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  • 1.
    Askheim, Ole Petter
    et al.
    Lillehammer University College, Lillehammer, Norway.
    Bengtsson, Hans
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Richter Bjelke, Bjarne
    The National Board of Social Services, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Personal assistance in a Scandinavian context: similarities, differences and developmental traits2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, E-ISSN 1745-3011, Vol. 16, no Suppl. 1, p. 3-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personal assistance (PA) has been characterized as a melting pot consisting of, on the one hand, a social rights discourse with its basis among disabled people, and, on the other hand, a consumer directed market discourse increasingly putting its stamp on welfare policy in the Western world. In the realm of welfare politics, these discourses are, in many ways, opposites, but have found common ground in the demand for a more individual and consumer friendly provision of services. Within a shared welfare state model, the application of PA has developed divergently in the Scandinavian countries and relates to the two discourses in different ways. In this article, PA in Denmark, Norway and Sweden is presented and similarities and differences are discussed and analysed. Questions raised include: How can the differences between the countries be understood? What dilemmas within welfare policy do they illustrate? How do the different discourses put their marks on the different PA-models in the Scandinavian countries? How do the PA programmes seem to develop further and what kind of PA will the Scandinavian countries end up with in the future?. © 2014 Nordic Network on Disability Research.

  • 2.
    Helvik, Anne-Sofie
    et al.
    ENT Department, St Olavs University Hospital of Trondheim, Norway.
    Jacobsen, Geir
    Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Svebak, Sven
    Department of Neuromedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Hallberg, Lillemor R.-M.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Hearing Impairment, Sense of Humour and Communication Strategies2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, E-ISSN 1745-3011, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One purpose of this study was to describe sense of humour and communication strategies in a general population of adults who needed hearing aid (HA) fitting or refitting. Another purpose was to explore the correlation between characteristics of hearing impairment (HI), sense of humour, and other participant characteristics and the communication strategies as outcome. Consecutive patients (n=343) at the Department of Audiology during 1 year completed the Sense of Humour Questionnaire-6 (SHQ-6) and the Communication Strategies Scale (CSS with maladaptive behaviour, verbal and non-verbal strategies). It was found that a high sense of humour was related to female gender and younger age. In multiple regression analyses, use of non-verbal communication strategies was more prevalent among females and increased with younger age, longer duration of HI, and previous HA experience. Use of verbal communication strategies and maladaptive communication behaviour increased with increasing HI. Use of verbal strategies was further associated with younger age and previous HA experience. Frequent use of maladaptive behaviour was related to younger age, longer duration of HI and less sense of humour. Maladaptive behaviour, alternatively expressed as negative reactions to stressful events in communication, was negatively associated with sense of humour. This study may indicate a role for sense of humour in prevention of maladaptive behaviour. It may also improve our understanding of what factors influence the use of communication strategies.

  • 3.
    Helvik, Anne-Sofie
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Jacobsen, Geir W.
    Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Hallberg, Lillemor R-M
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Effects of Impaired Hearing on Perceived Health and Life Situation2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, E-ISSN 1745-3011, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 263-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between level of hearing loss (HL) and perceived health and life situation. A population sample of 343 outpatient adults who consulted a university hospital in Norway for hearing aids and rehabilitation was studied. Health and life situation was assessed by self-reported measures of general health, anxiety, participation in social activities, and life satisfaction. Level of HL was estimated by mean hearing threshold in the better ear, and categorized according to international standards. Subjects with normal hearing in the better ear were used as reference. Explanatory health and life situation variables were dichotomized and analysed using logistic regression models. The results showed that perception of good health was negatively affected by increasing HL before and after adjustment for potential confounders (p for trend <0.05). Compared with non-impaired individuals, the odds of perceiving their health as “not good”, were four times higher for the most severely affected subjects (p < 0.05). The odds for reporting anxiety, of abstaining from participation in social activities, and of being generally dissatisfied increased for patients with moderate and higher levels of HL. In conclusion, perception of health was negatively associated with increasing HL, while anxiety, participation in social activities, and perceived life satisfaction did not significantly correlate with the level of loss. Thus, degree of HL seems to be of quite limited importance when consequences of HL are judged.

  • 4.
    Helvik, Anne-Sofie
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Jacobsen, Geir W.
    Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Hallberg, Lillemor R.-M.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Life Consequences of Hearing Loss in Terms of Activity Limitation and Participation Restriction2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, E-ISSN 1745-3011, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 53-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The consequences of hearing loss in terms of perceived activity limitation and participation restriction were studied in a general population of 343 adults with hearing impairment using the Hearing Disability and Handicap Scale. Coping was measured by the Sense of Humour Questionnaire and the Communication Strategies Scale and combined with objective and subjective audiological variables and demographic factors (age, gender and education). In stepwise linear modelling, several variables contributed significantly to the outcome (adjusted R2=53.3% for activity limitation and 47.2% for participation restriction). Audiological factors explained most of the variance in activity limitation (R2=37.1%), while coping factors were the main predictors for participation restriction (R2=35.2%). Maladaptive behaviour in the Communication Strategies Scale was the strongest predictor and explained 13.7% and 32.4% of the variance in activity limitation and participation restriction, respectively. More frequent use of maladaptive behaviour was related to larger limitation and restriction. This study adds to the understanding of factors that negatively influence daily life in terms of activity limitation and participation restriction. This may in turn have consequences for aural rehabilitation efforts.

  • 5.
    Helvik, Anne-Sofie
    et al.
    Ear, Nose and Throat Department (ENT), St Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.
    Thürmer, Hanne
    Blefjell Hospital, Notodden, Norway.
    Jacobsen, Geir W.
    Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Bratt, Mette
    Ear, Nose and Throat Department (ENT), St Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.
    Hallberg, Lillemor R.-M.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Psychometric evaluation of a Norwegian version of the Hearing Disability and Handicap Scale2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, E-ISSN 1745-3011, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 112-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:

    To evaluate the Hearing Disability and Handicap Scale (HDHS) in an unselected population of adults with hearing impairment.

    Subjects and methods:

    A total of 342 consecutive adults who consulted the outpatient unit of audiology in the ENT department of a Norwegian university hospital answered HDHS, which intends to assess the negative consequences of hearing loss. The psychometric evaluation included internal structure analyses and made use of principal factors followed by varimax rotation, construct validity by corrected item-total correlation, and internal consistency reliability by Cronbach's alpha coefficient.

    Results:

    HDHS showed good psychometric properties with three factors, i.e. speech perception (five items), non-speech sound (five items) and participation restriction (10 items). All had good internal consistency reliability. The inventory distinguished between activity limitations and other problems related to social life participation.

    Conclusion:

    HDHS was found to be adequate for research and clinical purposes in an unselected adult population with a quite different cultural background and language than the original one.

  • 6.
    Luthra, Renee
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Högdin, Sara
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Westberg, Niklas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Tideman, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Living with Disability Research Centre, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    After upper secondary school: Young adults with intellectual disability not involved in employment, education or daily activity in Sweden2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, E-ISSN 1745-3011, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 50-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is limited knowledge about young persons with intellectual disability who are Not in Employment, Education or Daily activity (NEED) in Sweden. The aim of the study was to explore the post-upper secondary school situation for persons with intellectual disability not involved in traditional occupations. A national database containing 2955 persons, representing 24.1% of the total (N=12,269) was used. The results revealed a heterogeneous group where financial support was common and few made use of disability services. Gender, municipality, programme type, financial support and disability services were significantly associated with not having an occupation as opposed to being in employment, education or daily activity. Time was a central factor, as the early years after upper secondary school appear to be an important period for changing NEED status. This is the first large scale study to describe these persons not involved in traditional occupations in Sweden and further research is required.

  • 7.
    Taubner, Helena
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), The Wigforss Group.
    Increased Agency through Screens and Co-Creation – Literacy Practices within a Group of People with Aphasia at a Swedish Folk High School2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, E-ISSN 1745-3011, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 197-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to analyse characteristics of collective and authentic literacy practices within a group of people with aphasia attending an aphasia course at a Swedish folk high school. The group included 12 individuals with aphasia who were studied during a period of 3 weeks. Ethnographic data consists of video and audio recordings, photos and field notes. Two main characteristics of the literacy practices were identified: digital screens dominated and bridged the online/offline boundary, and shared knowledge enabled the participants to co-create literacy. The literacy practices were emancipatory, because they provided ways for the participants to un-mask their inherent competence, increasing their agency. When the use of digital technology transforms a (formerly non-literacy) practice into a multimodal literacy practice, and when an individual with aphasia becomes part of a literacy co-creation practice, the disability (understood as a relation between individual and environmental characteristics) caused by aphasia is reduced. © 2019 The Author(s). 

  • 8.
    Wennergren, Ann-Christine
    Institutionen för musik och medier, Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Piteå, Sverige.
    The Best Listening Environment in School According to Hard-of-hearing Pupils2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, E-ISSN 1745-3011, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 29-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to illuminate the listening strategies which are revealed when pupils described their choice of the “best listening environment” in school. The study comprises 165 hard-of-hearing pupils from five compulsory schools in Sweden. The results are mainly based on the pupils’ drawings and their attached written explanations. The pupils’ explanations are analysed in the form of four different needs associated with being a listener: a “cleaned-up” sound environment, visual support, conversation rules and comfortable surroundings. The explanations can be seen as reflective knowledge and experiences of listening strategies. Not every pupil in this study has a verbalised awareness of listening strategies in all categories but, as a community, they describe a lot of experiences and knowledge to be shared. How to take the role of listener and continuously develop new strategies might be a matter of self-image. © 2008 Taylor & Francis

1 - 8 of 8
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