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  • 1.
    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin
    et al.
    Man-Technology-Environment Research Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Arwidsson, Zandra
    Man-Technology-Environment Research Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden & Sakab AB, Norrtorp, Kumla, Sweden.
    Camdzija, Aida
    Man-Technology-Environment Research Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Ragnar
    Solventic AB, Motala, Sweden.
    Ribé, Veronica
    School for Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Waara, Sylvia
    School for Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Allard, Bert
    Man-Technology-Environment Research Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    von Kronhelm, Thomas
    Sakab AB, Norrtorp, Kumla, Sweden.
    van Hees, Patrick A. W.
    Man-Technology-Environment Research Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden & Eurofins Environment Sweden AB, Lidköping, Sweden.
    Laboratory and pilot scale soil washing of PAH and arsenic from a wood preservation site: Changes in concentration and toxicity2009In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 172, no 2-3, p. 1033-1040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil washing of a soil with a mixture of both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and As was evaluated in laboratory and pilot scale, utilizing both single and mixtures of different additives. The highest level of decontamination was achieved with a combination of 0.213 M of the chelating agent MGDA and 3.2 × CMC* of a non-ionic, alkyl glucoside surfactant at pH 12 (Ca(OH)2). This combination managed to reach Swedish threshold values within 10 min of treatment when performed at elevated temperature (50 °C), with initial contaminant concentrations of As = 105 ± 4 mg/kg and US-EPA PAH16 = 46.0 ± 2.3 mg/kg. The main mechanisms behind the removal were the pH effect for As and a combination of SOM ionization as a result of high pH and micellar solubilization for PAHs. Implementation of the laboratory results utilizing a pilot scale equipment did not improve the performance, which may be due to the shorter contact time between the washing solution and the particles, or changes in physical characteristics of the leaching solution due to the elevated pressure utilized. The ecotoxicological evaluation, Microtox®, demonstrated that all soil washing treatments increased the toxicity of soil leachates, possibly due to increased availability of contaminants and toxicity of soil washing solutions to the test organism. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Figuière, Romain
    et al.
    Swedish University Of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Swedish University Of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Golovko, Oksana
    Swedish University Of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Risk-based screening for prioritisation of organic micropollutants in Swedish freshwater2022In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 429, article id 128302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns about environmental contamination by organic micropollutants (OMPs) are increasing, due to their potential bioaccumulative and toxic properties. This study evaluated the risk posed by OMPs to aquatic eco- systems in Swedish freshwaters. The assessment was based on measured environmental concentrations (MEC) of OMPs in surface waters upstream and downstream of Swedish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). A novel optimised risk quotient (RQf) was used to identify potential high-risk substances in the aquatic environment. A secondary objective was to assess the impact of WWTP effluent on aquatic ecosystems using a novel impact factor (I) based on the risk quotient (RQ). Among the 126 substances investigated, four compounds (metformin, N,N- dimethyltetradecylamine, oxazepam, and venlafaxine) were identified as likely to pose a risk to aquatic eco- systems in Swedish surface waters (RQf>1), and five compounds (clindamycin, gemfibrozil, sertraline, o-des- methylvenlafaxine, and diclofenac) were identified as posing a moderate risk to aquatic ecosystems ( 0.1 <RQf<1). WWTP effluent appeared to pose an environmental risk for all recipient sites, but the impact of calculated RQ was site-specific. These results can be used by authorities to prioritise OMPs and contaminated hotspots, in order to decrease negative impacts on aquatic ecosystems.

    Synopsis: A novel optimised risk assessment approach for identification of high-concern organic micropollutants in aquatic environments.

  • 3.
    Khokhotva, Oleksandr
    et al.
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Waara, Sylvia
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    The influence of dissolved organic carbon on sorption of heavy metals on urea-treated pine bark2010In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 173, no 1-3, p. 689-696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A previous study showed considerably higher metal adsorption by urea-treated pine bark (UTB) compared to non-treated bark (NTB) at metal adsorption from their individual relatively concentrated solutions. Comparison of the sorption characteristics of the two pine barks at low but environmentally relevant metal concentrations, and investigation of the influence of pH and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on the sorption process are the aims of the present study. Sorption of Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+ on pine bark of the species Pinus sylvestris was measured in multi-metal solutions in the presence and absence of DOC. In the absence of DOC, UTB gave lower residual metal concentrations (2–7 μg/l for copper, 1–5 μg/l for nickel, <0.05 μg/l for zinc and lead) in the range of initial concentrations up to 0.7 mg/l, compared to NTB (6–15 μg/l for copper, 2–24 μg/l for nickel, 2–9 μg/l for zinc, 2–3 μg/l for lead). In the presence of DOC, sorption of Zn, Ni and Pb decreased by up to 75% depending on the DOC concentration. Metal sorption on UTB is less sensitive to pH and more adsorbed metal ions are retained compared to NTB. The potential use of urea-treated bark for treatment of waste water containing DOC and low concentrations of metals is discussed. © 2009 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 4.
    Malnes, Daniel
    et al.
    Swedish University Of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Figuière, Romain
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Swedish University Of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Swedish University Of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Köhler, Stephan J.
    Swedish University Of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Golovko, Oksana
    Swedish University Of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hazard screening of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in Sweden's three largest lakes and their associated rivers2023In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 453, p. 1-10, article id 131376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent, mobile, and toxic (PMT) substances have recently garnered increased attention by environmental researchers, the water sector and environmental protection agencies. In this study, acute and chronic species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) were retrieved from literature data for previously quantified contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in Swedish surface waters (n = 92) and risk quotients (RQ) were calculated. To better understand the characteristics of the detected CECs in non-urban lake sites (n = 71), these compounds were checked against established criteria for potentially toxic PMs (PM(T)s) and occurrence in the aquatic environment, respectively. For the CECs with missing SSDs (n = 15 [acute], n = 41 [chronic]), ecotoxicity data were extracted for eight taxonomic groups, and if data were sufficient (n ≥ 3), SSDs were derived. The retrieved and newly developed SSDs were then used in an environmental hazard assessment (EHA) in the investigated Swedish rivers and lakes. In the rivers, 8 CECs had RQ> 1 in at least one location, and 20 CECs posed a moderate risk (0.01 < RQ < 1). In total, 21 of the 71 detected substances had already been identified as PM(T)/vPvM substances. Our study shows the importance of studying field data at large spatial scale to reveal potential environmental hazards far from source areas. © 2023 The Authors

  • 5.
    Ribé, Veronica
    et al.
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Leaching of contaminants from untreated pine bark in a batch study: Chemical analysis and ecotoxicological evaluation2009In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 163, no 2-3, p. 1096-1100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low cost sorbents have been widely studied in recent years in the search for filter materials that retain contaminants from water. One promising, low cost material is pine bark, a by-product from the forest industry. Many studies have shown that pine bark has great potential for the treatment of metals and organic substances, as a replacement for other commercial sorbents such as active carbon. However, some potential problems are introduced through the use of natural materials and by-products. One such problem that must be addressed is the possibility of leaching of contaminants from the filter material, especially in the initial filtration step or during flushes of lightly contaminated water, e.g. during rainfall for on-site treatment of storm water or landfill leachate. The aim of this preliminary study was therefore to identify potential risks and limitations of using pine bark as a filter material. Leachate from a standardized batch test was analysed for metals, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and phenols. In addition to these chemical analyses, an ecotoxicological test was conducted using the test organism Daphnia magna. The results showed significant leaching of DOC and some metals. Only a small fraction of the DOC was present as phenols. The leachate was however found to be toxic to the test organism without pH adjustment, and the EC50 was established at an approximate leachate concentration of 40%. This was concluded to be related to the low pH in the eluate, since no toxicity was observed after pH adjustment before the toxicity tests. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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