har i snitt spelat 123 landskamper (SD = 57,3).

    Resultat och diskussion

    Analys av intervjuer pågår således är studiens resultat och diskussion under arbete. Reflektion från aktuell process är att idrottskarriären är av central betydelse och anges som det område som alltid har prioriterats högst i informanternas liv. Det finnas en tendens i att kvinnor ställs inför en komplexare tillvaro eftersom de väljer att ha uppmärksamhet på parallella områden i livet, som de därmed får hantera. Den ekonomiska verkligheten är av naturliga skäl tuffare för kvinnorna, eftersom ersättningar är markant lägre. Det är också en faktor som skapar ökad fokus på andra områden i livet, främst utbildning. Förståelsen kring det som krävs på internationell nivå, utmaningar som väntar och färdigheter som gynnar, verkar vara relativt låg innan de aktiva i studien de facto hamnar på aktuell nivå. Flera val är medvetna samtidigt som informanterna reflekterar kring att tillfälligheter och tur är återkommande faktorer i deras karriär.

  • 20.
    Ekengren, Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Exploring career experiences of Swedish professional handball players: Consolidating firsthand information into an empirical career model2018In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study was aimed at developing the empirical career model of Swedish professional handball players by means of exploring their career experiences in athletic and non-athletic developments through the lens of the holistic athletic career model. Eighteen Swedish professional handball players (nine men and nine women), who had recently terminated or were finishing their careers took part in semi-structured interviews about their careers from the beginning to the end with an interest in both athletic and non-athletic developments. Thematic analysis initially focused on identifying the handball career structure (i.e. stages and sub-stages). Then, the interviews were analysed inductively to identify shared themes in the players’ experiences relevant to each career stage. These themes were incorporated in the relevant stages, and the empirical career model of Swedish professional handball players (further – the empirical model) was finalised. The empirical model describes careers of Swedish handball players as having four athletic stages – initiation, development (with three sub-stages), mastery (with four sub-stages), and discontinuation – complemented by players’ psychological, psychosocial, academic/vocational, and financial developments. Each stage is also aligned with age markers and contains themes describing players’ career experiences from the holistic perspective. The empirical model contributes to contextualised career research and serves as a basis for developing career-long psychological support services in Swedish handball including player/coach/parent education organised by the Swedish Handball Federation.

  • 21.
    Ekengren, Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Linnér, Lukas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Moving to Play Abroad: Experiences of Transnational Team Handball Players2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many athletes strive to excel in their sport, dreaming of fame and fortune, aiming for a career as a professional athlete. In the Nordic countries, becoming professional often implies a migration across national borders. In this relocation, it is not only crucial for transnational athletes to adapt in sport, a cultural and psychological adaptation is also needed (Ryba, Haapanen, Mosek, & Ng, 2012; Agergaard & Ryba, 2014). The purpose of this study was to examine team handball players’ experiences of their first transition and adaptation to a professional league in a foreign country, with a specific focus on their perceived demands and coping strategies. Participants were 18 senior elite team handball players (10 male, 8 female). During narrative-type interviews participants were encouraged to tell their story, focusing on how they experienced their first transnational transition. Participants’ narratives were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2013), themes and patterns of meaning were identified. The four major themes of perceived transition demands were: ‘Learn new cultural and social codes’, ‘Adjust to the rules of the new club’, ‘Accept the result focused environment’, ‘Acknowledge your role and play it’. Three themes of coping strategies were: ‘Embrace the challenge’ (e.g., be aware of the new context, negotiate and adapt to new norms and expect the unexpected) ‘Embrace yourself’ (e.g., to care for and prioritize yourself in a self-centered, but still positive way) and ‘Embrace your demons’ (e.g., accept feelings of doubt and anxiety and carry on regardless of them). Based on the research findings recommendations will be provided for psychological support of transnational athletes in their transition and adaptation abroad.

  • 22.
    Franck, Alina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Linnér, Lukas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Athletic and Student Identities of Swedish Adolescent Student-Athletes: Mixed-Method Exploration2013In: Abstracts of the ISSP 13th World Congress of Sport Psychology: July 21-26, 2013, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, China, Beijing, 2013, p. 153-154Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the project was to explore Swedish adolescent student-athletes’ transition to, and adaptation at, national elite sport schools (NESS) based on the holistic lifespan perspective (Wylleman & Lavallee, 2004) and career transition framework (Stambulova, 2003). Transitional variables (e.g., demands, coping strategies, personal and environmental resources,) covering student athletes’ sport, studies, and private life were studied in line with their athletic and student identities. This presentation will particularly focus on how student-athletes’ dual career experiences affect their athletic and student identities during their first year at NESS. Participants (main sample) were first year student-athletes of 15-16 years old representing different sports and 33 NESS across the country. A longitudinal mixed-method research design was implemented with the first quantitative measurement conducted in autumn (n = 261), and the second measurement in spring (n = 250). Athletic and student identities were measured using the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS; Brewer, Van Raalte, & Linder, 1993) and the Student Identity Measurement Scale (SIMS; Engström & Stambulova, 2010). Additionally, in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 participants from the main sample two times during the year (autumn and spring). Interview guides were structured in three parts exploring student athletes’ near past (e.g., previous experiences of combining sport, studies and private life or the dual career experiences between the two interviews), present status in the transition (e.g., demands, coping strategies, perception of themselves as students and athletes), and future expectations. The results of both quantitative and qualitative exploration of the student-athletes’ identity issue can be summarized as follows: (1) no significant changes were found in athletic and student identities between the two quantitative measurements, however, athletic identity was significantly higher than student identity in both measurements, (2) interviews confirmed that student-athletes perceived themselves to have higher athletic than student identity but also that inter-individual variations in their perceptions existed, (3) there were intra-individual differences in how student-athletes perceived their self-identities between the first and the second interview, (4) there was a clear message from the interviews that searching for an optimal balance between student and athlete roles and also between athletic and student identities was perceived as a key issue in adjusting to the dual career at NESS. The participants’ narratives will be used to illustrate the complexity of student-athletes’ perception of their athletic and student identities.

  • 23.
    Franck, Alina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    A Swedish female basketball player’s junior-to-seniortransition: A narrative case study2017In: Proceedings of the Nordic Sport Science Conference – ‘The Double-Edged Sword of Sport: Health Promotion Versus Unhealthy Environments’ / [ed] Krister Hertting & Urban Johnson, Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2017, p. 32-33Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Franck, Alina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Social influences on the junior-to-senior transition in Swedish athletes: narrative case studies2017In: Sport psychology: Linking theory to practice: Proceedings of the 14th ISSP World Congress of Sport Psychology / [ed] G. Si, J. Cruz and J.C. Jaenes, 2017, p. 124-124Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The junior-to-senior transition (JST) is decisive for athletes who want to reach the elite/professional sport level. The JST: (a) is initiated by a set of demands relevant to athletic and non-athletic development, (b) lasts between one and four years, and (c) is characterized by athletes’ high dropout rate (Bruner, Munroe-Chandler, & Spink, 2008; Franck, Stambulova, & Weibull, 2016; Stambulova, 2009). This study is a follow up of the quantitative longitudinal study of the JST in Swedish club-based athletes (Franck et al., 2016; Franck, Stambulova, & Ivarsson, in press) and aimed at further qualitative exploration of the JST process emphasizing social influences involved. Four athletes (age M = 24.2, SD = 1.5) representing tennis, swimming, football, and basketball were interviewed. They were encouraged to reflect retrospectively on their JST process using five measurement points of the longitudinal study as an aid to structure their narratives. The interviews lasted for about 90 minutes. Thematic narrative analysis (Smith, 2016) was used to identify themes related to social influences during the JST and their perceived facilitative or debilitative effects. All four JST narratives were unique, however, to structure the results the narratives were pared to represent individual vs. team sport contexts. The results revealed that the social factors facilitating the JST were shared by both sport contexts and included family support, and good relationships with coaches and peers. The debilitating social factors that worked as the JST barriers were more diverse across the sport contexts. These factors covered a lack of sponsors/financial support and the ambiguity of requirements from the sport federations in individual sports, and changes in the structure of the team and selection to a higher level team not being ready for, in team sports. All participants went through the JST, continued a few years after, and then terminated their athletic careers.

  • 25.
    Franck, Alina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Swedish athletes' adjustment patterns in the junior-to-senior transition2017In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The specific objectives of this study were: (a) to identify adjustment patterns in the JST based on athletes’ dynamics of adjustment during a two-and-a–half-year period, and (b) to describe the athletes’ demographic, personal and transitional characteristics at the beginning of the JST that were related to the different adjustment patterns. This quantitative longitudinal study consisted of five measurements conducted approximately every six months over a two-and-a-half-year period. One instrument was used to measure the transition variables and three instruments to measure personal characteristics. In the first measurement, 101 club-based Swedish athletes with the mean age of 16.51 (SD = 1.32) took part. The latent profile analysis (LPA) on athletes’ perceived degree of adjustment provided three profiles with different patterns in the JST. Profile 1 had a progressive adjustment pattern, whereas the second profile had a regressive adjustment pattern, and the third profile had a sustainable adjustment pattern. The descriptive statistics and Cohen’s d indicated that there were differences (with variation in magnitude) between the three profiles at the first measurement in terms of how athletes perceived different transitional characteristics. Keeping a primary focus on sport (but also having attention to other spheres of life), high athletic identity and motivation to reach senior level were characteristics relevant for both progressive and sustainable adjustment patterns. © 2016 International Society of Sport Psychology

  • 26.
    Franck, Alina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Weibull, Fredrik
    School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    Profiles of personal characteristics and relevant pathways in the junior-to-senior transition: A longitudinal study of Swedish athletes2016In: International Journal of Sport Psychology, ISSN 0047-0767, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 483-507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the specific foci were as follows: (1) to identify profiles of athletes in the junior-to-senior transition (JST) based on their personal characteristics (athletic identity, self-esteem and goal orientation) and (2) to describe the JST pathways relevant to the profiles. This quantitative longitudinal study included five measurements that were conducted approximately every six months. The following package of four instruments was used: the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (Brewer, Van Raalte, & Linder, 1993), the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (Duda, 1989), the self-esteem sub-scale from the Physical Self-Perception Profile – Revised (Lindwall, Hagger, & Asci, 2007) and the Transition Monitoring Survey (Stambulova, Franck, & Weibull, 2012). In the first measurement 100 club-based Swedish athletes (73 male and 27 female) with the mean age of 16.51 (SD = 1.32) participated. The Latent Profile Analysis identified three profiles of athletes and several similarities and differences can be seen in the profiles of athletes’ transition pathways. The main findings are: (1) three profiles of personal characteristics associated with different JST transition pathways were identified; (2) athletic identity appeared to be key personal characteristic that influenced the dynamic of adjustment and (3) different styles of coping strategies were associated with different JST pathways. The JST pathways relevant to the profiles are discussed based on the theoretical framework and previous research.

  • 27. Gibbs, Petah
    et al.
    Andersen, Mark B.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Marchant, Daryl B.
    Institute of Sport, Exercise, and Active Living Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia.
    The Athlete Apperception Technique: Manual and Materials for Sport and Clinical Psychologists2017Book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Gibbs, Petah M.
    et al.
    Private Practice, Melbourne, Australia.
    Marchant, Daryl B.
    Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Andersen, Mark
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Development of a clinical sport projective assessment method: the Athlete Apperception Technique (AAT)2017In: Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, ISSN 2159-676X, E-ISSN 2159-6778, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 33-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the field of applied sport psychology, there is an increasing appreciation for diversity of training models, research methodologies, and therapeutic approaches. For example, psychodynamic formulations and interpretations have begun to appear more frequently in the sport psychology literature. In keeping with emerging psychodynamic viewpoints, we believe the time is right to introduce a qualitative sport-specific projective instrument: the Athlete Apperception Technique (AAT). The AAT represents a new technique based on psychodynamic theory and established projective test construction principles. It was designed primarily as a clinical tool for practitioners and not as an instrument for quantitative research into personality. It does, however, have potential research applications, especially in clinical sport case study research and narrative analysis investigations. The AAT produces an idiographic understanding of athletes’ characteristics, anxieties, and motivations (both conscious and unconscious). We briefly review the literature on the development of projective techniques, explain the rationale underlying the development of the AAT, and present three sequential studies to explain the AAT image selection procedures that led to the final product. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 29.
    Gullberg, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and sports.
    Stressresponsens påverkan på prestation samt copingstrategiers påverkan innan och underprestation2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 30.
    Henriksen, Kristoffer
    et al.
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Larsen, Carsten
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Storm, Louise
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Successful and Less Successful Interventions with Youth and Senior Athletes: Insights from Expert Sport Psychology Practitioners2017In: Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, ISSN 1932-9261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is focused on reflections of expert sport psychology practitioners about their interventions with competitive youth and senior elite athletes. Two objectives include: (1) to identify key structural components used by practitioners to describe sport psychology interventions and integrate them into an empirical framework, and (2) to analyze the practitioners’ experiences in regard of their successful and less successful interventions in competitive youth and elite senior sport contexts using the empirical framework. We conducted semi-structured interviews with twelve internationally recognized sport psychology practitioners (SPPs) and analyzed the data thematically. The empirical framework derived from the SPPs’ accounts contains eight structural components integrated into two categories: (1) the content and focus (with three components, e.g., adaptation of content), and (2) the organization and delivery of interventions (with five components, e.g., initiation and assessment of athletes’ needs). Using the empirical framework we found differences between successful and less successful interventions and between youth and senior contexts in terms of needs assessment, adaptation and breadth of content, athlete-practitioner relationship, and intervention settings. The empirical framework might inform SPPs in their efforts to design, implement, and evaluate their services in these two contexts.

  • 31.
    Henriksen, Kristoffer
    et al.
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Storm, Louise
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Larsen, Carsten
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Creating optimal environments for talent development2017In: Sport psychology: Linking theory to practice: Proceedings of the 14th ISSP World Congress of Sport Psychology / [ed] G. Si, J. Cruz and J.C. Jaenes, 2017, p. 242-243Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The holistic ecological approach (HEA) to talent development in sport shifts researchers’ attention from the individual athletes to the broader environment in which they develop. The HEA provides a theoretical grounding, ecologically inferred definitions of talent development, two working models, and methodological guidelines. The HEA highlights two interconnected ways of analyzing athletic talent development environments (ATDE). First, there is a focus on the structure of the environment, particularly the roles and cooperation of key persons. Second, there is a focus on the organizational culture of the team. A number of in-depth case studies of successful talent development environments in Scandinavia have shown that while each environment is unique, they also share a number of features. They are characterized by proximal role modeling; an integration of efforts among the different agents (family, coaches, management etc.); inclusive training groups rather than early selection; a focus on long-term developmental rather than on early success, and a “strong and coherent” organizational culture. Moving from ecological research to ecologically informed practice, we add applied principles and provide an example of how these principles were used in developing a culture for goal directedness in a group of under-17 players in a football academy in Denmark. The case example demonstrates two main ideas: (1) a team’s organizational culture influences the athletes, or in popular terms the characteristics of culture become the character of the athletes; and (2) the coach plays a vital part in creating and maintaining a team culture. Together, the eight common features of successful ATDEs, the case examples, and the applied HEA principles can serve as a guide for practitioners aiming to improve talent development environments in sport.

  • 32.
    Hofseth, Erik
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences (NIH), Oslo, Norway.
    Toering, Tynke
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences (NIH), Oslo, Norway.
    Jordet, Geir
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences (NIH), Oslo, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Self-evaluation of skills and performance level in youth elite soccer: Are positive self-evaluations always positive?2017In: Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, ISSN 2157-3905, E-ISSN 2157-3913, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 370-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compared youth elite soccer players’ and their coaches’ evaluations of players’ skill level, and examined how this comparison was related to players' future performance level concerning national team experience. Based on the notions of the self-serving bias, it was predicted that players who overestimated their skill level relative to their coaches’ judgment, would be characterized by a high performance level in the past and a relative low future performance level; due to relatively high levels of performance anxiety and a frequent use of self-protection strategies. Results showed that the players (N= 267, Mage = 17.6, SD = 1.1), in reference to their coach, tended to overestimate their skills. This tendency was negatively related to players’ future performance level. Specifically, when controlling for age, past performance level and current performance level, a multinomial regression analysis (X² 18, N = 238) = 76.95, p ˂ .01) revealed that the players who overestimated their skills to the largest extent (compared to players that underestimated their skills), were less likely to produce a high performance level in the future (OR = .71, 95% CI = .54 - 18 .94). It seems that unrealistically positive self-evaluations can have negative effects in terms of performance development, but not through the mechanism of the self-serving bias, as measured in the current study. Nevertheless, it may be important for players to have a realistic view on their skill-level in order to progress and reach their potential. (PsycINFO Database Record © 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  • 33.
    Håman, Linn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Prell, Hillevi
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    “If it’s not Iron it’s Iron f*cking biggest Ironman”: personal trainers’s views on health norms, orthorexia and deviant behaviours2017In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 12, no Suppl. 2, article id 1364602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Orthorexia nervosa (ON) describes a pathological obsession with healthy eating to avoid ill health. In the Swedish context, ON is also understood in terms of unhealthy exercise. Fitness gyms are popular health-promoting places, but exercise-related problems, disordered eating and ON-like behaviour are increasing. Personal trainers (PTs) play an important role in detecting unhealthy behaviours. The aim of the present study was to illuminate PTs’ understandings of healthy and unhealthy exercise and eating behaviours in relation to orthorexia nervosa in a fitness gym context. Five focus groups with 14 PTs were conducted. These were analysed using interpretative qualitative content analysis and Becker’s model “Kinds of Deviance.” In contrast to PTs’ health norms (practicing balanced behaviours and contributing to well-being), ON was expressed mainly in terms of exercise behaviour and as being excessive and in total control. The PTs maintain that extreme behaviours are legitimized by an aggressive exercise trend in society and that they fear to falsely accuse clients of being pathological. Certain sport contexts (bodybuilding, fitness competitions and elite sports) and specific groups (fitness professionals) contribute to complicating PTs’ negotiations due to a competition, performance and/or profession norm, making it difficult to determine whether or not to intervene. © 2017 The Author(s)

  • 34.
    Håman, Linn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport. Department of Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Prell, Hillevi
    Department of Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The challenges in responding to unhealthy eating and exercise behaviours among clients: From personal trainers’ views2017In: Proceedings of the Nordic Sport Science Conference – ‘The Double-Edged Sword of Sport: Health Promotion Versus Unhealthy Environments’ / [ed] Krister Hertting & Urban Johnson, Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2017, p. 57-58Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35. Ingrell, Joakim
    et al.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Developmental changes in burnout perceptions among student-athletes: An achievement goal perspective2018In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined (a) the developmental trajectories of student-athlete burnout perceptions and (b) the within-person relationship between achievement goals and burnout perceptions. A three-year and six-wave longitudinal study was conducted with 78 student-athletes (30 young women and 48 young men, Mage at T1 = 12.7 years, SD = 0.44), attending a sport compulsory school. The Athlete Burnout Questionnaire and the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire were used. The results from multilevel growth models revealed that burnout perceptions increased for this age group over the three-year period. Furthermore, task orientation was significantly and negatively related to a reduced sense of accomplishment and sport devaluation. The results from this study underline the advantage of considering developmental processes when studying burnout. Furthermore, by focusing on the within-person effect of achievement goals, this study provides findings that support a motivational approach to the longitudinally study of burnout propensity among young student-athletes. The current study suggests that sport school staff should be aware of their student-athletes’ burnout perceptions and that these could change over time. Results also highlights that task-oriented goals might help decrease burnout perceptions, specifically reduced sense of accomplishment and sport devaluation. © 2018 International Society of Sport Psychology

  • 36.
    Ingrell, Joakim
    et al.
    Department of Sport Sciences, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport. Department of Sport Sciences, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Relationships between ego-oriented peer climate, perceived competence and worry about sport performance: A longitudinal study of student-athlete2016In: Sport Science Review, ISSN 2066-8732, E-ISSN 2069-7244, Vol. 25, no 3/4, p. 225-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a sample of student-athletes’ (N=64) first year (seventh grade) enrolled at a school with a sport profile, the aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate (a) levels and changes as regards to worry about sport performance, perception of peer climate, and perceived competence; and (b) the relationship in levels and changes between these studied variables. The primary results from latent growth models (LGMs) and parallel process LGMs revealed that, during their first year, the student-athletes’ level of worry and perceived ego-oriented peer climate increased, whereas perceived competence decreased. Further, the results showed that perceived competence was negatively associated with worry at the beginning of the students’ first year. The slope of perceived ego-oriented peer climate was positively associated with the slope of worry. Future research in relation to the findings is discussed, and recommendations for future actions are given.

  • 37.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Andersen, Mark
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    The researcher in loving care: Inter-relatedness behind a mindfulness and sport injury prevention study2017In: Being Mindful in Sport and Exercise Psychology, Morgantown: FiT Publishing , 2017, p. 215-229Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Andersen, Mark B.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Psychosocial Factors and Sport Injuries: Meta-analyses for Prediction and Prevention2017In: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 353-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several studies have suggested that psy- chosocial variables can increase the risk of becoming injured during sport participation.

    Objectives: The main objectives of these meta-analyses were to examine (i) the effect sizes of relationships between the psychosocial variables (suggested as injury predictors in the model of stress and athletic injury) and injury rates, and (ii) the effects of psychological interven- tions aimed at reducing injury occurrence (prevention).

    Methods: Electronic databases as well as specific sport and exercise psychology journals were searched. The literature review resulted in 48 published studies containing 161 effect sizes for injury prediction and seven effect sizes for injury prevention.

    Results: The results showed that stress responses (r = 0.27, 80 % CI [0.20, 0.33]) and history of stressors (r = 0.13, 80 % CI [0.11, 0.15]) had the strongest associations with injury rates. Also, the results from the path analysis showed that the stress response mediated the relationship between history of stressors and injury rates. For injury prevention studies, all studies included (N = 7) showed decreased injury rates in the treatment groups compared to control groups.

    Conclusion: The results support the model’s suggestion that psychosocial variables, as well as psychologically, based interventions, can influence injury risk among athletes. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 

  • 39.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Karlsson, Jón
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden & Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden & Football Research Group, Linköping, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden & Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Football Research Group, Linköping, Sweden & Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Andersen, Mark
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Waldén, Markus
    Football Research Group, Linköping, Sweden & Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden & Department of Orthopaedics, Hässleholm-Kristianstad-Ystad Hospitals, Sweden.
    Elite female footballers’ stories of sociocultural factors, emotions, and behaviours prior to anterior cruciate ligament injury2018In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine how players’ perceptions of sociocultural factors and intra- and interpersonal aspects of sporting experiences may have influenced the emotions, cognitions, and behaviours of elite female soccer players prior to the occurrence of ACL injuries. The research questions guiding the study were: (a) how did female elite soccer players perceive that their psychosocial experiences were related to their cognitive, physiological, and emotional states prior to their ACL injuries, and (b) how did the players feel their perceived states influenced their behaviours prior to injury occurrence. The participants consisted of the total population of female players (N = 18) competing in the Swedish women’s elite league, who incurred a total ACL tear during the 2012 season. Using a semi-structured interview guide, all players were interviewed post-season. We represented the data using a storytelling approach of aggregated creative nonfiction. The aggregated stories showed sociocultural rules and expectations of overtraining and placing pressure on athletes to play even if they were not physically or psychologically fit. Responding to pressures with potentially risk-increasing behaviours might raise the probability of becoming injured through a number of pathways. Team managers, coaches, and members of the medical team are recommended to develop environments that stimulate the players to engage in adaptive stress-recovery and risk-decreasing behaviours.

  • 40.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Injury as a career transition: Experiences of a Swedish elite handball player2017In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This single-subject case study adopted a narrative approach and focused on two objectives: (a) to explore an athlete’s career development, including the impact of injuries, and (b) to explore that athlete’s injury experiences in detail. The participant was a 26-year-old former elite handball player who had experienced two major anterior cruciate ligament injuries during his career. To guide the research process from the formulation of its objectives to the interpretation of the participant’s narratives, we followed the narrative-oriented inquiry framework. To collect the participant’s stories, a low-structured interview guide consisting of open questions and requests for information about the participant’s handball career and injury experiences was used. The holistic content analysis allowed us to conceptualise injuries as career transition processes embedded in the athlete’s career development. Moreover, the participant’s narratives made it possible to identify four phases of injury transition and the distinct psychological content (demands, resources, barriers, and coping strategies) relevant to each of the four phases. Based on the results of the study, we anticipate that athletes, sport psychology consultants, coaches, and members of sport medicine teams can benefit from greater awareness of the specific demands and barriers relevant to each phase of the injury transition process. This knowledge can be further used to facilitate the development of adequate resources and coping strategies to help injured athletes navigate the rehabilitation process and successfully return to active sport involvement. © 2016 International Society of Sport Psychology

  • 41.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Performance and Training Unit, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), 3Musculoskeletal & Sports Injury Epidemiology Center, IMM, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Negative psychological responses of injury and rehabilitation adherence effects on return to play in competitive athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis2017In: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 1179-1543, E-ISSN 1179-1543, Vol. 8, p. 27-32Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research offers evidence that psychological factors influence an injured athlete during the rehabilitation process. Our first objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the results from all published studies that examined the relationships among negative affective responses after sport injuries, rehabilitation adherence, and return to play (RTP). The second objective was to use a meta-analytic path analysis to investigate whether an indirect effect existed between negative affective responses and RTP through rehabilitation adherence. This literature review resulted in seven studies providing 14 effect sizes. The results from the meta-analysis showed that negative affective responses had a negative effect on successful RTP, whereas rehabilitation adherence had a positive effect on RTP. The results from the meta-analytic path analysis showed a weak and nonsignificant indirect effect of negative affective responses on RTP via rehabilitation adherence. These results underline the importance of providing supportive environments for injured athletes to increase the chances of successful RTP via a decrease in negative affective responses and increase in rehabilitation adherence.

  • 42.
    Johansson, Susanne
    et al.
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kenttä, Göran
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersen, Mark
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Desires and taboos: Sexual relationships between coaches and athletes2016In: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 589-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coach-athlete sexual relationships constitute ethical, behavioral, social, and emotional quandaries that are rarely addressed openly. Most of the current body of research in this area focuses on coaches' sexual harassment and abuse of children and female athletes. In the present article, we discuss legal coach-athlete sexual relationships and adopt a coach perspective. As dual relationships, coach-athlete sexual relationships blur the boundaries between professional roles circumscribed (usually) by ethical codes of conduct and private spheres of love and desire. We explore the problems associated with the limitations of dichotomous right/wrong ethical decision making and discuss additional ways to understand these relationships, accounting for coaches' and athletes' well-being, performance, gendered sexual agency, power, ethical dilemmas, sport policy, and legal implications. Our discussion raises questions about how to open up dialogue and transparency regarding coach-athlete sexual relationships and how to facilitate functional, healthy coach-athlete relationships. Finally, we provide implications for future research that include legal and consensual coach-athlete sexual relationships and advocate transparency, open discussion, and coach education about coach-athlete sexual relationship dilemmas. © The Author(s) 2016.

  • 43.
    Johnson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Managing injuries among young athletes2017In: Sport Psychology for young athletes / [ed] Camilla J. Knight, Chris G. Harwood, Daniel Gould, Abingdon: Routledge, 2017, p. 174-184Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Johnson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Psychosocial factors and sport injuries: prediction, prevention and future research directions2017In: Current Opinion in Psychology, ISSN 2352-250X, Vol. 16, p. 89-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review provides an overview of recent theoretical and empirical developments regarding psychosocial factors related to the prediction and prevention of sport injuries, and highlights some of the most interesting areas of investigation that have been carried out in the past few years. For instance, a systematic review of the most cited and used theoretical framework in the field has recently been performed, which supports the model's suggestion that psychosocial variables, as well as psychologically based interventions, can influence injury risk among athletes. Based on substantial empirical evidence it is also shown that changes in stress and perceived recovery appear to predict injury occurrence in sport. Current studies, focusing on overuse injuries, also suggest that cultural norms and rules can be seen as factors that can indirectly influence the risk of becoming injured. Future research directions are presented such as the need for interdisciplinary injury prevention programs based on a combination of physiological and psychological interventions. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  • 45.
    Kilic, Ozgur
    et al.
    Academic Center for Evidence based Sports medicine (ACES), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Aoki, Haruhito
    St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Japan.
    Haagensen, Rasmus
    4Player, København, Denmark.
    Jensen, Claus
    Department of Sport Management, University College Nordjylland, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.
    Academic Center for Evidence based Sports medicine (ACES), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands & Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands & Amsterdam Collaboration for Health & Safety in Sports (ACHSS), Academic Medical Center/VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Gouttebarge, Vincent
    Academic Center for Evidence based Sports medicine (ACES), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands & Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands & Division of Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa & World Players’ Union (FIFPro), Hoofddorp, Netherlands.
    Symptoms of common mental disorders and related stressors in Danish professional football and handball2017In: European Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1746-1391, E-ISSN 1536-7290, Vol. 17, no 10, p. 1328-1334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was twofold, namely (i) to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMDs) among current and retired professional football and handball players and (ii) to explore the relationship of psychosocial stressors with the outcome measures under study. A total of 1155 players were enrolled in an observational study based on a cross-sectional design. Questionnaires based on validated scales were set up and distributed among current and retired professional football and handball players by the Danish football and handball players’ union. In professional football, the highest prevalence (4 weeks) of symptoms of CMDs was 18% and 19% for anxiety/depression among current and retired players, respectively. In professional handball, the highest prevalence (4 weeks) of symptoms of CMDs was 26% and 16% for anxiety/depression among current and retired players, respectively. For both the current and retired professional football and handball players, a higher number of severe injuries and recent adverse life events (LE) were related to the presence of symptoms of CMD. Players exposed to severe injuries and/or recent adverse LE were 20–50% times more likely to report symptoms of CMD. The results suggest that it is possible to recognize the population of professional athletes that are more likely to develop symptoms of CMD. This could create the opportunity to intervene preventively on athletes that suffered from severe injury and/or recent adverse LE that could lead to a faster and safer recovery and psychological readiness to return to play. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 46.
    Kiuppis, Florian
    et al.
    Catholic University of Applied Sciences Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Special issue of Sport in Society: Transitions in Sport Life2017In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 20, no 10, p. 1485-1486Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Kristén, Lars
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Klingvall, Bodil
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Jonasson, Mikael
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Centrum för lärande, kultur och samhälle (CLKS).
    Open norm critical innovation for relational inclusion (ONCIRI).- “Nya idrottsredskap för barn med och utan funktionsnedsättningar”.2016In: SVEBI-konferensen 2016: Idrott-Skola-Samhälle: Program, 2016, p. 31-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion

    Inom samhällets och skolans värld råder en rad normer som kan kopplas till genus, etnicitet, ålder och funktionshinder. Projektets målsättning är att, tillsammans med företag inom industrin för redskapsproduktion och produktutveckling utveckla innovativa idrottsredskap som gör det möjligt att förändra och utmana normer som påverkar delaktighet inom ämnet idrott och hälsa i skolan. Trots att skolan idag har ett uppdrag att inkludera alla elever oavsett etnicitet, genus eller funktionshinder är många uteslutna från deltagande, beroende på normer och det faktum att möjligheten att använda och utveckla redskapen för undervisningen inte ses som prioriterad. Barn med funktionsnedsättning skulle vinna mer på ökade förutsättningar att få röra sig, jämfört med barn utan funktionsnedsättning. Barn med funktionsnedsättning har i utgångsläget en mer sårbar hälso- och välbefinnandesituation, vilken dramatiskt kan förbättras genom en ökad delaktighet. Hindren för en inkluderande idrottsundervisning har hitintills betonat barriärer som sociala, personliga, motoriska eller materiella aspekter. Med ett normkritiskt perspektiv, har detta projekt som utgångspunkt att utmana sådana aspekter och istället testa och utveckla befintliga och framtagna redskap för en inkluderande idrottsundervisning i skolan och under hela skoldagen.

    Syfte & teoretisk ram

    Syftet med forskningsprojektet är dels att testa och utveckla produkter och tjänster som gör det möjligt för en inkluderande undervisning i idrott och hälsa i skolan. Dels är syftet att studera hur barnen uppfattar de produkter som finns och utvecklas inom ramen för projektet. Projektet kommer att fokusera på barn med och utan funktionsnedsättningar och deras användning av olika befintliga och framtagna idrottsredskap för undervisning i idrott och hälsa i skolan.

    Tanken är att inte bara utveckla redskap för idrottsundervisningen som beskrivs som betydelsefulla och ges mening genom att barn med funktionsnedsättning kan använda dem. Tanken är också att redskapen som tas fram ska kunna vara användbara för alla barn, oavsett funktion, genus, etnicitet eller liknande och ska kunna utgöra en ny norm för användandet av idrottsredskap inom ämnet idrott och hälsa i skolan. I det hänseendet är barn med funktionsnedsättning utmanare av gamla normer och skapande av nya normer inom ämnet idrott och hälsa. Som utmanare och skapare av nya normer har barn med funktionsnedsättning möjlighet att öka välbefinnandet, genom ökad delaktighet. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) är centralt för hälsa och välbefinnande. Det normkritiska perspektivet och lärandet med focus på ”Hur vi lär” står i centrum.

    Metod

    Projektet kommer att använda sig av kvalitativa ansatser genom deltagande observationer, intervjuer och filmande av sekvenser på lektioner i idrott och hälsa så att resultatet så småningom kan bilda utgångspunkt för utveckling och utvärdering av idrottsredskap i ämnet idrott och hälsa i skolan. Projektet genomförs på 3-4 grundskolorskolor med ca 10-15 barn med och utan funktionsnedsättningar, totalt ca 50 barn i åldrarna 10-15 år.

    Förväntade resultat

    På kort och längre sikt:

    - utveckling och verifiering av metoder, verktyg och processer för normkritisk innovation.

    - utveckling av idrottsredskap till stöd för lärande och delaktighet för barn med och utan funktionsned­sättningar i idrott och hälsa.

    - projektet kommer att mynna ut i prototyper och nya sätt att använda

    idrottsutrustning och idrottsmaterial för testning och utvärdering.

    Diskussion

    Föreliggande studie och utvecklingsarbete kommer att bidra med kunskap och redskap som gör det möjligt för alla att inkluderas i undervisningen om idrott och hälsa i skolan. Tidigare forskning har många gånger fokuserat på funktionsnedsattas rättigheter och har haft en utvärderande roll. Många tidigare utvecklingsprojekt har fokuserat på anpassade idrottsredskap som inte varit tillgängliga för alla. Målsättningen är att utmana befintliga normer och att barn med funktionsnedsättning ska utgöra normen för utveckling av idrottsredskap för alla. Delaktighet i idrott och hälsoundervisningen kommer att göra en skillnad i framtiden för barnen med funktionsnedsättning, dels genom en förbättrad hälsa, och dels utifrån förändrade självförväntningar och en större tilltro till den egna kapaciteten under hela skoldagen.

  • 48.
    Kristén, Lars
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Klingvall-Arvidsson, Bodil
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ring, Mikael
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Centrum för lärande, kultur och samhälle (CLKS), Lärande, Profession och Samhällsutveckling.
    Ericsson, Anders
    Eleiko Sport AB, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Schough, Camilla
    Eleiko Sport AB, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bohman, Anders
    Rantzows Sport AB, Hjärnarp, Sweden.
    Havdrup, Lotta
    Rantzows Sport AB, Hjärnarp, Sweden.
    Open norm critical innovation for relational inclusion (ONCIRI).- “New Sports material for children with and without disabilities”2017In: Proceedings of the Nordic Sport Science Conference – ‘The Double-Edged Sword of Sport: Health Promotion Versus Unhealthy Environments’: Halmstad University, 22-23 November / [ed] Krister Hertting & Urban Johnson, Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2017, p. 26-26Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Kristén, Lars
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Lydell, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Nyholm, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Physical activity for children in need of support: views from coaches from local sports clubs2017In: Proceedings of the Nordic Sport Science Conference – ‘The Double-Edged Sword of Sport: Health Promotion Versus Unhealthy Environments’ / [ed] Krister Hertting & Urban Johnson, Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2017, p. 29-29Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Larsson, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    A correlation study between vertical jump height and sprint in young female teamgymnasts2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Teamgym is a relatively new and emerging sport that originating comes from Scandinavia. Teamgym differs a lot from the most known form of gymnastics, artistic gymnastic. For example artistic gymnastics is an individual sport, while teamgym is performed by 6-12 members in each team. In general gymnasts have to acquire many skills at a very young age like jumping, bouncing and twisting in different directions. A good jumping ability has been linked to a successful performance for gymnasts and is defined by a gymnast’s capacity to jump upwards and then perform series of forward and backward rotations in a successful way. Plyometric is a type of training based on the stretch- shortening cycle (SSC) and is often used to improve an athletes sprint and vertical jump ability. Studies indicate that these two components have been linked to a successful performance in gymnastics but there are no studies that are looking at this correlation in teamgym. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate how strong the correlation is between the vertical jump height in counter movement jump with arm swing, drop-jump and 20, 25- meters sprint in young female teamgymnasts. Methods: Seventeen (17) female teamgymnasts participated to test their vertical jump ability by using countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJa) and drop-jump (DJ). Their sprint ability was tested through 20 and 25 meter sprint. The highest CMJa and DJ were correlated with the fastest time on 20 and 25 meter sprint. To study the relationship between the vertical jumps and the sprints, Spearman’s rank order correlation (rs) was used in SPSS version 20.0. If the correlation is between 0.30 to 0.49 (-0.30 to -0.49) it is considered as a medium correlation. Anything under these values is a weak correlation and everything above it is strong correlation. Result: CMJa showed a strong significant correlation with both 20 and 25 meter sprint and DJ showed a moderate non-significant correlation with both 20 and 25 meter sprint. When the weight was set as a control variable the CMJa showed a moderate non-significant correlation with both the sprints but DJ showed a strong significant correlation with both 20 and 25 meter sprint. Conclusion: No other studies have looked at the relationship between vertical jump and sprint ability in teamgym but the result of this study somehow reflects findings in studies looking at the same variables. The findings in this study can be useful for gymnastic coaches when they create training programs for their athletes. Coaches and gymnasts will know the value of a good jumping- and sprinting ability and that plyometric- and sprint training can improve the gymnasts skills. More research is needed on this type of gymnastics and future studies should look at these variables in a larger sample size and with more experienced test subjects.

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