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  • 1.
    Arnarsson, Arsaell
    et al.
    University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Nygren, Jens
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Nyholm, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Torsheim, Torbjorn
    University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Augustine, Lilly
    University of Kristianstad, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Bjereld, Ylva
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Markkanen, Ilona
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Schnohr, Christina w.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Rasmussen, Mette
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Line
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Bendtsen, Pernille
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Cyberbullying and traditional bullying among Nordic adolescents and their impact on life satisfaction2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cybervictimization in the six Nordic countries and to assess its overlap with traditional bullying. A further aim was to examine potential associations between life satisfaction, on the one hand, and traditional bullying and cyberbullying on the other. Methods: Analyses were based on data from the 2013⁄2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. It included 32,210 boys and girls, aged 11, 13, and 15, living in the six Nordic countries. Results: The prevalence of cyberbullying by both pictures and by messages was around 2% in all the Nordic countries except Greenland. There it was considerably higher. The prevalence of being bullied in a traditional manner varied widely by country. For boys, this type of bullying was most frequent in the youngest age group and then decreased steadily in the older age groups. Girls were on average more likely to be cyberbullied. Cyberbullying was more common among 13- and 15-year-olds than 11-year-olds. Higher family affluence was unrelated to the risk of cyberbullying. However, it was related to traditional bullying and combined forms of bullying. Compared with intact families, cybervictimization was commoner among single-parent families and stepfamilies. Adjusting for age, gender, family affluence, and family structure, those subjected to cyberbullying had lower life satisfaction than those who were not bullied. Conclusions: We found relatively little overlap between cyberbullying and traditional bullying, indicating that the two may be separate phenomena stemming from different mechanisms, at least in the Nordic context.

  • 2.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Overweight and obesity in Sweden: A five year follow-up, 2004-20082010In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 38, no 8, p. 803-809Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    The number of overweight and obese persons increased through the 1980s and 1990s in Sweden, for instance for men from 35% in 1980 to 52% in 2007. This study investigated whether this trend continued over the past 5 years, including trends for diet and physical activity.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS:

    The sampling frame in these surveys was established from the Swedish National Registry where all people registered in Sweden between 18 and 84 years in 2004 and 16-84 years in 2005-08 were included.

    RESULTS:

    There were no changes in the number of overweight (approximately 42% for men and 27% for women) and obese (approximately 11% for both men and women) persons between 2004 and 2008. Approximately 65% of the men and 64% of the women were physically active for an average of 30 minutes per day in 2008. Thirteen percent of women and 5% of men reported consuming at least five servings of fruit and vegetables per day during the 5-year period.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Sweden seems to have reached a steady state regarding overweight and obesity. It would probably be fruitful to further discuss life-style issues, such as diet and physical activity, in the Swedish healthcare system and how to deal with the social gradient.

  • 3.
    Povlsen, Lene
    et al.
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Eklund Karlsson, Leena
    Unit for Health Promotion Research, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Regber, Susann
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sandstig, Gabriella
    Department of Journalism, Media and Communication, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fosse, Elisabeth
    Department of Health Promotion and Development, Faculty of Psychology, Bergen University, Bergen, Norway.
    Are equity aspects communicated in Nordic public health documents?2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 235-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: To explore if the term equity was applied and how measures for addressing social inequalities in health and reducing inequity were communicated in selected Nordic documents concerning public health.

    METHODS: Documents from Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden were collected and analysed by Nordic authors. Data included material from websites of ministries and authorities responsible for public health issues, with primary focus on steering documents, action programmes, and reports from 2001 until spring 2013.

    RESULTS: Most strategies applied in Danish, Finnish, and Swedish documents focused on the population in general but paid special attention to vulnerable groups. The latest Danish and Finnish documents communicate a clearer commitment to address social inequalities in health. They emphasise the social gradient and the need to address the social determinants in order to improve the position of disadvantaged groups. Norwegian authorities have paid increasing attention to inequity/social inequalities in health and initiated a new law in 2012 which aims to address the social gradient in a more clear way than seen elsewhere in the Nordic countries.

    CONCLUSIONS: In the Nordic countries, redistribution by means of universal welfare policies is historically viewed as a vital mechanism to improve the situation of vulnerable groups and level the social gradient. To establish the concept of equity as a strong concern and a core value within health promotion, it is important to be aware how policies can contribute to enable reduction of social health differences. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  • 4.
    Povlsen, Lene
    et al.
    Unit for Health Promotion Research, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark.
    Regber, Susann
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Fosse, Elisabeth
    Department of Health Promotion and Development, Faculty of Psychology, Bergen University, Bergen, Norway.
    Eklund Karlsson, Leena
    Unit for Health Promotion Research, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark.
    Gunnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur
    Department of Health Sciences, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Economic poverty among children and adolescents in the Nordic countries2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 46, no Suppl. 20, p. 30-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This study aimed to identify applied definitions and measurements of economic poverty and to explore the proportions and characteristics of children and adolescents living in economic poverty in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden during the last decade and to compare various statistics between the Nordic countries.

    Methods: Official data from central national authorities on statistics, national reports and European Union Statistics of income and living conditions data were collected and analysed during 2015–2016.

    Results: The proportion of Nordic children living in economic poverty in 2014 ranged from 9.4% in Norway to 18.5% in Sweden. Compared with the European Union average, from 2004 to 2014 Nordic families with dependent children experienced fewer difficulties in making their money last, even though Icelandic families reported considerable difficulties. The characteristics of children living in economic poverty proved to be similar in the five countries and were related to their parents’ level of education and employment, single-parent households and – in Denmark, Norway and Sweden – to immigrant background. In Finland, poverty among children was linked in particular to low income in employed households.

    Conclusions: This study showed that economic poverty among Nordic families with dependent children has increased during the latest decade, but it also showed that poverty rates are not necessarily connected to families’ ability to make their money last. Therefore additional studies are needed to explore existing policies and political commitments in the Nordic countries to compensate families with dependent children living in poverty. © 2018, © Author(s) 2018.

  • 5.
    Staland Nyman, Carin
    et al.
    Social Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hensing, Gunnel
    Social Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Associations between strain in domestic work and self-rated health: A study of employed women in Sweden2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 21-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse the association between strain in domestic work and self-rated health among employed women in Sweden, using two different methods of measuring strain in domestic work. Methods: Questionnaire data were collected on health and living conditions in paid and unpaid work for employed women (n=1,417), aged 17-64 years. "Domestic job strain" was an application of the demand-control model developed by Karasek and Theorell, and "Domestic work equity and marital satisfaction" was measured by questions on the division of and responsibility for domestic work and relationship with spouse/cohabiter. Self-rated health was measured using the SF-36 Health Survey. Associations were analysed by bivariate and multivariate linear regression analyses, and reported as standardized regression coefficients. Results: Higher strain in domestic work was associated with lower self-rated health, also after controlling for potential confounders and according to both strain measures. "Domestic work equity and marital satisfaction" showed for example negative associations with mental health β -0.211 (p<0.001), vitality β -0.195 (p<0.001), social function -0.132 (p<0.01) and physical role β -0.115 (p<0.01). The highest associations between "Domestic job strain" and SF-36 were found for vitality β -0.156 (p<0.001), mental health β -0.123 (p<0.001). Conclusions: Strain in domestic work, including perceived inequity in the relationship and lack of a satisfactory relationship with a spouse/cohabiter, was associated with lower self-rated health in this cross-sectional study. Future research needs to address the specific importance of strain in domestic work as a contributory factor to women's ill-health.

  • 6.
    Torsheim, Torbjørn
    et al.
    Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Nygren, Jens M.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Rasmussen, Mette
    National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Arnarsson, Arsæll M.
    School of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Akureyri, Akureyri, Iceland.
    Bendtsen, Pernille
    National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Schnohr, Christina W.
    Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Line
    National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nyholm, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Social inequalities in self-rated health: A comparative cross-national study among 32,560 Nordic adolescents2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 150-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: We aimed to estimate the magnitude of socioeconomic inequality in self-rated health among Nordic adolescents (aged 11, 13 and 15 years) using the Family Affluence Scale (a composite measure of material assets) and perceived family wealth as indicators of socioeconomic status.

    METHODS: Data were collected from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey in 2013-2014. A sample of 32,560 adolescents from Denmark, Norway, Finland, Iceland, Greenland and Sweden was included in the study. Age-adjusted regression analyses were used to estimate associations between fair or poor self-rated health and the ridit scores for family affluence and perceived wealth.

    RESULTS: The pooled relative index of inequality of 2.10 indicates that the risk of fair or poor health was about twice as high for young people with the lowest family affluence relative to those with the highest family affluence. The relative index of inequality for observed family affluence was highest in Denmark and lowest in Norway. For perceived family wealth, the pooled relative index of inequality of 3.99 indicates that the risk of fair or poor health was about four times as high for young people with the lowest perceived family wealth relative to those with the highest perceived family wealth. The relative index of inequality for perceived family wealth was highest in Iceland and lowest in Greenland.

    CONCLUSIONS: Social inequality in self-rated health among adolescents was found to be robust across subjective and objective indicators of family affluence in the Nordic welfare states. © Author(s) 2017

  • 7.
    Östberg, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Nyholm, Maria
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Gullberg, Bo
    Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Sweden.
    Råstam, Lennart
    Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Sweden.
    Lindblad, Ulf
    Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Sweden.
    Tooth loss and obesity in a defined Swedish population2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 427-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To explore the association between tooth loss and obesity in an adult Swedish population, and to investigate the influence of socioeconomy, life-style, and co-morbidity.

    Methods: A cross-sectional population health survey conducted in 2001-2005 in 2816 randomly selected Swedish men and women (age: 30-74 years; participation rate 76%). Main measures were; tooth loss: < 20 remaining teeth (self-reported), general obesity: BMI[≥]30 kg m-2, abdominal obesity: waist circumference > 88 in women and > 102 cm in men. Adjustments were made for socioeconomy, life-style, and co-morbidity.

    Results: 420 individuals (21.2%) had < 20 remaining teeth: 30-59 years 6.0%, 60-74 years 53.5%. Mean BMI was similar in men and women (26.9 kg m-2), however, both general and abdominal obesity was still more frequent among women (both p < 0.001). There was a significant interaction between age and tooth loss in the association with both general (p = 0.004) and abdominal obesity (p < 0.011) in men. In participants below 60 years of age, the association between tooth loss and general obesity (OR 2.17 [95% CI 1.51 - 3.12]) and abdominal obesity (2.23 [1.58 - 3.15]), respectively, was statistically significant independent of age and gender, and remained so also when accounting for differences in socioeconomy, life-style, and co-morbidity. There was no similar association in those 60 years or older. The findings in men and women were robust and concordant.

    Conclusions: Common mechanisms for oral health and obesity should be explored more also including longitudinal designs. The findings are important for targeting comprehensive interventions against obesity and tooth loss, especially among younger adults.

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