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  • 1.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Podlog, Leslie
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Utah, Utah, USA.
    Psychological predictors of injury occurrence: A prospective investigation of professional Swedish soccer players2013In: Journal of sport rehabilitation, ISSN 1056-6716, E-ISSN 1543-3072, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 19-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context:

    Athletes participating in sport are exposed to a high injury risk. Previous research has found a great number of risk factors (both physiological and psychological) that could increase injury risk.1 One limitation in previous studies is that few have considered the complex interaction between psychological factors in their research design.

    Objective: To study whether personality, stress and coping predicted injury occurrence in an elite soccer population based on a hypothesized model.

    Design: Prospective.

    Participants: 56 (n = 38 males, n = 18 females) Swedish Premiere league soccer players were selected based on convenience sampling.

    Intervention: Participants completed four questionnaires including the: Swedish Universities Scales of Personality,2 Life Events Survey for Collegiate Athletes,3 and Brief COPE4 during the initial questionnaire administration. Subsequent to the first meeting, participants also completed the Hassle and Uplift Scale,5 once per week for a 13-week period throughout the competitive season.

    Main Outcome Measures: A path analysis was conducted examining the influence of personality traits (i.e., trait anxiety), state level stressors (i.e., negative life event stress and daily hassles), and coping on injury frequency.

    Results: Results of the path analysis indicated that trait anxiety, negative life event stress, and daily hassle−were significant predictors of injury among professional soccer players accounting for 24% of the variance.

    Conclusion: The findings highlight the need for athletes, coaches and medical practitioners to attempt to reduce state level stressors, especially, daily hassles in minimizing injury risk. Educating and training athletes and coaches in proactive stress management techniques appears warranted.

  • 2.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    A three-year follow-up of long-term injured competitive athletes: Influence of psychological risk factors on rehabilitation1997In: Journal of sport rehabilitation, ISSN 1056-6716, E-ISSN 1543-3072, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 256-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rehabilitation of 77 competitive athletes with long-term injuries was followed for 2-3 years from the time of the injury with the aim of identifying potential risk factors in rehabilitation. Seven athletes not returning to competitive sport despite favorable physical records were compared with 5 athletes who returned despite unfavorable records and with 65 athletes whose rehabilitation met expectations. Twelve tests were employed on four different occasions. The results suggested that being younger, being female, and having had no previous experience with injury characterized the nonreturning athlete. An insufficient mental plan for rehabilitation and a predominantly negative attitude toward it, as well as restricted social contacts with fellow athletes and a low mood level, appeared to accompany a problematic and prolonged rehabilitation. It was concluded that the nonreturning, long-term injured athlete can be identified as early as the beginning of the rehabilitation process.

  • 3.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Short-term psychological intervention: A study of long-term-injured competitive athletes2000In: Journal of sport rehabilitation, ISSN 1056-6716, E-ISSN 1543-3072, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 207-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To explore the effectiveness of psychological interventions for a sample of competitive athletes with long-term injuries. Design: Modified 2-group, pretreatment and posttreatment (repeated measure). Patients: 58 patients, 14 in the experimental group and 44 in the control group. Interventions: Three intervention strategies: stress management and cognitive control, goal-setting skills, and relaxation/guided imagery. Main Outcome Measure: Mood level was used as the outcome variable. Results: The experimental group had a higher overall mood level at the midpoint and end of rehabilitation and were also feeling more ready for competition than the control group was, both as rated by themselves and by the treating physiotherapist. The only strategy to show statistical differences was relaxation/guided imagery. Conclusions: The results of this study support the idea that a short-term intervention has the potential to elevate mood levels in competitive athletes with long-term injuries.

  • 4.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    The Multiply Injured versus the First-Time-Injured Athlete during Rehabilitation: A Comparison of Nonphysical Characteristics1996In: Journal of sport rehabilitation, ISSN 1056-6716, E-ISSN 1543-3072, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 293-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on rehabilitation of multiply injured athletes shows no convincing evidence that physiological factors exclusively can explain injury-proneness in sport. Neither can any single psychological factor characterize the injury-prone athlete. Injury-proneness seems to be best explained by a complex web of extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors. The present study focused on a comparison of mental factors and coping strategies of high-level athletes with sport injuries. A psychological profile of 25 multiply injured athletes was compared to 14 first-time seriously injured athletes. Factors such as impulsiveness, risk-taking attitude, introaggression, and psychic anxiety did not differentiate multiply injured athletes from other athletes with injuries. The first-time-injured group, however, had psychological difficulties associated with long-term injuries or other serious life crises. The first-time-injured athletes tended to experience the rehabilitation period as stressful, and they showed less self-confidence and scored lower on an overall mood scale than the multiply injured athletes. © 1996 Human Kinetics

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