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  • 1.
    Abasi, Shaimaa
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Patienters upplevelser av att leva med en ileostomi: En litteraturstudie2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The number of people with a stoma increases for every year. Various diseases and causes can lead to an ileostomy, whether it is temporary or permanent. The nurse has a responsibility for patients with ileostomy by providing high quality nursing care, education and information. Aim: The aim was to highlight patient’s experiences with having an ileostomy. Method: The implementation of the literature study took place with an inductive approach. Result articles with both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to form the result. Various themes were formed which were divided into categories. Results: The result formed three categories that highlighted patients' experiences of an ileostomy: “The impact of ostomy on physical well-being”, “The impact of ostomy on psychological well-being” and “The impact of ostomy on social well-being”. The ileostomy had a major impact on patients' lives and the ability to adapt to it could look different from individual to individual. The patients felt that it was important to have emotional support from relatives and healthcare professionals. Conclusion: Patients with an ileostomy need constant follow-up by healthcare professionals. Support and information can help patients manage and adapt easier to their ileostomy.

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  • 2.
    Abd-Aljawad, Baraa
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Grönberg, Camilla
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Vem tar hand om chefen?: En explorativ studie om första linjens- och mellanchefers upplevda organisatoriska och sociala arbetsmiljö.2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    “Who takes care of the manager?”An exploratory study of manager´s perceived organizational and social work environment. 

    The study aims to create a deeper understanding of managers' experiences, of their organizational and social work environment. Furthermore, the study aims to examine managers' perceptions of health factors that they perceive as health-promoting. The main question of this study is; “How do managers experience their organizational and social work environment?”. As previous research has often focused on preventive factors, this study focuses on a health-promoting perspective. Which refers to the study's second question; "What health factors do managers perceive as health-promoting?". The study applies a qualitative method through semi-structured interviews for the collection of empirical material. The sample consists of eight first-line and middle managers in various industries. The study has an exploratory focus in order to create a basis for further research. 

    The results of the study show that recovery, communication, colleagues, social relationships, clear roles, goals and tasks are perceived as important organizational and social aspects in the manager's own work environment. The results also show that perceived health factors are flexibility in working hours, being heard, support from colleagues, functioning social relationships and recovery by adapting their meetings.  

    Keywords: Organizational and social work environment, management, health factors, health promotion.

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  • 3.
    Abdirahman, Zakariye
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Nordander, August
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    "Jag trodde inte att mitt arbete skulle vara så viktigt": En studie om vilken betydelse ungdomscoacher har för ungdomar2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with youth coaches and their work with young people at various youth venues in areas that the police believe are vulnerable areas in Halmstad and Växjö. The purpose of this study is to see the importance of youth coaches for young people and how they shape them into good citizens. Young people visit different youth venues to find a community and an adult they can talk to. The method used in this study is a qualitative method with semi-structured interviews. The results show that youth coaches influence young people and many young people see coaches as role models. This opportunity arises from the relationship created between a youth and a coach. The results also show that this relationship is important for many young people as some of them can go for a whole day without talking to any adult. When the coaches choose to listen to young people individually and invite them to conversations a confidence and trust is created that gives the coaches the opportunity to influence the young people's day to day life. 

  • 4.
    Abdou Mahmoud, Nora
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Persson, Rattana
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Personcentrerad vård vid demens: Ett sjuksköterskeperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With an aging population here is also an increase in dementia. World Health Organisation estimates that in 2016, there were 47,5 million people with dementia and the number of incidents doubles every 20 years. The nurse meets people with dementia in different care situations. People with dementia are a particularly vulnerable group with special health care needs that require person-centered care. The aim was to describe personcentred care for dementia from a nurse perspective. A literature study was conducted using articles relevant to the subject,  then eleven qualitative articles responded with the purpose. The result revealed three themes: The need of the time, relations importance and need for knowledge. The results emphasize the personal characteristics of the nurse was important to create a relationship of trust and training in person-centered care was required to create a commitment. The result was imbued by the need for knowledge and relations important that nurses may face in different care situations. In order to care for people with dementia in a person-centered approach, more research on the subject, and more time and training in person-centered dementia care in nursing is needed.

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  • 5.
    Abdulahi, Majlinda
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Hempel, Louise
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    En ledares väg till motivation: - Hur organisationer kan arbeta strategiskt för att behålla sina ledare2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate what factors may motivate people in leadership positions. The method used was qualitative and the empirical material was collected through semi-structured interviews. The study involved six respondents who consisted of leaders at different levels within the organization. The result was analyzed using phenomenological based sense-concentration, theory and previous research.

     

    The results showed that development, estimation and support in work create an association between individual and organization. The study also showed that basic needs need to be satisfied for the individual to be motivated to stay, but the factors we mentioned above motivates the individual over time.

    Keywords: motivation, leadership, management supply, needs and motivation factors.

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  • 6.
    Abdul-Fattah, Lina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Elhagehassan, Sandra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    En studie av två socioekonomiska områden i Landskrona: Borstahusen & Karlslund2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study investigates youth perception of juvenile delinquency in Landskrona utilising a research sample from the local districts Borstahusen and Karlslund. The research sample was split between these socio-economic areas to provide an in-depth understanding of perception variances, their root cause, and the occurrence of prejudice against individuals from Karlslund as a direct result of negative associations with the district. To ensure a quality-focused data collection process a qualitative interview method was used, these interviews were recorded and then transcribed to reveal various similarities and differences throughout the sample. A key conclusion from this sample found that youth perception of juvenile delinquency remains relatively comparable, whereas their perception of the geographic location of these issues differs vastly. This research also concluded high levels of prejudice against individuals from the Karlslund province, immediately labelling them criminals without any further consideration. This research utilised the following theories and concepts to analyse the data; ‘the established and the outsiders’, ‘labelling theory’, and ‘subcultures’

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  • 7.
    Abdul-Karim, Nora
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Charafeddine, Yassmine
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Samma stad - Skilda livsvillkor2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how second generation immigrants perceive their belonging and integration into Swedish society and their belongings to the area in which they live in. The study has a qualitative approach and semistructured interviews have been conducted. The selection consisted of a snowball survey with eight Swedish-born informants between the ages of eighteen and thirty whose parents were born outside of Europe. A thematic analysis was conducted and showed that the majority of informant experienced stigmatization and exclusion, partly because of that they live in certain residential areas which affect the identity of the informants design and social ties. This is supported by earlier research which showed that people living with dual ethnicities live with a constant struggle to be accepted among the majority group in the Swedish society, and this struggle has led to the people in the study experiencing exclusion. The empirical material was analyzed using the following theories: Richard Jenkins theory of social identity, Ervin Goffmans theory about stigma and Scheffs theory of shame and pride.

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  • 8.
    Abdullah, Arya
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Barnen som flyr ensamma är de mest utsatta: En kvalitativ studie av fyra ensamkommande afghanska flyktingbarns upplevelse av integrationsprpcessen i Sverige2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to increase understanding of how four unaccompanied refugees experience their new society and what is being done to facilitate their integration in Sweden. To leave and escape a homeland to try to find a better future is a decision that every unaccompanied minor refugee has been forced to face, leaving his/her comfort zone. This research evaluates the impact of forced migration and the coping mechanisms that four unaccompanied minors use as they embark on their journey to freedom and a safe haven in Sweden. Additionally, this essay examines the host country Sweden, and its availability of resources to better facilitate the integration of migrants to Swedish society both at the municipal and national level. The focus of this essay is partly on the difficulties these youngsters undergo in their home country and the culture shock and pressure to adapt they face when living in their new country. Furthermore, by choosing qualitative research method for this essay, we examine subtle nuances of the image of unaccompanied refugee children, both as a concept and as a denominator that creates an identity crisis for them. In this essay semi-structured interviews are utilized to collect qualitative data, allowing respondents the time and scope to examine and share their sentiments. The researcher who directs the conversation to areas deemed to require closer in depth exploration decides the focus of the interview. Analyzing stories using the crisis theory and theories about immigration and refugee processes we distinguish two distinct denominators, 1. A journey with dramatic consequences, such as trauma, frustration, persecution, and, last but not least, ‘separation anxiety’. 2. Stress arising from the new culture and pressure for quick adaptation and change.

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  • 9.
    Abrahamsson, Hampus
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Fotbollsmålvakters antecipation under straffläggning: Betydelsen av explicit kontextuell information2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to study the effect of explicit contextual information on soccer goalkeepers' ability to save penalties. The hypothesis set predicted that there would be an effect of contextual prior information under the high-action tendencies condition, while there would be no effect of contextual prior information on goalkeepers' ability under the low-action tendencies condition. The purpose was studied through a factorial experimental design with the two action tendency ratios of low-action tendencies (60/40) and high-action tendencies (80/20). The manipulation of prior contextual information was applied in both action tendency conditions in the form of the manipulation with contextual prior information and without contextual prior information, thus the experiment consisted of four conditions. The participants in the study consisted of 8 soccer goalkeepers, 7 men and 1 woman, all of whom had 8 years of experience in goalkeeping. The theoretical framework used for analysis was the Bayesian model which is a cognitive model which explains how humans take in and use information by using explicit contextual prior information and kinematic information. The results showed that there was not a statistically significant effect of contextual prior information. The result means that there are no significant effects of contextual prior information under conditions of high-action tendencies or low-action tendencies. The results of the study are not in line with previous research, this in the form that highly probable contextual information seems to not contribute with an effect on goalkeepers' ability to anticipate.

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  • 10.
    Abrahamsson, Margareta
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Lucchesi, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Anestesisjuksköterskans upplevelse av att delta vid plötsligt hjärtstopp på sjukhus2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden every year about 3000 patients are affected by sudden cardiac arrest in a hospital setting. Sudden cardiac arrest is one of the most stressful situations for hospital staff to handle. Earlier research has mainly focused on the medical and biophysical aspects of cardiac resuscitation. The subjective experience and feelings of those performing the resuscitation are seldom described. The aim of the study was to describe the nurse an esthetists’ experience of participation in sudden cardiac arrest resuscitation in a hospital setting. Data collection was done through focus group interviews involving five participants and indepth interviews with two participants. Data analysis was systematically performed according to Graneheim & Lundmans qualitative content analysis. The result showed three categories with respective subcategories. The following categories emerged: The given role, Teamwork and Reflection related to cardiac arrest. The given role was perceived as safe, satisfying and filled with demands. A defined leadership and good communication were described as important factors in ensuring clear direction, goals and teamwork.         

    The participants experienced a need for feedback and felt debriefing was of the utmost importance. This study can lead to future areas of improvement including further discussion and follow up of sudden cardiac arrest in hospital settings. Further research in this area and across professional borders is needed.

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  • 11.
    Abrahamsson, Margareta
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Lucchesi, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Patientens upplevelser efter hjärtstopp2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Everyone can be the victim of a cardiac arrest and each year in Sweden alone about 15000 people suffer from cardiac arrest. Being the victim of a cardiac arrest is a traumatic experience that affects the individual in different ways. An increased knowledge about the patient´s experiences is the best way to be able to give professional nursing care and to meet the patient in their life-world. The aim of the study was to highlight the patient´s experiences of surviving a cardiac arrest. A literature study was done comprised of ten scientific articles. Two main themes were identified: Life is turned upside down and Re-evaluation of one’s existence. Seven sub-categories were mentioned: resuscitation; insecurity, fear and anxiety; amnesia; tiredness and weakness; vulnerability; to overcome and get a new outlook on life. These patients are in need of extensive support to be able to participate in the health care and nursing process needed in order to return to a well-functioning life. Further qualitative research in this area would be needed primarily for patients without ICD treatment. Expansion of knowledge about patients experiences and life-world can enable nurses to meet and help this patient group with individual evidence based nursing care in a clinical setting.

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  • 12.
    Aburdeini, Alexandra
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Prelovac, Ruza
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelse av att kommunicera med anhöriga som inte talar samma språk: Språkbarriärer i vården2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Worldwide integration is increasing and this creates a language barrier that creates communication problems in health care. It is a challenge to integrate immigrant communities into existing health services and language barriers is the biggest challenge to meet the healthcare needs of the immigrant population. Lack of communication is an obstacle to a good care relationship. In addition, communication is considered a challenge when two different languages are involved, especially when interpreters do not exist. Purpose: The aim was to expose nurse's experiences of communication with relatives who do not speak the same language. Method: A literature review with an inductive approach. Results: The study is based on nine scientific articles that resulted in two categories: Language barriers affect health care and Language barriers require resources. The nurse's experience of language barriers was negative and the use of interpreters in health care was considered to have their good and bad functions. However, the nurse was in need of additional resources. Conclusion: The results of the literature study clearly appeared about nurses' negative experiences of language barriers. This was also seen as a hindrance because communication could not be effectively conducted with relatives who did not speak the same language. Instead, nurses had to use simplified language, non-verbal communication and use family members to help them interpret instead of authorized interpreters. The result also showed that the use of interpreters in health care had their good and bad sides between nurses and relatives who did not speak the same language. It is important that the nurse adapts communication to the conditions of relatives. More research is needed on how nurses can support relatives who do not speak the same language.

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  • 13.
    Ackevall, Nina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Martinsson, My
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Strategiernas stödjande roll: En kvalitativ studie om hur friskvårdsverksamheters strategiska arbetssätt stödjer villkoren för lärande mot motion2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att undersöka vilka arbetsstrategier som stödjer villkoren för att främja lärandet mot motion. Ett delsyfte är att urskilja likheter samt skillnader inom friskvårdsverksamheters strategiska arbetssätt för att synliggöra vilka av dessa som visar sig ge bäst förutsättningar för motion.

    Teoretisk referensram: Den teoretiska referensramen lyfter fram teorier och begrepp som Social cognitive theory (SCT), den proximala utvecklingszonen, autonomt stöd, Habermans kommunikationsteori och lärande.

    Metod: Studien utgår från en Hermeneutisk forskningsansats som baseras på en kvalitativ metod där intervjuer har förekommit. Fem intervjuer genomfördes, varav fyra via e-post och ett via personligt möte.

    Resultat: Resultatet belyser att det förekommer likheter samt skillnader inom samtliga friskvårdsverksamheters strategiska arbetssätt. Ett samspel mellan arbetsstrategier är även en aspekt som lyfts fram. Att anpassa arbetet efter individen är en viktig aspekt som samtliga friskvårdsverksamheter belyser.

    Slutsats: Den slutsats som dras utifrån studien är att arbetsstrategier bör samverka mellan varandra för att ge bäst villkor för lärande mot motion. Villkoren främjas utifrån att friskvårdsverksamheter tillämpar ett samspel mellan flera strategier i sitt arbetssätt. Det går alltså inte att urskilja vilka strategiska arbetssätt som är mest främjande. Genom att anpassa arbetsstrategier efter individ möjliggör att villkor för lärande väcker engagemang och motivation till att vilja motionera. Detta utifrån tillgång av motionsformer, en inlärningscentrerad miljö utifrån rådgivning, kompetens samt mål utifrån målsättning samt en utvecklande process av uppföljning. En viktig aspekt är även att uppdatera samt utveckla verksamheters strategiska arbetssätt i syfte till att främja villkoren mot motion.

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  • 14.
    Adam, Kihlman
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Psychosocial factors association with health and well-being in youth soccer2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Participating in organized sport has, according to previous research, been proven to have several benefits concerning health and well-being. Psychosocial factors such as task/ego- orientation, support from coaches and significant others has been shown to affect well-being in sport-environments. Present study was set out to investigate whether unique subgroups within soccer players (N = 732) could be found based on psychosocial factors, and if any difference between these subgroups could be found regarding well-being using a cross sectional design in four different districts around Sweden. LCA-analyses was carried out to identify the subgroups within the sample. The analyses identified four subgroups (“classes”) and the main findings showed that players who felt support from coaches and significant others and were in environments which were more task and mastery-oriented had higher general well-being. Present study confirmed previous research findings that support and environmental factors (e.g., task/ego-orientation, mastery/ego-goals) affect players well- being.

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  • 15.
    Adamovic, Alexandra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Vet ni inte att er kropp är ett tempel för den heliga anden?: En kvalitativ studie om hur religionens betydelse stärker välbefinnandet hos sjundedagsadventister2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning visar på att bristande utveckling och kunskap preventivt inom existentiell hälsa möjligtvis påverkar ökningen av ett sämre hälsotillstånd och ohälsosam livsstil. Vikten av att utveckla kunskap inom existentiell hälsa men även att arbeta ur ett promotivt synsätt kan vara nödvändigt att effektivisera och framföra. Följande studie har därför fokuserat på att utveckla kunskapen om sjundedagsadventisters välbefinnande som nödvändigtvis kan effektivisera forskningsområdet, främst i Europa, där endast ringa forskning kring sjundedagsadventister och hälsa föreligger. Generellt förekommer mer kvantitativ forskning kring sjundedagsadventister och hälsa vilket leder till att få kvalitativa studier har tillämpats. Med hänsyn till detta är syftet med denna studie att belysa hur religionens betydelse stärker välbefinnandet hos sjundedagsadventister. En kvalitativ forskningsdesign med kvalitativ innehållsanalys tillämpades i form av semistrukturerade individuella intervjuer. Urvalet av deltagare innefattade medlemmar över 18 år från sjundedagsadventistiska kyrkan. Teorierna som tillämpades och kopplades samman i studien var Parks meningsskapande system och Van Deurzens teori. Resultatet från studien utformades av fyra huvudkategorier i form av hälsobudskapet, meningsfullhet, gemenskap och återhämtning. Slutsatsen i studien inkluderar och bekräftar tidigare studiers forskningsresultat kopplat till religionens betydelse på hälsan. Denna studie kan stå till grund för fortsatt kvalitativ forskning kopplat till sjundedagsadventister och välbefinnande men även generell forskning kopplat till religion och hälsa

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  • 16.
    Adamsson, Viola
    et al.
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Reumark, Anna
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    What is a healthy Nordic diet? Foods and nutrients in the NORDIET study2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Adamsson, Viola
    et al.
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Reumark, Anna
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    What is a healthy Nordic diet? Foods and nutrients in the NORDIET study2012In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 56, article id 18189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A healthy Nordic diet (ND), a diet based on foods originating from the Nordic countries, improves blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity and lowers blood pressure and body weight in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare food and nutrient composition of the ND in relation to the intake of a Swedish reference population (SRP) and the recommended intake (RI) and average requirement (AR), as described by the Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR).

    DESIGN: The analyses were based on an estimate of actual food and nutrient intake of 44 men and women (mean age 53±8 years, BMI 26±3), representing an intervention arm receiving ND for 6 weeks.

    RESULTS: The main difference between ND and SRP was the higher intake of plant foods, fish, egg and vegetable fat and a lower intake of meat products, dairy products, sweets and desserts and alcoholic beverages during ND (p<0.001 for all food groups). Intake of cereals and seeds was similar between ND and SRP (p>0.3). The relative intake of protein, fat and carbohydrates during ND was in accordance with RI. Intake of all vitamins and minerals was above AR, whereas sodium intake was below RI.

    CONCLUSIONS: When compared with the food intake of an SRP, ND is primarily a plant-based diet. ND represents a balanced food intake that meets the current RI and AR of NNR 2004 and has a dietary pattern that is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality.

    © 2012 Viola Adamsson et al.

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  • 18.
    Adamsson, Viola
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Reumark, Anna
    Lantmännen R and D, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fredriksson, I.-B.
    Bollnäs Heart Clinic, Mitt Hjärta, Bollnäs, Sweden.
    Hammarström, Eskil
    Bollnäs Heart Clinic, Mitt Hjärta, Bollnäs, Sweden.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Riserus, U.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in hypercholesterolaemic subjects: a randomized controlled trial (NORDIET)2011In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 269, no 2, p. 150-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a healthy Nordic diet (ND) on cardiovascular risk factors.

    Design and subjects:

    In a randomizedcontrolled trial (NORDIET) conducted in Sweden, 88 mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects were randomly assigned to an ad libitum ND or control diet (subjects' usual Western diet) for 6 weeks. Participants in the ND group were provided with all meals and foods. Primary outcome measurements were low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and secondary outcomes were blood pressure (BP) and insulin sensitivity (fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance). The ND was rich in high-fibre plant foods, fruits, berries, vegetables, whole grains, rapeseed oil, nuts, fish and low-fat milk products, but low in salt, added sugars and saturated fats.

    Results:

    The ND contained 27%, 52%, 19% and 2% of energy from fat, carbohydrate, protein and alcohol, respectively. In total, 86 of 88 subjects randomly assigned to diet completed the study. Compared with controls, there was a decrease in plasma cholesterol (-16%, P < 0.001), LDL cholesterol (-21%, P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (-5%, P < 0.01), LDL/HDL (-14%, P < 0.01) and apolipoprotein (apo)B/apoA1 (-1%, P < 0.05) in the ND group. The ND reduced insulin (-9%, P = 0.01) and systolic BP by -6.6 ± 13.2 mmHg (-5%, P < 0.05) compared with the control diet. Despite the ad libitum nature of the ND, body weight decreased after 6 weeks in the ND compared with the control group (-4%, P < 0.001). After adjustment for weight change, the significant differences between groups remained for blood lipids, but not for insulin sensitivity or BP. There were no significant differences in diastolic BP or triglyceride or glucose concentrations.

    Conclusions:

    A healthy ND improves blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity and lowers blood pressure at clinically relevant levels in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. © 2010 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  • 19.
    Adamsson, Viola
    et al.
    Enheten för Klinisk Nutrition och Metabolism. Institutionen för Folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap. Uppsala Universitet.
    Reumark, Anna
    MSc Kostvetenskap Lantmännen Food R&D, Stockholm.
    Fredriksson, Ing-Britt
    SSK Mitt Hjärta, Bollnäs.
    Hammarström, Eskil
    SSK Mitt Hjärta, Bollnäs.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Enheten för Klinisk Nutrition och Metabolism. Institutionen för Folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap. Uppsala Universitet.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Riserus, Ulf
    Enheten för Klinisk Nutrition och Metabolism. Institutionen för Folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap. Uppsala Universitet.
    Effects of a Nordic diet on cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in hypercholesterolemic subjects: a randomized controlled study2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Apart from lipid-lowering drugs, dietary changes can also reduce plasma LDL-C concentrations. No studies have been conducted to investigate the clinical effects of a diet with traditional foods originating from the Nordic countries. Method: In a randomised, controlled parallel-group intervention study 88 mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women were randomized to either an ad libitum Nordic diet (ND) or a control diet (CD) for 6 weeks. All meals and foods were provided to the participants in the ND group. Primary outcome measure was LDL-cholesterol, and secondary outcomes were blood pressure, plasma insulin and glucose concentrations. The ND was a high-fibre diet rich in plant foods (fruit, berries, vegetables, root vegetables, whole grain cereals and legumes), vegetable fats (rapeseed oil and nuts) and fatty fish, low-fat milk products, but low in salt, added sugars, saturated fats and red meats. Result: 86 subjects completed the study. Distribution of carbohydrates, fat and protein (E%) in ND was 54, 27, 19, respectively. ND lowered plasma total cholesterol 0.98±0.75 mmol/l (-16%), LDL-C by 0.83±0.67 mmol/l (-21%), HDL-C 0.08±0.23 mmol/l (-5%), including reduced LDL/HDL ratio by -0.42±0.57 (-14%) (all p<0.01 versus controls). Insulin concentrations decreased by 0.51± 2.25 (-9%, p=0.01) and systolic blood pressure by 7±13 mmHg (-5%, P<0.01) compared to controls. Despite diets were eaten ad libitum, body weight decreased by 3.0 kg in the ND (P<0.001). No significant differences were found for diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides or plasma glucose. Conclusion: A Nordic diet improves blood lipid profile, and insulin sensitivity as well as lowering blood pressure to a clinically significant extent in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

  • 20.
    Adbro, Helena
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Nilsson, Joanna
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Återhämtning från arbetet - Att lyckas ha balans även när arbetet pågår konstant: En kvalitativ studie av individer med gränslösa arbeten2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how individuals with boundless work enable their recovery in relation to their work situation, and identify which factors enable the individual's recovery experience of an activity. Ten people, seven women and three men aged 31-58, participated in the study's semi-structured interviews, which were analyzed in a qualitative content analysis. The result showed that control, relaxation, mastery, pleasure and social support were the individuals' recovery experiences, both during and after working hours, and that they often, but not always, lead to psychological detachment from work. The result also showed four individual based factors, individual preference, energy level, degree of conscious presence and level of stress, and four situational factors, degree of socialization, degree of autonomy, job situation and degree of variation that enable the recovery experience of an activity. The conclusion is that recovery from work is important for the individual's well-being, just as theory and empirical evidence have shown, and for individuals with boundless work continuous recovery is necessary both during and after working hours, which often involves psychological detachment but not always. The individual needs to take control, set boundaries and make time for relaxation, mastery, pleasure and social support, and taking into account the individual and situational based factors when choosing recovery activity.

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  • 21.
    Adbro, Lina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Crnac, Aldijana
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Att vårda riktiga hjältar: Sjuksköterskans upplevelse av att vårda cancersjuka barn2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjuksköterskor som vårdar cancersjuka barn har höga krav på sig. De ska fungera som ett stöd till både patienten och till patientens anhöriga. Barnen de vårdar är även sjukare än andra barn. De många kraven sjuksköterskan har på sig kan leda till stress. Syftet med litteraturstudien var att beskriva hur vårdandet av cancersjuka barn kan påverka sjuksköterskan med avseende på upplevelse av stress. Studien genomfördes med systematiska sökningar baserat på problemformuleringen och syftet. Relevant forskning inom området identifierades, granskades och analyserades. I resultatet framkom fyra kategorier: sjuksköterskan arbetar i en krävande miljö, ökad kompetens bidrar till hanterbar stress, känslomässigt engagemang innebär ökad risk för utbrändhet och sjuksköterskan behöver strategier för att hantera stress. Resultatet visar att det fanns ett flertal orsaker som bidrog till att sjuksköterskorna upplevde arbetsrelaterad stress. Orsakerna var tidsbrist, personalbrist och känslomässiga engagemang i sina patienter och deras anhöriga. Stöd och reflektion framkom som sätt att minska stressen för sjuksköterskorna. Bristen på tid bidrog till att det var svårt för sjuksköterskorna att finna tid till reflektion. Vidare forskning kring sjuksköterskans upplevelse av vårdandet av cancersjuka barn kan leda till en bättre arbetsmiljö och minskad arbetsrelaterad stress.

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  • 22.
    Adelbrant, Frida
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Thorén, Sara
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Hur barn beskriver sin upplevda smärtbehandling2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Children's pain is complex and in order to achieve adequate pain management experience is required. It is important to treat pain as it is a threat to the child's health and untreated pain can lead to severe complications. Pain is a subjective experience and in order to achieve a positive pain management, the child must be asked about the pain. Aim: The aim was to describe children's experiences of pain management and pain treatment at care facilities. Method: A general literature study with a structured search method in which nine articles were examined using the five steps of content analysis. Results: Presented in four categories: being involved and receive information is important, successful pharmacological pain treatment contributes to positive experiences, the importance of distraction, to obtain support and feeling safe is central with the subcategories: from the parents, caring from the nurse. Conclusion: Children experience that security is a central part of the pain treatment which is created with the help of information, participation, distraction and through the presence of the parents. To achieve positive experiences of pain management the nurses need to administrate fast and adequate pharmacological treatment combined with distraction adapted to each individual child. Treatment of pain requires constant development and updating of guidelines where children's subjective experience of pain should be central to the successful development of pain treatment.

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  • 23.
    Aderklou, Christina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Fritzdorf, Liselott
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Centrum för lärande, kultur och samhälle (CLKS).
    Tebelius, Ulla
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Bengtsson, Jeanette
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Centrum för lärande, kultur och samhälle (CLKS).
    Baerveldt, Albert-Jan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Pedatronics: Robotic toys as a source to evoke young girls’ technological interest2002In: 32nd Annual Frontiers in Education. Leading a Revolution in Engineering and Computer Science Education: Conference Proceedings Volume III - Saturday Sessions. Boston Park Plaza Hotel, Boston, Massachusetts, November 6-9, 2002, San Diego: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2002, Vol. 2, p. F1C-19-F1C-24Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents some results within Pedatronics; a fusion between pedagogics and mechatronics. Our research interest is to study what emerges in the play with robotic toys. Field-experimental studies of 67 year old children’s purposeless play with robotic toys created a self-developmental sphere, as well as evoked young girl’s technological interest. Both girls and boys prolonged and intensified their interest according to the amount of gadgets involved. The results disclose a learning potential, indicating the importance to develop strategies at an early stage in order to encourage girls to choose technological and engineering educations. The study recommend engineers and toy designers, in cooperation with children, to move towards ’Integrated Play Systems’. Due to an ethological method, the results differ from other studies of children’s play with technological advanced artefacts. © 2002 IEEE

  • 24.
    Afifi, Mustafa
    et al.
    Department of Non-Communicable Diseases Control, Ministry of Health (HQ), Muscat, Oman.
    von Bothmer, Margareta
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Egyptian women's attitudes and beliefs about female genital cutting and its association with childhood maltreatment2007In: Nursing and Health Sciences, ISSN 1441-0745, E-ISSN 1442-2018, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 270-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to establish Egyptian women's attitudes and beliefs about female genital cutting (FGC) or mutilation by applying a questionnaire module about violence to a subsample of 5249 married women from a total of 19 474 women who participated in the 2005 Egypt Demographic Health Survey. Women were interviewed to determine if they had been exposed to marital violence in the year prior to the survey, their attitudes and beliefs about FGC, and if they physically abused their children. The association of beliefs about FGC with maternal physical abuse was examined, adjusting for exposure to marital violence and other socio-demographic variables. Of the women surveyed 16.4% and 3.4% had been exposed to physical and sexual violence, respectively, during the year prior to the survey. Around 76% of the women surveyed intended to continue the FGC practice, and 69.8% had slapped or hit their children during the year prior to the survey. Holding positive beliefs about the practice of FGC or intending to continue it was associated with maternal physical abuse and this has significant implications for health and welfare workers in Egypt and for society in general.

  • 25.
    Aftevik, Monika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Carlbark, Nina
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Musikens påverkan på individer med autismspektrumdiagnos: En litteraturöversikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to have a limited capacity for social interactions, communications, and usually show hyper or hypo reactions to sensory stimuli. Time spent in health facilities can therefore be extra stressful. Since music is used for therapy or pain relief in cancer treatment and dementia care for example, it would be interesting to further explore the effects of music. The aim of this literature review was to investigate how individuals with ASD are affected by music. Eleven literature articles were analyzed and as a result, four themes emerged: physical, social, emotional influence and also focus and coping. Anxiety, mood, and social interactions were affected in a positive way by music or music therapy. Physical reactions in the brain were seen in regions underlying music perception and emotional processing. The nurse’s goal is person-centered care, and the knowledge of the effects of music and the possibility to use music in clinical practice, could make working with ASD patients easier. Future research on this subject could provide further knowledge and result in guidelines and routines for an easy use of music in the care of individuals with ASD.

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  • 26.
    Ageberg, Eva
    et al.
    Department Of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Brodin, Eva M.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Linnéll, Jennie
    Department Of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Moesch, Karin
    Department Of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Donaldson, Alex
    La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Adébo, Emme
    Regional Handball Federation In South Sweden, Lund, Sweden.
    Benjaminse, Anne
    University Of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands; Hanze University Of Applied Sciences, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Ekengren, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Granér, Simon
    Department Of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Lucander, Karolina
    Department Of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Myklebust, Grethe
    Norwegian School Of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Møller, Merete
    Norwegian School Of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway; University Of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Swedish School Of Sport And Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bunke, Sofia
    Department Of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Cocreating injury prevention training for youth team handball: bridging theory and practice2022In: BMJ Open Sport and Exercise Medicine, ISSN 2055-7647, Vol. 8, no 2, article id 001263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although it is advocated that end-users are engaged in developing evidence-based injury prevention training to enhance the implementation, this rarely happens. The € Implementing injury Prevention training ROutines in TEams and Clubs in youth Team handball (I-PROTECT)' uses an ecological participatory design incorporating the perspectives of multiple stakeholders throughout the project. Within the I-PROTECT project, the current study aimed to describe the development of holistic injury prevention training specifically for youth handball players through using knowledge from both end-users (coaches and players) and researchers/handball experts. Employing action evaluation within participatory action research, the cyclical development process included three phases: research team preparation, handball expert-based preparation and end-user evaluation to develop injury prevention training incorporating both physical and psychological perspectives. To grow the knowledge of the interdisciplinary research team, rethinking was conducted within and between phases based on participants' contributions. Researchers and end-users cocreated examples of handball-specific exercises, including injury prevention physical principles (movement technique for upper and lower extremities, respectively, and muscle strength) combined with psychological aspects (increase end-user motivation, task focus and body awareness) to integrate into warm-up and skills training within handball practice. A cyclical development process that engaged researchers/handball experts and end-users to cocreate evidence-based, theory-informed and context-specific injury prevention training specifically for youth handball players generated a first pilot version of exercises including physical principles combined with psychological aspects to be integrated within handball practice. © 2022 BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved. © 2022 BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

  • 27.
    Aghakhani Morad, Mina
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskors känslomässiga upplevelser av att vårda pateinter i livets slutskede: En litteraturstudie2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: Palliative care could be described on the four foundations which are symptom relief, cooperation, communication, and support for close relatives. Palliative care is split into two different phases where the last phase is end of life care and the main goal is to relieve suffering and improve quality of life. Nurses have a major role in supporting patients at the end-of-life care. Nursing patients at the end of their life can provide different experiences for nurses. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore nurses’ emotional experience of caring for patients in end-of-life care. Method: The chosen method was a literature review of ten qualitative scientific articles with aim to explore the current state of knowledge. Result: Several different main- and subcategories emerged in the results: The experience related to the nurse as a person: feeling of inadequacy and futility and the feeling of meaningfulness. The experience related to nursing as a professional: The need for knowledge and experience and need for teamwork and planning. Caring for patients in the end of their life can be stressful and can evoke different emotions. The feelings can be one's own thoughts about death but also feelings from the patient, relatives, and colleagues. Nurses highlighted the importance of knowledge and experience in the implementation of palliative care as well as in future care. Lack of knowledge, time and resources can affect the quality of care in a negative way by causing for example, stress or other emotional strain. Conclusion: Caring for patients in palliative care is complex and requires knowledge, experience and more research. Care at the end of life is very time consuming and becomes a big challenge for the nurses who work with patients at the end of their life, where the workload is high and the lack of time is a fact. This can contribute to feelings of guilt and inadequacy in nurses.

  • 28.
    Ahlborg, Mikael
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Exploring Socioeconomic Status and the association with Mental Health in school children – a cross-sectional study2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Poor Mental health in adolescence has become more prevalent over the past decades. Differences between gender and age in mental health are apparent where girls rate their mental health lower than boys. Socioeconomic status has proven to be a determinant for poor mental health, however in detecting poor mental health, the use of solely objective measures may not suffice. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore different aspects of socioeconomic status and their association with school children’s mental health. The data was obtained from the 2009/10 HBSC survey in Sweden. A sample of 4449 students aged 11 and 15 was included. Binary logistic regression with odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) was used to estimate the associations between the different aspects of SES and mental health outcomes. The relationship between poor mental health and low subjective economic status was significant while no such relationship was found in the other SES-measures. The use of subjective economic status may be a more reliable determinant for poor mental health than objective and relative measures. Future studies should focus on developing targeted interventions, also on the understanding of socioeconomic status in childhood.

  • 29.
    Ahlborg, Mikael
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Social capital and inequalities in mental health among young adolescents in Sweden2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to explore social capital and inequalities in mental health among young adolescents in Sweden. This is a compilation thesis comprising four studies. Studies I and II are quantitative studies of crosssectional data from the Swedish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey. The aim of Study I was to investigate socioeconomic inequalities in health using both a subjective and an objective measure of socioeconomic status among Swedish adolescents. The findings showed that subjective socioeconomic status robustly and independently predicted mental health problems, poor life satisfaction and poor general health perception. The association between objective socioeconomic status and mental health was weakened, and even reversed, when subjective socioeconomic status was accounted for in regression models. A Latent Profile Analysis was applied in Study II with the aim of identifying distinct profiles of family, school and peer social capital in a nationally representative sample of adolescents and to explore health outcomes in those profiles. The findings showed that five distinct profiles best represented the data for 11 and 15-year olds, while a four-profile model was optimal for 13-year olds. Significant inequalities were identified between profiles when these were examined in terms of mental health problems and life satisfaction. The design of Study III was a qualitative semi-structured interview study. The aim was to explore social capital from the perspective of adolescents in relation to mental health. Adolescents spoke of having access to a safe space, feeling connected to others and predictability as important aspects of social relationships and networks in relation to mental health. The aim of Study IV was to identify and evaluate the design and psychometric properties of instruments for assessing social capital specifically developed and validated for self-reporting among adolescents (10-19 years). The design was a systematic review, in which 20 instruments were identified. The results revealed a lack of instruments that covered both the multidimensionality of social capital and contextual relevance in relation to adolescents. The conclusion from this thesis is that social capital may be useful for identifying vulnerable individuals and for differentiating between the natural imbalance of adolescence and what may lead to serious illness. Longitudinal research and refinement of the operationalization of the concept are, however, needed to enhance the understanding of these findings.

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  • 30.
    Ahlborg, Mikael
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Nygren, Jens M.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Social Capital in Relation to Mental Health—The Voices of Adolescents in Sweden2023In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 20, no 13, article id 6223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The social environment that adolescents interact in has undoubtedly changed over the past decades. The latent constructs of social capital that have been described in theory may be universal, but it is necessary to reveal sociocultural specific pathways and manifestation in order to validly operationalize social capital for adolescents. There is a call for qualitative data to enhance our understanding of social capital for adolescents today and the specific sociocultural context they live in. The aim of this study was to explore social capital from the perspective of adolescents in relation to mental health. Twenty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted in a school setting with a sample of adolescents aged 11 and 15 years. Qualitative content analysis was applied, and analysis remained on a manifest level. From having adolescents describe their social relations and networks in relation to mental health, three main categories were formed: accessing a safe space, with sub-categories of trusting enough to share, having someone close to you, and being part of an inclusive and honest environment; feeling connected to others, with sub-categories of hanging out and having things in common; and maintaining control, with sub-categories of deciding for yourself, dealing with change, and having social skills. Having access to a safe space is vital for adolescents’ mental health, by providing resources such as mutual trust, honesty, and unconditional access. Feeling connected to others is important in close relationships and reveals the glue that holds networks together, but also links to sociability in a wider sense. Predictability in adolescents’ social relationships and networks, influenced by internal and external factors, may be a resource of increasing importance in todays’ society and an interesting subject for intervention and future research on social capital and adolescent mental health. © 2023 by the authors.

  • 31.
    Ahlborg, Mikael
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Nyholm, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Nygren, Jens M.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Current Conceptualization and Operationalization of Adolescents’ Social Capital: A Systematic Review of Self-Reported Instruments2022In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 19, no 23, article id 15596Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a great heterogeneity in the conceptualization and operationalization of social capital in empirical research targeting adolescents. There has not yet been an attempt to systematically map and psychometrically evaluate the existing instruments for measuring social capital that have been developed and validated for adolescent samples. The aim of this systematic review was to identify and evaluate the design and psychometric properties of self-reported instruments for social capital, specifically developed and validated for use among adolescents. The design of this study was a systematic review guided by the COSMIN methodology for systematic reviews of Patient Reported Outcome Measures. The search included six electronic databases and no time frame was applied. Twenty studies were identified as describing the development and validation of a social capital instrument for adolescent samples. The results reveal common denominators, but also great variation in the design and validation of the instruments. Adolescents were only involved in the development procedures of four instruments. There is a lack of social capital instruments that cover both the multidimensionality of social capital and contextual relevance in relation to adolescents. Careful examination of instruments should thus precede a decision when designing studies and further instrument development involving the target group is encouraged. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 32.
    Ahlborg, Mikael
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Nyholm, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Morgan, Antony
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Glasgow Caledonian University in London, London, United Kingdom.
    Nygren, Jens M.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Into the realm of social capital for adolescents: A latent profile analysis2019In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 2, article id e0212564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Recent reports of increasing prevalence of frequent health complaints and mental health problems among adolescents call for directing more attention on determinants of adolescent health. The relationship between health and social capital has gained increased attention since the early 2000’s and research at review level confirms the importance of social capital for health outcomes, despite methodological heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to identify distinct profiles of family, school and peer social capital in a nationally representative sample of adolescents and to explore health outcomes in those profiles.

    Method

    Cross-sectional data from the Swedish Health Behaviour of School-aged Children 2013/14 was used for this study. The analytical sample consisted of 7,804 adolescents aged 11-, 13- and 15-years. Items representing sense of belonging and emotional support were assessed in three contexts; family, school and among peers. Latent profile analyses (LPA) were run to determine social capital profiles. Health outcomes included frequent health complaints and life satisfaction, while socioeconomic status and genders were included as predictors.

    Results

    The results show that five distinct profiles best represent the data for 11- and 15-year olds, while a four-profile model was optimal for 13-year olds. Some profiles were recurrent between age groups but unique profiles were also found. Health outcomes were significantly different between profiles depending on levels of social capital in the different contexts.

    Conclusions

    This study provides novel insight into how social capital co-occurs among adolescents within the contexts of family, school and peers and how this translates into differences in health outcomes. The national representativeness of the sample increases the implications of the results and contributes to meaningful insights that help explain the interactions of social capital in multiple contexts, complementing what is previously known about the relationship with adolescent health. © 2019 Ahlborg et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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  • 33.
    Ahlborg, Mikael
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Nyholm, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Morgan, Antony
    Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Nygren, Jens M.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Socioeconomic inequalities in health among Swedish adolescents - adding the subjective perspective2017In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, article id 838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent health predict future inequalities in adult health. Subjective measures of socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute with an increased understanding of these inequalities. The aim of this study was to investigate socioeconomic health inequalities using both a subjective and an objective measure of SES among Swedish adolescents.

    Method

    Cross-sectional HBSC-data from 2002 to 2014 was used with a total sample of 23,088 adolescents aged 11–15 years. Three measures of self-rated health (dependent variables) were assessed: multiple health complaints, life satisfaction and health perception. SES was measured objectively by the Family Affluence Scale (FAS) and subjectively by “perceived family wealth” (independent variables). The trend for health inequalities was investigated descriptively with independent t-tests and the relationship between independent and dependent variables was investigated with multiple logistic regression analysis. Gender, age and survey year was considered as possible confounders.

    Results

    Subjective SES was more strongly related to health outcomes than the objective measure (FAS). Also, the relation between FAS and health was weakened and even reversed (for multiple health complaints) when subjective SES was tested simultaneously in regression models (FAS OR: 1.03, CI: 1.00;1.06 and subjective SES OR: 0.66, CI: 0.63;0.68).

    Conclusions

    The level of socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent health varied depending on which measure that was used to define SES. When focusing on adolescents, the subjective appraisals of SES is important to consider because they seem to provide a stronger tool for identifying inequalities in health for this group. This finding is important for policy makers to consider given the persistence of health inequalities in Sweden and other high-income countries. ©  The Author(s). 2017

  • 34.
    Ahlborg, Tone
    et al.
    Nordic School of Public Health, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Dahlöf, Lars-Gösta
    Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Hallberg, Lillemor R.-M.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Quality of the Intimate and Sexual Relationship in the First-Time Parents Six Months After Delivery2005In: Journal of Sex Research, ISSN 0022-4499, E-ISSN 1559-8519, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 167-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to describe the quality of the intimate relationship among parents six months after the birth of their first child. The Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) has been modified and used on 820 responding first-time parents, of which 768 were couples. The results reveal that most parents were happy in their relationship, but both mothers and fathers were discontented with the dyadic sexuality. "Being too tired for sexual activity" was a problem, especially for the mothers, and the most common frequency of intercourse was once or twice per month. The result does not support the assumption that the couples compensate the lacking sexuality with sensuality. Good communication within the couple was associated with higher levels of several dimensions of the intimate relationship, especially dyadic consensus and satisfaction. Thus, one way to stabilize and strengthen a relationship when dyadic sexual activity is low would be to emphasize dyadic communication and sensual activity.

  • 35.
    Ahlborg, Tone
    et al.
    Nordic School of Public Health.
    Persson, Lars-Olof
    University of Göteborg.
    Hallberg, Lillemor R.-M.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Assessing the Quality of the Dyadic Relationship in First-Time Parents: Development of a New Instrument2005In: Journal of Family Nursing, ISSN 1074-8407, E-ISSN 1552-549X, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 19-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research was to psychometrically evaluate the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), modified for use with new, first-time parents by extending the items of communication, sensuality, and sexuality. A total of 820 Swedish respondents, 6 months after the birth of their first child, participated in the study. Psychometric evaluation was conducted with factor analysis. The obtained factor structure was tested with multitrait analysis program. Thirty-three itemswere found to fit into a five-factor solution, explaining 50% of the total variance. Descriptive data revealed thatmost new parentswere satisfied with their intimate relationship in general, but dissatisfied with their sexual lives. Themodified DAS, now called the Quality of Dyadic Relationship Instrument includes 33 items and seems to be a useful, updated measurement for assessing quality of the intimate relationship in new first-time parents.

  • 36.
    Ahlbäck, Annie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Kvarnsäter, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    En av 36,7 miljoner: Att få en HIV diagnos2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although HIV is a well-known disease and millions of people worldwide are affected, it is still one of the world's most stigmatized diseases. Stigmatization causes the disease to be associated with both prejudice and shame, affecting the people who suffer from the disease annually. The purpose of this qualitative literature study was to highlight patients' experiences of getting an HIV diagnosis. The results of the literature study were based on nine scientific articles that resulted in the following six themes: Experiences of shock, experiences of anger and guilt, experiences in fear of dying, experiences of difficulty whit disclosure to friends and family, experiences of acceptance, and experiences of the diagnosis as a positive turning point. In the results, it was clear that the diagnosis raised many strong emotions and that the people who are affected are in urgent need of assistance and support from healthcare professionals to handle the diagnosis. Hence, it is important that nurses get an insight into the experiences regarding an HIV diagnosis and receive more education in the subject so that the right information can be given.

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  • 37.
    Ahlqvist, Malin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Hulthén, Agnes
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    “Där tror jag att jag är en kameleont”: en uppsats om upplevelser av att arbeta med individer som står långt från arbetsmarknaden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lack of workers and a shrinking welfare state have increased the focus on individuals who are excluded from the labor market as well as social enterprises. In this hermeneutic study, based on interviews with officials working towards these groups, we investigate how officials perceive their discretion and role towards clients. To be able to do their job they need discretion which is in line with Michael Lipsky's theory on street-level bureaucrats (Lipsky 2010).

     

    Social enterprises are described as needed to solve shortcomings in the labor market, but also problematic, as the social entrepreneurs could be lacking skills, as both clients and social entrepreneurs have a background of failed schooling due to disabilities and socio-economic causes. Bourdieu’s concept of doxa is applied to understand how failed schooling lead to shortcomings in navigating society and how officials compensate for this by taking on different roles.

     

    The paradox of the social enterprises is analyzed with a theory on pre-paradigmatic fields and isomorphism which brings a pressure for organizations to conform to gain legitimacy and access to resources. More knowledge on the role the officials can play to prevent exclusion from the labor market could enable resources to be more effectively distributed within the welfare system.

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    kameleont
  • 38.
    Ahlstav Mårtensson, Ulrica
    et al.
    Halmstad Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Erling-Hasselqvist, Nann
    Halmstad Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Boström, Barbro
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Differences in pain and nausea in children operated on by Tonsillectomy or Tonsillotomy – a prospective follow-up study2012In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 69, no 4, p. 782-792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To evaluate the differences in postoperative pain, nausea and time of discharge in children 3–12 years old after Tonsillectomy or Tonsillotomy at the postanaesthetic care unit, children’s ward and at home. 

    Background: Tonsillectomy involves risk of bleeding, severe postoperative pain and nausea. Tonsillotomy is a less invasive method with lower risk of bleeding, postoperative pain and nausea according to previous studies.

    Design: A prospective, comparative follow-up study design.

    Method: From December 2008–April 2009 following parental agreement, 87 children in the ages 3–12 undergoing Tonsillectomy or Tonsillotomy participated. Visual analogue scale was used for children’s pain and nausea reports.

    Result: Significantly, fewer children operated on by the Tonsillotomy reported postoperative pain ‡ 3 according to the visual analogue scale than children operated on by the Tonsillectomy at the postanaesthetic care unit and the children’s ward. A statistically significant difference of postoperative nausea was only present during the care at the postanaesthetic care unit and children’s ward with fewer Tonsillotomy children reporting nausea ‡ 3. The time of postoperative care was shorter among the Tonsillotomy children in both the postanaesthetic care unit and the children’s ward. Postoperative pain and pain related difficulties in eating after discharge was significantly more present among the Tonsillectomy children compared with the Tonsillotomy children.

    Conclusion: The results of our study showed duration of postoperative pain and nausea in both groups, but indicated that Tonsillotomy is a more favourable alternative than Tonsillectomy in children. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  • 39.
    Ahlstedt, Niklas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Miikman, Mia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskors omvårdnad av patienter med smärta2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pain is the most common symptom for which people seek care. Despite increased knowledge of pain management, untreated pain persists to be a problem. Enduring pain is an unpleasant experience and nurses have an important role to relieve patients’ suffering. It seems that at times nurses strive to receive empowerment can affect their caring of patients with pain negatively. Aim: to investigate nurses caring for patiens with pain. Method: Literature study with a deductive directed content analysis. The result showed that nurses have a pride in their work and a will to perform good nursing for patients with pain and their actions were usually directed by that. Sometimes, however, nurses’ actions were ruled by coping strategies and their own needs to suppress their own emotions which could result in patients receiving poorer care. The investigation showed that patients could even be mistrusted and ignored by nurses. Both nurses and patients experiences health through empowerment and the pain treatment thus get positively affected. The care should therefore be organized so that nurses are given greater opportunity to perform nursing based on person-centered care. Research is recommended regarding the underlying reasons why nurses underestimates patients 'pain perception and how nurses' own influence in pain treatment can be strengthened so that patients do not suffer 

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  • 40.
    Ahlstrand, Inger
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Larsson, Margaretha
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Ekman, Aimée
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Hedén, Lena
    University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Laakso, Katja
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindmark, Ulrika
    Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Nunstedt, Håkan
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Oxelmark, Lena
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Sundler, Annelie J.
    University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Hallgren, Jenny
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Health-promoting factors among students in higher education within health care and social work: a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data in a multicentre longitudinal study2022In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 1314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Educational environments are considered important in strengthening students’ health status andknowledge, which are associated with good educational outcomes. It has been suggested to establish healthy universitiesbased on a salutogenic approach – namely, health promotion. The aim of this study was to describe healthpromotingresources and factors among first-semester students in higher education in healthcare and social work.Methods: This cross-sectional study is based on a survey distributed among all students in seven healthcare andsocial work programmes at six universities in southern Sweden. The survey was carried out in 2018 using a selfreported,web-based questionnaire focussing on general health and well-being, lifestyle factors together with threevalidated instruments measuring health-promoting factors and processes: the Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale, SalutogenicHealth Indicator Scale (SHIS) and Occupational Balance Questionnaire (OBQ).Results: Of 2283 students, 851 (37.3%) completed the survey, of whom 742 (87.1%) were women; 722 (84.8%) wereenrolled on healthcare programmes, and 129 (15.2%) were enrolled on social work programmes. Most reported goodgeneral health and well-being (88.1% and 83.7%, respectively). The total mean scores for the SOC scale, SHIS and OBQwere, respectively, 59.09 (SD = 11.78), 44.04 (SD = 9.38) and 26.40 (SD = 7.07). Well-being and several healthy lifestyleswere related to better general health and higher SOC, SHIS and OBQ scores. Multiple linear and logistic regressionsshowed that perceived well-being and no sleeping problems significantly predicted higher general health and higherSOC, SHIS and OBQ scores. Being less sedentary and non-smoking habits were significant predictors of higher SOC.Conclusions: Swedish students in higher education within the healthcare and social work sector report good generalhealth and well-being in the first semester, as well as health-promoting resources (i.e. SOC, SHIS and OBQ), andin some aspects, a healthy lifestyle. High-intensity exercise, no sleeping problems and non-smoking seem to be ofimportance to both general health and health-promotive resources. This study contributes to knowledge about thehealth promotive characteristics of students in the healthcare and social work fields, which is of importance for planninguniversities with a salutogenic approach. © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 41.
    Ahlstrand, Joacim
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Smärtlindring vid militära aktioner2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I de militära konflikthärdar som finns på ett flertal platser runt om vår värld är det oundvikligt att människor blir skadade och följaktligen uppleva smärta. Som sjuksköterska i fält är det av vikt att känna till vilka metoder som finns tillgängliga för att lindra detta lidande dels för att underlätta för den skadade soldaten i stunden och dels för att i positiv riktning även minska riskerna för att andra smärtrelaterade syndrom skall få fotfäste. Syftet med litteraturstudien var att belysa metoder för smärtlindring av skadade vid militära aktioner prehospitalt och på militärt sjukhus. Metoden som användes var litteraturstudie där sju artiklars resultat analyserades och sammanställdes. I resultatet framkom tre kategorier: smärtlindring med fentanyl, smärtlindring med ketamin och smärtlindring med kontinuerlig perifer nervblockad. Fortsatt forskning skulle kunna vara inriktad på ytterligare preparat samt förenklad administrering men också på vilket sätt sjuksköterskans förhållningssätt till patienten och dess traumatiska situation kan påverka smärtupplevelsen.

  • 42.
    Ahlström, Gerd
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Wallén, Eva Flygare
    Karolinska Institutet (KI), Stockholm, Sweden; Municipality of Östersund, Östersund, Sweden.
    Tideman, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), The Wigforss Group. Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Marianne
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ageing people with intellectual disabilities and the association between frailty factors and social care: A Swedish national register study2022In: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, ISSN 1744-6295, E-ISSN 1744-6309, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 900-918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe the social care provided for different age groups of people with intellectual disability, 55 years or above, and to investigate the association between such care and frailty factors for those with diagnosed level of intellectual disabilities. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were used. Commonest forms of social care among the 7936 people were Residential care, Daily activities and Contact person. Home help and Security alarm increased with age. The frailty factors significantly associated with increased social care were age, polypharmacy and severe levels of intellectual disabilities. Persons most likely to be in residential care were in the age group 65–79 with polypharmacy and severe disability. The results indicate a need for further research of how frailty factors are considered in social care and longstanding medication, especially then severe intellectual disability hinders communication. A national strategic plan for preventive interventions should be developed to ensure the best possible healthy ageing. © The Author(s) 2021.

  • 43.
    Ahmadi, Asghar
    et al.
    Australian Catholic University, Sydney, Australia.
    Noetel, Michael
    University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Parker, Philip
    Australian Catholic University, Sydney, Australia.
    Ryan, Richard M.
    Australian Catholic University, Sydney, Australia.
    Ntoumanis, Nikos
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Reeve, Johnmarshall
    Australian Catholic University, Sydney, Australia.
    Beauchamp, Mark
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Dicke, Theresa
    Australian Catholic University, Sydney, Australia.
    Yeung, Alexander
    Australian Catholic University, Sydney, Australia.
    Ahmadi, Malek
    Islamic Azad University, Urmia, Iran.
    Bartholomew, Kimberley
    University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom.
    Chiu, Thomas K.F.
    Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Curran, Thomas
    London School of Economics, London, United Kingdom.
    Erturan, Gokce
    Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey.
    Flunger, Barbara
    Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Frederick, Christina
    Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, United States.
    Froiland, John Mark
    Purdue University, West Lafayette, United States.
    González-Cutre, David
    Universidad Miguel Hernández, Elche, Spain.
    Haerens, Leen
    Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Jeno, Lucas Matias
    University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Koka, Andre
    Faculty of Medicine, Tartu, Estonia.
    Krijgsman, Christa
    Fontys University of Applied Sciences, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Langdon, Jody
    Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, United States.
    White, Rhiannon Lee
    University of Western Sydney, Penrith, Australia.
    Litalien, David
    Université Laval, Quebec, Canada.
    Lubans, David
    University Of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia.
    Mahoney, John
    Australian Catholic University, Sydney, Australia.
    Nalipay, Ma Jenina N.
    Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Patall, Erika
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Perlman, Dana
    University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.
    Quested, Eleanor
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Schneider, Sascha
    University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Standage, Martyn
    University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom.
    Stroet, Kim
    Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Tessier, Damien
    Université Grenoble Alpes, Saint Martin d'Heres, France.
    Thogersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Tilga, Henri
    Faculty of Medicine, Tartu, Estonia.
    Vasconcellos, Diego
    Australian Catholic University, Sydney, Australia.
    Lonsdale, Chris
    Australian Catholic University, Sydney, Australia.
    A Classification System for Teachers’ Motivational Behaviors Recommended in Self-Determination Theory Interventions2023In: Journal of Educational Psychology, ISSN 0022-0663, E-ISSN 1939-2176, Vol. 115, no 8, p. 1158-1176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teachers’ behavior is a key factor that influences students’ motivation. Many theoretical models have tried to explain this influence, with one of the most thoroughly researched being self-determination theory (SDT). We used a Delphi method to create a classification of teacher behaviors consistent with SDT. This is useful because SDT-based interventions have been widely used to improve educational outcomes. However, these interventions contain many components. Reliably classifying and labeling those components is essential for implementation, reproducibility, and evidence synthesis.We used an international expert panel (N = 34) to develop this classification system. We started by identifying behaviors from existing literature, then refined labels, descriptions, and examples using the Delphi panel’s input. Next, the panel of experts iteratively rated the relevance of each behavior to SDT, the psychological need that each behavior influenced, and its likely effect on motivation. To create a mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive list of behaviors, experts nominated overlapping behaviors that were redundant, and suggested new ones missing from the classification. After three rounds, the expert panel agreed upon 57 teacher motivational behaviors (TMBs) that were consistent with SDT. For most behaviors (77%), experts reached consensus on both the most relevant psychological need and influence on motivation. Our classification system provides a comprehensive list of TMBs and consistent terminology in how those behaviors are labeled. Researchers and practitioners designing interventions could use these behaviors to design interventions, to reproduce interventions, to assess whether these behaviors moderate intervention effects, and could focus new research on areas where experts disagreed. © 2023 American Psychological Association

  • 44.
    Ahmadi, Asghar
    et al.
    Australian Catholic University, North Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Noetel, Michael
    Australian Catholic University, North Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Schellekens, Melissa
    Australian Catholic University, North Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Parker, Philip
    Australian Catholic University, North Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Antczak, Devan
    Australian Catholic University, North Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Beauchamp, Mark
    The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Dicke, Theresa
    Australian Catholic University, North Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Diezmann, Carmel
    Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
    Maeder, Anthony
    Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia.
    Ntoumanis, Nikos
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; School of Psychology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Yeung, Alexander
    Australian Catholic University, North Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Lonsdale, Chris
    Australian Catholic University, North Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    A Systematic Review of Machine Learning for Assessment and Feedback of Treatment Fidelity2021In: Psychosocial Intervention, ISSN 1132-0559, E-ISSN 2173-4712, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 139-153Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many psychological treatments have been shown to be cost-effective and efficacious, as long as they are implemented faithfully. Assessing fidelity and providing feedback is expensive and time-consuming. Machine learning has been used to assess treatment fidelity, but the reliability and generalisability is unclear. We collated and critiqued all implementations of machine learning to assess the verbal behaviour of all helping professionals, with particular emphasis on treatment fidelity for therapists. We conducted searches using nine electronic databases for automated approaches of coding verbal behaviour in therapy and similar contexts. We completed screening, extraction, and quality assessment in duplicate. Fifty-two studies met our inclusion criteria (65.3% in psychotherapy). Automated coding methods performed better than chance, and some methods showed near human-level performance; performance tended to be better with larger data sets, a smaller number of codes, conceptually simple codes, and when predicting session-level ratings than utterance-level ones. Few studies adhered to best-practice machine learning guidelines. Machine learning demonstrated promising results, particularly where there are large, annotated datasets and a modest number of concrete features to code. These methods are novel, cost-effective, scalable ways of assessing fidelity and providing therapists with individualised, prompt, and objective feedback. © 2021 Colegio Oficial de la Psicología de Madrid

  • 45.
    Ahmadi, Edvin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Nilsson, Malte
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Regulatory focus och regulatory fit inom straffsparkar i fotboll2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Performance in penalty taking in football within a self-regulatory focus was examined, as well aschronic regulatory focus and its effect on sports related anxiety and emotions during the twodifferent frames. In a mixed factorial design with regulatory frames (promotion and prevention)was given to the participants (n = 24; Mage = 24.40, SD = 4.18 years) before the penalties weretaken. The participants in the study were all active football players. The participants consisted of12 male football players from a Swedish division 2 team and 12 female players from a Swedishdivision 1 team. Each participant was given five penalties in both prevention and promotionframed circumstances. Measures was implemented on the participants performance during thedifferent frames, perceived emotions during the frames and also on their sport specific anxiety.The results displayed that promotion focused individuals performed better in a promotion framedpenalty situation (fit) compared to the prevention framed penalty situation (miss). The sameapplied to prevention focused individuals that performed better in a prevention framed penaltysituation than in a promotion framed penalty situation. The study displayed that regulatory fitbrought lower scales of negative emotions compared to regulatory miss. In addition, theprevention focused participants showed a higher perceived level of sports related anxietycompared to the promotion focused participants. Promotion-focused participants have beenshown to perform better in penalty kicks regardless of regulatory framework compared to theprevention-focused participants. The study showed a relation between chronic regulatory focusand performance during the frames, chronic regulatory focus and emotions during the frames andalso between chronic regulatory focus and sports related anxiety. This study can be applied to coaches and players to raise awareness about chronic regulatory focus and its effect onperformance and emotional states.

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  • 46.
    Ahmadi, Nasser S.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Månsson, Jörgen
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindblad, Ulf
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hildingh, Cathrine
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Breathlessness in everyday life from a patient perspective: A qualitative study using diaries2014In: Palliative & Supportive Care, ISSN 1478-9515, E-ISSN 1478-9523, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 189-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Breathlessness is a subjective symptom, which makes it difficult to define and understand. The aim of the present study was to illuminate how patients suffering from breathlessness experience their everyday life. Method: The study was a qualitative study, and the focus of the analysis was the patients' descriptions of their experiences of breathlessness using a diary with two unstructured questions for a period of 7 consecutive days. Sixteen participants: 7 men, mean age 65 ± 7 (range 55-73 years old), and 9 women, mean age 65 ± 9 (range 50-72 years old) participated in the study. Results: Two themes emerged from the analysis: 1) Impaired quality of life and 2) symptom tolerance and adaptation. The theme "impaired quality of life" included the categories limited physical ability, psychological burdens, and social life barriers. The theme "symptom tolerance and adaptation" included importance of health care, social support, hobbies and leisure activities, and coping strategies. Significance of results: The findings in our study showed that patients, in spite of considerable difficulties with shortness of breath, found relief in several types of activities, in addition to drug therapy. The result indicates that the "biopsychosocial model" is an appealing approach that should be discussed further to gain a better understanding of breathlessness. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013.

  • 47.
    Ahmetovic, Amina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Faur, Mariia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Det är ansvar och frihet: En kvalitativ studie om socialsekreterares upplevelser av sitt handlingsutrymme2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social Workers work in the Social Services Addiction Unit is challenged to meet the client's needs while responding to the organization's resources. This is due to insufficient resources placed on abuse because the target group is not a priority. Therefore, it is important that social workers have a margin of action to make thoughtful actions in relation to both parties. The purpose of the essay is to investigate and analyze the factors that social workers perceive may affect the social investigative work and how social workers experience power in the investigative work with adult clients who have ongoing abuse problems. The purpose is expressed in issues that take into account what opportunities and limitations social workers experience in the law investigation work and how they experience the exercise of power in relation to the client in investigation according to the law.

    The study is based on 7 qualitative semi structured interviews with social workers who work with investigations with substance abusers in Halland and Skåne County. The material was analyzed using Lipsky's concept discretion and Foucault's power theory. The results show that missions, laws and guidelines, resources, customer attitude and social workers' subjectivity are regarded by social security as both the possibilities and limitations in the SoL investigation. In addition, the social workers find that they have power in relation to the client with the help of knowledge about the subject, but they also have the ambition to lift the client that leads to a relational power. Social workers also act in an uncertainty where the social workers' scope for action, including factors that enable and limit the investigative work is important for the work in the social field.

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  • 48.
    Ahnfelt, Camilla
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Wolmestam, Malena
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Distriktsköterskans strategier för att stärka egenvård hos personer med hjärtsvikt i hemmet: En integrativ litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The older population in Sweden increases dramatically while resources are decreasing. Heart failure is one of the most common diseases in Sweden which causes hospitalization for elderly people. Symptoms of heart failure can be stressful and affect the quality of life negatively for both patients and close relatives. A lot of old people with heart failure lives at home and need support to cope with their illness and reduce hospitalization. The aim of the literature study is to describe district nurses' strategies to strengthen self-care in patients with heart failure in home care. The method is an integrative literature study where 19 articles of both qualitative and quantitative methods are included. The results show four categories that address strategies district nurses can apply to strengthen self-care in patients with heart failure. These are essential conditions for district nurse, the importance of starting from the patient's situation and needs, to work with goals and follow-up as well as offer education and knowledge. The essential conditions are mainly that higher education and experience are of great importance in the work of self-care. Other strategies emerging is to see each individual person as unique, work with participation, involve relatives and individualized education as well as follow up. There is no general strategy to strengthen self-care that works for all. District Nurse skills are necessary in the work of providing individual support that strengthens selfcare.

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  • 49.
    Aideed, Rahma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Lindberg, Isabella
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av att identifiera smärta hos personer med demenssjukdom på särskilt boende: En litteraturstudie2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The prevalence of dementia in the world is increasing with a rising average life expectancy. Dementia is a condition that, among other things, means that a person has difficulty communicating pain verbally. Nurses are responsible for assessing pain in people with dementia. Aim: This literature study aimed to shed light on the nurses' experiences of pain assessment among people with dementia in nursing homes. Method: A general literature study was conducted where seven scientific articles were compiled and analysed based on a qualitative content analysis. Results: The study results were based on seven scientific articles that resulted in three main categories: nurses experience limitations due to communication barriers, the importance of continuity and support from relatives and the importance of nurses' experience and competence. Conclusion: The nurses experienced difficulties in assessing pain in people with dementia. This was due to limited communication skills in people with dementia. It was, therefore, challenging to have a mutual dialogue. Education and experience where an important factor for nurses. Continuous care setting and support of relatives was also highlighted as valuable.

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    fulltext
  • 50.
    Aili, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Andreasson, Kristina
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Träff, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av familjecentrerad enkelrumsvård på neonatalavdelning: - En intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are 36 neonatal wards in Sweden, which demands a highly specialized healthcare. Therefore, neonatal nurses need to have adequate education and have good knowledge within their field. Not every ward in Sweden conducts family centered single-room care. This care-model means that parents take care of their child throughout the day with the support from nurses.

    The aim of this study was to highlight nurses’ experience of family-centered single-room care in a neonatal ward. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. From the result three categories emerged; nurses and family-centered single-rooms care, parents and family-centered single rooms care and children and family-centered single room.

    The result showed that family-centered single-room care is preferred from both nurses and families. Experience shows that nurses’ role has changed from being the one closest to the child and performs nursing care, to leave that responsibility to the parents and instead assume a teaching role. This allows parents to grow in their roles and strengthens the connection with the child. Communication between nurses and families is important for this form of care to succeed, and therefore needs to be highlighted in future educations. Neonatal wards need to discussed communication and structured up how it should be carried out on the workplace.

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    Familjecentrerad enkelrumsvård
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