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  • 1.
    Börnhorst, Claudia
    et al.
    Biometry and Data Management, Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology-BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Siani, Alfonso
    Unit of Epidemiology and Population Genetics, Institute of Food Sciences, National Research Council, Avellino, Italy.
    Tornaritis, Michalis
    Research and Education Institute of Child Health, Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Molnár, Dénes
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.
    Lissner, Lauren
    Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Regber, Susann
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Reisch, Lucia
    Department of Intercultural Communication and Management, Copenhagen Business School, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    De Decker, Annelies
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Moreno, Luis A
    GENUD (Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development) Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad de Zaragoza, Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2), Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Aragón (IIS Aragón), Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), Zaragoza, Spain.
    Ahrens, Wolfgang
    Biometry and Data Management, Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology-BIPS & Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Pigeot, Iris
    Biometry and Data Management, Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology-BIPS, Bremen, Germany & Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Potential selection effects when estimating associations between the infancy peak or adiposity rebound and later body mass index in children2017In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 518-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION:This study aims to evaluate a potential selection effect caused by exclusion of children with non-identifiable infancy peak (IP) and adiposity rebound (AR) when estimating associations between age and body mass index (BMI) at IP and AR and later weight status

    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In 4744 children with at least 4 repeated measurements of height and weight in the age interval from 0 to 8 years (37 998 measurements) participating in the IDEFICS (Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-Induced Health Effects in Children and Infants)/I.Family cohort study, fractional polynomial multilevel models were used to derive individual BMI trajectories. Based on these trajectories, age and BMI at IP and AR, BMI values and growth velocities at selected ages as well as the area under the BMI curve were estimated. The BMI growth measures were standardized and related to later BMI z-scores (mean age at outcome assessment: 9.2 years).

    RESULTS: Age and BMI at IP and AR were not identifiable in 5.4% and 7.8% of the children, respectively. These groups of children showed a significantly higher BMI growth during infancy and childhood. In the remaining sample, BMI at IP correlated almost perfectly (r⩾0.99) with BMI at ages 0.5, 1 and 1.5 years, whereas BMI at AR correlated perfectly with BMI at ages 4-6 years (r⩾0.98). In the total study group, BMI values in infancy and childhood were positively associated with later BMI z-scores where associations increased with age. Associations between BMI velocities and later BMI z-scores were largest at ages 5 and 6 years. Results differed for children with non-identifiable IP and AR, demonstrating a selection effect.

    CONCLUSIONS: IP and AR may not be estimable in children with higher-than-average BMI growth. Excluding these children from analyses may result in a selection bias that distorts effect estimates. BMI values at ages 1 and 5 years might be more appropriate to use as predictors for later weight status instead. © 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Department of Health Behaviours, Swedish National Institute of Public Health, Östersund, Sweden.
    Westerterp, Klas
    Department of Food and Nutrition, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Assessment of the physical activity level with two questions: validation with doubly labelled water2008In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 1031-1033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To validate  a two-question questionnaire on physical activity with the doubly labeled water (DLW) method.

    Design: Cross-sectional study.

    Subjects: Nine volunteers, age 33-75 years, with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 27.4.

    Measurements: A questionnaire with one question on physical activity at work and one question on physical activity during leisure time. The answers were converted into a PAL (physical activity level=energy expenditure/basal metabolic rate) value, which was validated with the DLW method.

    Results: The mean values (s.d.) of PAL for the questionnaire and DLW measurements were 1.7 (0.1) and 1.7 (0.1), respectively, with a mean difference of 0.004 (0.172).

    Conclusions: The results were promising to the extent that they could be used in large-scale epidemiological studies.

  • 3.
    Nyholm, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Gullberg, Bo
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Haglund, Bo
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Råstam, Lennart
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Lindblad, Ulf
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Higher education and more physical activity limit the development of obesity in a Swedish rural population: The Skaraborg Project2008In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 533-540Article in journal (Refereed)
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