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  • 1.
    Alfermann, D.
    et al.
    Faculty of Sports Sciences, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). The P.F. Lesgaft State Academy, St Petersburg, Russian Federation.
    Zemaityte, A.
    University of Vilnius, Vilnius, Lithuania & Department of Pyschology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany.
    Reactions to sport career termination: A cross-national comparison of German, Lithuanian, and Russian athletes2004In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 61-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To assess the cognitive, emotional, and behavioural consequences of sport career termination of national and international level athletes in three nations.

    Design and methods: Athletes of Germany (n=88), Lithuania (n=65), and Russia (n=101) were asked to describe in retrospect their reactions to career termination. The Athletic Retirement Questionnaire developed by the first two authors and presented in three corresponding languages was used. Planning of retirement and national identity served as independent variables. Dependent variables were reasons and circumstances for career termination, participants’ emotional reactions, coping reactions, athletic identity during and after sport career, and adjustment to life after career termination.

    Results: Analyses of variance revealed significant main effects of retirement planning and national identity on most dependent variables. Planning of retirement contributed to significantly better cognitive, emotional, and behavioural adaptation. In addition, high athletic identity contributed to less positive reactions to retirement and to more problems in the adaptation process. The emotional reactions of Russian and Lithuanian athletes were similar, but differed from the German athletes who, in general, showed more positive and lesser negative emotions after retirement. Though accepting the reality of retirement was the most often used coping strategy among all participants, Lithuanian athletes showed more denial and Russian athletes more distraction strategies after retirement than the other nations.

    Discussion: The results are discussed with regard to athletes’ readiness for career transition in different social and cultural environments. Recommendations are given on how to help athletes to prepare for and to cope with career termination. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.
    Bertollo, Maurizio
    “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy & University of Suffolk, Ipswich, United Kingdom.
    Debois, Nadine
    National Institute of Sport, Expertise and Performance (INSEP), Paris, France.
    de Oliveira, Rita F.
    London South Bank University, London, United Kingdom.
    Fritsch, Julian
    Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.
    Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis
    University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece.
    Moesch, Karin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). The Swedish Sports Confederation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Raab, Markus
    London South Bank University, London, United Kingdom & German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Sanchez, Xavier
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Vaisetaite, Lina
    National Olympic Committee of Lithuania, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Preface to the special issue: 50 years of FEPSAC2019In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 42, p. 5-7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Henriksen, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Institute of Sport Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Roessler, Kirsten Kaya
    Institute of Sport Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Holistic approach to Athletic Talent Development Environments: A successful sailing milieu2010In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 212-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. Research into the discovery and development of athletic talent has tended to focus on the individual athlete. This study assumes a holistic ecological approach; it focuses on the overall athletic talent development environment (ATDE), presents an analysis of one particular ATDE (the Danish national 49er sailing team) and examines key factors behind its success in creating top athletes. To guide the project, two working models were developed. The ATDE working model serves to describe the environment’s components and structure. The environmental success factors (ESF) working model serves to structure factors contributing to the environment’s success.

    Method. The research takes the form of a case study. Data were collected from multiple perspectives (in-depth interviews with administrators, coaches and athletes), from multiple situations (observation of training, competitions and meetings) and from the analysis of documents.

    Results. Empirical versions of the ATDE and ESF models were developed of the investigated environment, which was characterized by a high degree of cohesion, with the relationship between current and prospective elite athletes at its core. A lack of resources was compensated for by a strong organizational culture, characterized by values of open co-operation, individual responsibility and a focus on performance process.

    Conclusions. The research concluded that the holistic ecological approach constitutes an important supplement to the contemporary literature on athletic talent and career development, that further studies of specific environments are needed to establish the common features of successful ATDEs and that practitioners should look beyond the individual in their attempts to nurture sporting excellence.

  • 4.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Andersen, Mark B.
    School of Sport and Exercise Science and the Institute of Sport, Exercise and Active Living, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport(s) Science, University of Gothenburg, Sweden;Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    To Adjust or Not Adjust: Nonparametric Effect Sizes, Confidence Intervals, and Real-World Meaning2013In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 97-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The main objectives of this article are to: (a) investigate if there are any meaningful differences between adjusted and unadjusted effect sizes (b) compare the outcomes from parametric and non-parametric effect sizes to determine if the potential differences might influence the interpretation of results, (c) discuss the importance of reporting confidence intervals in research, and discuss how to interpret effect sizes in terms of practical real-world meaning.

    Design: Review.

    Method: A review of how to estimate and interpret various effect sizes was conducted. Hypothetical examples were then used to exemplify the issues stated in the objectives.

    Results: The results from the hypothetical research designs showed that: (a) there is a substantial difference between adjusted and non-adjusted effect sizes especially in studies with small sample sizes, and (b) there are differences in outcomes between the parametric and non-parametric effect size formulas that may affect interpretations of results.

    Conclusions: The different hypothetical examples in this article clearly demonstrate the importance of treating data in ways that minimize potential biases and the central issues of how to discuss the meaningfulness of effect sizes in research. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 5.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Fallby, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Borg, Elin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    The predictive ability of the talent development environment on youth elite football players' well-being: A person-centered approach2015In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 16, no Part 1, p. 15-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The objective of this study was to examine the predictive ability of perceived talent development environment (TDE) on the well-being of youth elite football players.

    Design

    A field-based longitudinal design was employed.

    Method

    The participants were 195 Swedish youth elite football players between 13 and 16 years of age enrolled at Swedish football academies. The players responded to questionnaires regarding their perceptions of their TDE, perceived stress, and well-being in the beginning of the competitive season 2012 (T1). On two more occasions, six and 12 months later, the players completed the stress and well-being questionnaires.

    Results

    A latent class analysis, based on the TDEQ sub-scale scores at T1, revealed three classes of players with different perceptions of their TDE (one high quality, one moderate quality, and one poor quality class). A second-order multivariate latent growth curve model (factor-of-curves model) showed that the class of players perceiving the lowest TDE quality, experienced higher initial level of stress and lower initial level of well-being at T1 compared to the other two classes. Moreover, there were no significant differences in slopes for neither stress nor well-being between classes (the initial difference between the three groups, in well-being, remained stable over time).

    Conclusion

    The results indicate that players perceiving their TDE as supporting and focusing on long-term development seem to be less stressed and experience higher well-being than other players. Hence, in addition to facilitate sport-specific development and performance among youth athletes, high quality TDEs may be important for youth elite athletes' general well-being.

  • 6.
    Kristiansen, Elsa
    et al.
    University of South-Eastern Norway, Notodden, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Solstad, Bård
    The Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Roberts, Glyn
    The Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Motivational processes affecting the perception of organizational and media stressors among professional football players: A longitudinal mixed methods research study2019In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 43, p. 172-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine professional football players’ perceptions of organizational and media stressors over a season using Achievement Goal Theory (AGT) as the overarching motivational framework. We elaborated upon the experience of the extant motivational climate and how playersperceived and coped with a number of organizational and media stressors during the season.

    Design: A mixed-methods approach was used in this longitudinal investigation with the quantitative testing of hypotheses (strand 1) complemented with interviews (strand II) exploring the perceptions of players of the target variables within their role in the team (captains, starters, and marginal players).

    Method: 27 players from one men's team in a Scandinavian Premier Division completed a series of questionnaires at ten occasions during the season. We used the Bayesian dynamic p-technique analysis to investigate the relationships between AGT constructs and stressors. At the end of the season, 11 players were interviewed. The qualitative data were coded and narratives were used when presenting the findings.

    Results: The quantitative results showed that a perceived mastery climate created by the coach was associated with low perceived magnitude of organizational stressors. The qualitative results revealed the main categories of organizational stressors were the selected line-up for games, injuries, and losing games. The results for media stressorsrevealed that task orientation was associated with low perceived magnitude of media stressors the following month, while ego orientation had the opposite relationship. The qualitative findings revealed that injured and marginal players were more sensitive to media questioning in a season where the team was acknowledged for their team performance.

    Conclusions: There are benefits of being task-involved through task orientation and perception of a mastery climate to combat the quantity, frequency, and/or intensity of the perception of organizational and media stressors in professional football. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 7.
    Leo, Francisco M.
    et al.
    Faculty of Teacher Training, University of Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain.
    González-Ponce, Inmaculada
    Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain.
    Sánchez-Miguel, Pedro A.
    Faculty of Teacher Training, University of Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    García-Calvo, Tomás
    Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain.
    Role Ambiguity, Role Conflict, Team Conflict, Cohesion and Collective Efficacy in Sport Teams: A Multilevel Analysis2015In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 20, p. 60-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how perceptions of role ambiguity, role conflict, team conflict, and cohesion can predict collective efficacy in sports teams. The participants were professional female and male football players, who participated in the First and Second Divisions in Spain. We adopted a longitudinal perspective, taking measures at the beginning, the middle, and the end of a sport season. Multilevel modelling analysis showed that perceptions of team conflict and cohesion, at the interpersonal and interteam levels, can predict changes in collective efficacy. However, individual perceptions of role ambiguity and role conflict were not relevant in establishing a team’s confidence. These results suggest interesting practical applications for coaches and sports psychologists in the professional sphere. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 8.
    Li, Chunxiao
    et al.
    The Education University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Umeå Universitet, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wu, Yandan
    Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, China.
    The dynamic interplay between burnout and sleep among elite blind soccer players2018In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 37, p. 164-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamic pattern between burnout and sleep among athletes is unknown. This longitudinal survey examined the interplay between burnout and sleep among blind elite soccer players. China national blind soccer team players (n = 10) completed measures on burnout and sleep quality through interview at baseline (month 1), and followed at months 2, 3, 4, and 5. The results of dynamic p-technique analysis, using Bayesian estimation, showed a credible relationship between burnout and sleep quality. Also, burnout had a credible lagged effect on subsequent sleep quality whereas sleep quality did not have a credible lagged effect on burnout. The results suggest that burnout and sleep are not reciprocally related and burnout may be a risk factor of sleep problems among athletes. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 9.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    The effects of a 6-month exercise intervention programme on physical self-perceptions and social physique anxiety in non-physically active adolescent Swedish girls2005In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 6, no 6, p. 643-658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:

    To examine the effects of a 6-month exercise intervention programme (EIP) on physical self-perceptions (PSP) and social physique anxiety (SPA) of non-physically active adolescent Swedish girls.

    Methods:

    A true experimental design with randomization into an intervention or control group was used. The empowerment based EIP, offered to the intervention group twice a week for 6 months, consisted of 45-min exercise sessions followed by 15 min of discussions regarding a healthy lifestyle. A variety of exercise activities, chosen by the participants themselves, were used. Twenty-seven participants in the intervention group and 35 in the control group completed the Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP) and the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS) at pre- and posttest and, in addition, physical fitness, weight and height were measured.

    Results and conclusions:

    The intent to treat analysis showed no significant improvements in PSPP subdomains, but lower SPAS scores for the intervention group, compared to the control group. However, when using a less conservative analysis, including only those who completed assessments both pre- and post-intervention, the intervention significantly reduced both PSPP subdomain and SPAS scores. The changes in PSPP and SPAS scores were not linked to changes in physiological variables. The results are put in the context of previous longitudinal and review studies, theoretical frameworks and models. The direction of effects, possible mechanisms and limitations of the study are discussed along with practical applications linked to exercise and modern diseases.

  • 10.
    Moesch, Karin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Kenttä, G.
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Box 5626, Stockholm, 11486, Sweden & School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, 125 University Private, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada.
    Kleinert, J.
    Institute of Psychology, German Sport University Cologne, Am Sportpark Müngersdorf 6, Köln, 50933, Germany & German Research Centre of Elite Sport – Momentum, German Sport University Cologne, Am Sportpark Müngersdorf .
    Quignon-Fleuret, C.
    National Institute of Sport, Expertise and Performance (INSEP), 11 avenue du Tremblay, Paris, 75012, France.
    Cecil, S.
    English Institute of Sport, Ground Floor, 21 Bloomsbury Street, London, Great Britain WC1B 3HF, United Kingdom.
    Bertollo, M.
    FEPSAC Managing Council, Belgium & BIND-Behavioral Imaging and Neural Dynamics Center, Department of Medicine and Aging Sciences, “G. d'Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara, Via dei Vestini 31, Chieti, 66100, Italy & Department of Science and Technology, University of Suffolk, Waterfront Building, 19 Neptune Quay, Ipswich, IP4 1QJ, United Kingdom.
    FEPSAC position statement: Mental health disorders in elite athletes and models of service provision2018In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 38, no September 2018, p. 61-71Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental health disorders (MHD) in elite athletes is a topic that has received increased attention in recent years. The overall aim of this position statement is to enhance awareness of this important topic and to critically discuss optimal service provision for athletes who suffer from MHD. In the first part of the paper a short overview of the research on MHD in elite athletes is provided. Elite athletes seem to have comparable prevalence rates for the most common MHD when compared to non-athletic peers, but there are still many disorders that have not been investigated in athletes. Sport specific situations such as injuries, periods of overtraining and career termination may put athletes at an increased risk of developing MHD. In the second part of the paper, models of service provision for elite athletes suffering from MHD from six European countries are presented, focusing on 1) professional service providers, 2) support systems, 3) diagnostic assessment, 4) clinical treatment, 5) performance during treatment, 6) screening, and 7) education systems. It emerges that competencies, certification issues, and professional boundaries of the involved service providers, as well as the structure of the National Health Care systems differ strongly across European countries, which makes defining a golden standard difficult. In the third part of this paper, the authors provide general recommendations for athletes and coaches, clubs, federations, organizations and scholars that hopefully will inspire stakeholders to optimize their support systems. © 2018

  • 11.
    Nylandsted Jensen, Stine
    et al.
    Copenhagen Centre of Team Sport and Health, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Fallby, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Dankers, Silke
    Copenhagen Centre of Team Sport and Health, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elbe, Anne-Marie
    Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.
    Depression in Danish and Swedish elite football players and its relation to perfectionism and anxiety2018In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 36, p. 147-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of perfectionism and anxiety to depressive symptoms in Danish and Swedish male elite football players. Additionally, the relationship between age and the study variables, and differences between elite junior and professional players were examined. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional design was used to survey 323 A-squad and U19 players (M age = 22.08 years, SD = 5.15). The survey included biographical information as well as measures of depressive symptoms, perfectionism (strivings and concerns), competitive anxiety, and social phobia. Results. Results revealed an overall prevalence rate for depressive symptoms among the participants of 16.7%. Moreover, correlation analyses showed evidence of the relationships between depression and perfectionistic concerns, competitive anxiety and social phobia. The results of a mediation analysis demonstrated that there was a positive indirect effect of perfectionistic concerns on depression via competitive anxiety. Significant negative correlations between age and anxiety, social phobia, and perfectionistic concerns were found. Depression, however, was not significantly correlated with age even though elite junior players’ depression levels were significantly higher than those of professional players and they showed higher levels in competitive anxiety and social phobia. Conclusions. Findings of the study indicate that more awareness of mental health in elite football is needed, and that the investigated psychological factors may be a starting point for establishing preventive programs and supportive interventions for footballers suffering from depressive symptoms. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 12.
    Ryba, Tatiana
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Selänne, Harri
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Aunola, Kaisa
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Nurmi, Jan-Erik
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    ”Sport has always been first for me” but “all my free time is spent doing homework”: Dual career styles in late adolescence2017In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 33, p. 131-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    In adolescence, personally meaningful autobiographical memories begin to integrate into cultural narrative structures to form a life story. We examined how and to what extent adolescent Finnish athletes narrate and integrate significant life events in sport and education into their identities and future narratives in order to delineate the different styles of athletes’ career construction.

    Design

    Longitudinal qualitative study.

    Method

    Ten female and eight male, elite junior athletes, aged 15–16 at baseline, participated in individual conversational interviews. The resulting interview data were analyzed using narrative analysis.

    Results

    Thirteen of 18 adolescent athletes drew primarily on the performance narrative plot to construct their life story and five of 18 athletes could not project into the future beyond their athletic selves. We identified three styles of athletes’ career construction. Employing musical terminology as a metaphor, the contrapuntal style entwines sport and education as harmonically related life-themes; monophonic style draws on a prominent athletic life-theme; and dissonant style is underpinned by discord of sport and education. We did not detect direct associations between narrative types (performance, discovery and relational) and career construction styles. We show the dominant style development within an exemplary story.

    Conclusion

    Exploration of the future and possible selves are critical for developing meaningful (dis)continuity of a dual career pathway from adolescence to adulthood. We conclude that dual career discourse is gaining traction in directing young athletes’ future thinking; however, a broader repertoire of exemplary success stories which allow athletes to imagine achieving excellence in diverse ways would enable them to channel action. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  • 13.
    Ryba, Tatiana V.
    et al.
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Ronkainen, Noora J.
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Bundgaard, Jens
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Selänne, Harry
    LIKES - Research Center for Sport and Health Sciences, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Dual career pathways of transnational athletes2015In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 21, p. 125-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    Transnationalism, as part of the globalization processes, has transformed the lifestyle and the course of athletes' careers. This presents previously unexplored challenges encountered by student-athletes in combining athletic and academic pursuits. In this article, we propose a conceptual framework for the taxonomy of transnational dual careers (DC).

    Design and method

    Narrative inquiry from the life story perspective was used to elicit and analyze career narratives of six transnational athletes (3 male and 3 female), generating about five interview hours per athlete. The developmental transition from secondary to higher education was chosen as a key transition to classify the DC pathways. Additional insights into DC mobilization across international borders were gleaned by employing the typologies of sport migrants developed in the sport labor migration research.

    Results

    Three patterns of transnational DC were discerned from the narratives based on the direction of geographic mobility and the core migration motive underpinning the storyline. Within the present dataset, the taxonomies are: (1) Within EU mobility: the sport exile DC pathway; (2) Mobility to the U.S.A.: the sport mercenary DC pathway; and (3) Mobility to the U.S.A.: the nomadic cosmopolitan DC pathway.

    Conclusions

    The identified transnational DC paths are not exhaustive, and highlight possibilities of individual development, unfolding through the matrices of social structures in a given location. Further research with a diverse set of transnational athletes is needed to test and expand the proposed taxonomy. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 14.
    Stambulova, Natalia B.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Stephan, Yannick
    Centre for Research in Sport Sciences, Paris XI University, France.
    Järphag, Ulf
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Athletic retirement: a cross-national comparison of elite French and Swedish athletes2007In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 101-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The focus of this paper is on a cross-national comparison of elite French and Swedish athletes in terms of a) pre-conditions for the athletic retirement, b) coping and related factors, c) perceived quality and long-term consequences of the transition. The study also examines an impact of retirement planning upon the transition process and outcomes. Method: The Retirement from Sports survey (Alfermann, Stambulova, & Zemaityte, 2004) translated into French/Swedish and adapted for studying athletes in corresponding countries was employed. The sample was composed of 157 former international level athletes from France (n= 69) and Sweden (n=88) comprising both males and females and representatives of different sports. The data were analysed with ANOVA and MANOVA. Results: One common and two nationally-specific patterns have been identified in the process of the transition to the post-career. The common pattern involved mainly athletic retirement pre-conditions (e.g., retirement planning), coping (e.g., action-oriented strategies) and related factors (e.g., financial support). Cross-cultural differences related mainly to reasons for termination, emotional reactions upon retirement, perceived difficulty in starting a new professional career, usage of emotion-focused/avoidance coping strategies, duration of the transition, current athletic identity and professional choice/career/life satisfaction nowadays. Retirement planning, regardless of the country, was associated with more favourable emotions and coping behaviours in the transition but was not associated with perceived quality and long-term consequences of the transition. Conclusion: The study showed that the transition out of elite sports is a dynamic, multidimensional, multilevel, and multifactor process in which nationality/culture plays an important role.

  • 15.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Engström, Cecilia
    "Mindfoqus", Stockholm, Sweden.
    Franck, Alina
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Linnér, Lukas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Lindahl, Kent
    The Swedish Sports Confederation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Searching for an optimal balance: Dual career experiences of Swedish adolescent athletes2015In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 21, p. 4-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The paper presents a national level Swedish project aimed at examining adolescent student-athletes' dual career experiences (including sport, studies, and private life) during their first year at national elite sport schools (Swedish abbreviation RIGs will be used) with a particular focus on development of their athletic and student identities. The developmental model of transitions faced by athletes (Wylleman & Lavallee, 2004) and the athletic career transition model (Stambulova, 2003) served as underlying frameworks.

    Design: A longitudinal mixed-method research design was used with autumn-to-spring quantitative and qualitative parts.

    Method: Sixteen year old student-athletes, representing 27 sports and 33 RIGs (n = 261 in the first and n = 250 in the second measurement), completed three quantitative instruments. Additionally, in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 participants.

    Results: Results revealed (a) significant changes in the participants' transition/adaptation variables from the first to the second measurement accompanied by rather high perceived quality of adjustment at RIG both at the beginning and at the end of the educational year; (b) significant contributions of the transition variables to the perceived quality of adjustment with personal resources as a key predictor; (c) significantly higher athletic than student identity in both quantitative measurements, but with inter- and intra-individual differences with regard to balancing the two shown by the qualitative data.

    Conclusions: The study contributes to deeper understanding of dual career experiences of Swedish adolescent athletes; the authors provide recommendations for psychological dual career support services at RIGs and outline future research in the Swedish dual career model. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 16.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Novice consultants' experiences: Lessons learned by applied sport psychology students2010In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 295-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Applied sport psychology (ASP) literature reveals a number of publications on reflective practice and professional philosophies of well-established sport psychology consultants. However, there is much less interest in studying how novice consultants make the first steps in their careers and how they perceive the field of ASP in their respective countries and themselves within the field. The objective of this study is to analyse and structure lessons learned by students during their one-year ASP education and supervised practice in Sweden. Method: Thirty-seven ASP students (23 males and 14 females) took part in this study. The data were extracted from the students' final reports on their six-month interventions with athlete-clients. Altogether 278 raw data units (lessons learned) were identified. Results: We used both inductive and deductive analyses to create 33 themes and four categories named professional tools, consultant-client relationship, learning process and experiences, and professional philosophy. These four categories were further structured into three levels reflecting the students' learning process and exploration of the profession with the shifts from analysis to synthesis and from concrete to more generalized and strategic lessons learned. Conclusion: The study provides insight into the novice sport psychology consultants' reflective practice. The results are discussed using career development, scientist-practitioner and cultural sport psychology perspectives. Applications and future research directions are outlined.

  • 17.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Stambulov, Alexander
    Athletic club 'Alliance', Halmstad, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    ‘Believe in Yourself, Channel Energy, and Play Your Trumps’: Olympic Preparation in Complex Coordination Sports2012In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 679-686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This paper is aimed at (a) analysing the psychological context of complex coordination sports (CCSs) and specific contextual factors related to Olympic Games, (b) sharing the authors' experiences in Olympic preparation of athletes in diving, figure skating, and artistic and rhythmic gymnastics with an emphasis on typical working issues and strategies; and (c) summarizing the authors' reflections on the role of the national sport system and cultural contexts in Olympic preparation and major lessons learnt in working with Olympic athletes. Design and Method: Analysing and structuring the authors' professional experiences in working with Olympic athletes in CCSs based on the scientist-practitioner model. Results: Major results include (a) a summary of psychological context for Olympic athletes in CCSs; (b) the temporal structure of Olympic preparation; (c) four categories of Olympic athletes; (d) consultants' strategies, reflecting major psychological aspects of Olympic preparation in CCSs; and (e) lessons learnt in working with Olympic athletes in CCSs. Conclusion: The authors emphasize the large responsibility of sport psychology practitioners working with Olympic athletes in CCSs and share lessons learnt, with a focus on seven major sport psychology approaches validated in their practice. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 18.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Wylleman, Paul
    University of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium.
    [Editorial]: Dual career development and transitions2015In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 21, p. 1-3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Wylleman, Paul
    Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Brussels, Belgium.
    Psychology of athletes’ dual careers: A state-of the art critical review of the European discourse2019In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 42, p. 74-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: (a) To provide a state-of-the-art critical review of European dual career (DC) research (2015-2018, English language), (b) to position the current DC (psychological) research within the athlete career sport psychology discourse and within the European DC discourse, and (c) to identify research gaps and future challenges. These objectives were formulated after an appraisal of nine existing review-type papers contributed to the European DC discourse.

    Methodology: This review has been informed by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta Analyses (Moher, Liberati, Tetzlaff, Altman et al., 2010) and recommendations on presenting results of the state-of-the-art critical review by Grand and Booth (2009).

    Results: Following an extensive literature search across several databases, 42 research papers were used for appraisal, synthesis, and critical analysis of the current DC research. Major tenets of the cultural praxis of athletes’ careers (Stambulova & Ryba, 2013; 2014) were used as a critical lens in the analysis.

    Conclusions: DC research contributes to and connects the European DC discourse and the athlete career sport psychology discourse. DC in sport and work, DC “costs”, DC development environments, DC athletes’ mental health and well-being, DC support and training of the support providers constitute the major gaps in current DC research. Filling these gaps presents future challenges for DC research to adequately support practice and policy making within the European DC discourse. 

  • 20.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Hassmén, Peter
    School of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour, Australia.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Psychology & Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Longitudinal associations between athletes’ controlled motivation, ill-being, and perceptions of controlling coach behaviors: A Bayesian latent growth curve approach2017In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 30, p. 205-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although many scholars have argued that leadership is a dynamic process jointly produced by leaders and followers, leadership in sports is most often researched as a unidirectional process from coaches to athletes. Within self-determination theory (SDT), individual characteristics are suggested to influence how people perceive external events such as coaches' behaviors. In the present study, we examined this jointly produced leadership process by investigating longitudinal associations between athletes' controlled motivation, ill-being, and perceptions of coaches' controlling behaviors at the between- and within-person levels. The participants were 247 young elite skiers enrolled at Swedish sport high schools who responded to self-report questionnaires at three time points over the course of an athletic season. At the between-person level, increases in perceptions of coaches' controlling behaviors over the season positively predicted controlled motivation at the end of the season, and controlled motivation at the beginning of the season positively predicted ill-being at the end of the season. At the within-person level, athletes' controlled motivation positively predicted perceptions of coaches’ controlling behaviors. The results at the between-person level support the unidirectional perspective and the tenets of SDT. The results at the within-person level suggest that individual characteristics such as motivation can influence how athletes perceive external events, which has been proposed theoretically but seldom examined empirically. Three plausible explanations for this reversed association are presented in the discussion.

  • 21.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden & University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand & University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gucciardi, Daniel F.
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Exploring longitudinal measurement invariance and the continuum hypothesis in the Swedish version of the Behavioral Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ): An exploratory structural equation modeling approach2018In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 36, p. 187-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The aims of the present study were to: (a) examine longitudinal measurement invariance in the Swedish version of the Behavioral Regulations in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ) and (b) examine the continuum hypothesis of motivation as postulated within self-determination theory.

    Design

    Two-wave survey.

    Method

    Young competitive athletes (N = 354) responded to the BRSQ early in the season (November) and at the end of the athletic season (April). Data were analyzed using exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) and bifactor ESEM.

    Results

    We found support for strict longitudinal measurement invariance in the BRSQ. Latent mean comparisons showed an increase in external regulation and amotivation across the season. The latent factor correlations indicated some deviations from a simplex pattern related to amotivation, external regulation, and introjected regulation. In the bifactor model, intrinsic motivation items had negative factor loadings on the global factor, identified regulation items had factor loadings approaching zero, and introjected and external regulation and amotivation items all had moderate to strong positive factor loadings.

    Conclusion

    The present study adds longitudinal measurement invariance to the psychometric evidence of the BRSQ. Research on why the latent means of the behavioral regulations changed over the athletic season is warranted. The continuum hypothesis was partially supported. Latent factor correlations and factor loadings on the global factor in the bifactor ESEM highlighted that the discriminant validity of the controlled regulations and amotivation needs further investigation. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 22.
    Tibbert, Stephanie J.
    et al.
    College of Sport and Exercise Science, Institute for Sport, Exercise and Active Living, Victoria University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Andersen, Mark B.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Morris, Tony
    College of Sport and Exercise Science, Institute for Sport, Exercise and Active Living, Victoria University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    What a difference a “Mentally Toughening” year makes: The acculturation of a rookie2014In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 17, p. 68-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study investigated how one subculture's norms, traditions, ideals, and imperatives influenced the attitudes, beliefs, emotions, and behaviours of a young athlete (Joe) as he moved from resistance to acculturation.

    Design: Longitudinal case study of one athlete in one specific sport subculture.

    Method: Joe took part in five open-ended in-depth interviews over a 14-month period to investigate his experiences as an elite athlete within an Australian football team. Joe's story was analysed through an acculturation-process lens and models on mental toughness, overtraining, and stress-recovery to evaluate the indoctrination of one athlete.

    Findings: During the initial interviews Joe resisted the subculture demands of the football club and tried to find success by maintaining his own beliefs. By the end of the 14-month study Joe had realised that to be successful in the club he needed to embrace the norms, traditions, ideals, and imperatives of the football culture. Joe gained acceptance at the club when he eventually internalised the hypermasculine subculture and ignored injury, played in pain, subjugated his interests for football, and viewed physical abuse as a positive and necessary part of the toughening process.

    Conclusion: Joe's case study demonstrates that the subcultural ideals of mental toughness mean ignoring injury, playing in pain, denying emotion and vulnerability, and sacrificing individuality, which inevitably lead to stress/recovery imbalance and overtraining. In this subculture, demonstrating mental toughness is similar to a hypermasculine environment typified by slogans such as no-pain-no-gain and rest-is-for-the-dead where success is more important than individual wellbeing. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 23.
    Weman Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Sebire, Simon J.
    University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Standage, Martyn
    University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom.
    Viewing exercise goal content through a person-oriented lens: A self-determination perspective2016In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, no 27, p. 85-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined profiles of exercise goal content and the associations with need satisfaction, motivation regulation and exercise behavior, combining variable-centered and person-centered analytical approaches. The participants were 1084 (279 men and 805 women) Swedish adults, aged between 18 and 78 years, that were all active members of an Internet-based exercise program. Latent profile analysis (LPA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used to analyze the data. In SEM analysis intrinsic goals were related to need satisfaction and autonomous motivation, whereas extrinsic goals were most strongly associated with controlled motivation. LPA revealed five unique latent classes of goal content. These five classes differed in need satisfaction, motivation regulation and exercise behavior, with classes being characterized by more intrinsic goal profiles reporting higher need satisfaction and autonomous motivation. The results are discussed from a self-determination theory perspective and the benefits of using both variable and person-centered analytical approaches are highlighted. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

  • 24.
    Wylleman, Paul
    et al.
    Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Sport psychology and the Olympic Games: An introduction in the special issue2012In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 658-659Article in journal (Refereed)
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