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  • 1.
    Andreasson, Björn Pererik
    et al.
    Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Janousch, M.
    Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Staub, U.
    Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Meijer, G. I.
    IBM Research, Zurich Research Laboratory, Rüschlikon, Switzerland.
    Spatial distribution of oxygen vacancies in Cr-doped SrTiO3 during an electric-field-driven insulator-to-metal transition2009In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 94, no 1, p. Article number: 013513-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatially resolved x-ray fluorescence maps are presented that show the introduction and the evolution of oxygen vacancies in chromium-doped strontium titanate during an electric-field-driven insulator-to-metal transition. The vacancies are introduced at the anode and diffuse through the crystal toward the cathode. The spatial distribution of vacancies is explained by a model describing the electrical breakdown as a percolation process. Strong differences in the vacancy distribution were found when the transition took place in air and in a hydrogen-enriched atmosphere. In air, the vacancies disappeared from the surface, whereas in the reducing hydrogen atmosphere, they remained at the surface. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  • 2.
    Höglund, Linda
    et al.
    Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Asplund, Carl
    Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Wang, Qin
    Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Almqvist, Susanne
    Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Malm, Hedda L.
    Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Petrini, Erik
    Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Andersson, Jan Y.
    Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Holtz, Per Olof
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Origin of photocurrent in lateral quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetectors2006In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 88, no 21, p. 213510-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interband and intersubband transitions of lateral InAs/In0.15Ga0.85As dots-in-a-well quantum dot infrared photodetectors were studied in order to determine the origin of the photocurrent. The main intersubband transition contributing to the photocurrent (PC) was associated with the quantum dot ground state to the quantum well excited state transition. By a comparison between intersubband PC measurements and the energy level scheme of the structure, as deduced from Fourier transform photoluminescence (FTPL) and FTPL excitation spectroscopies, the main transition contributing to the PC was identified.

  • 3.
    Höglund, Linda
    et al.
    Acreo AB.
    Holtz, Per Olof
    Linköping University.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Applied Mathematics and Physics (CAMP).
    Asplund, C.
    IRnova.
    Wang, Q.
    Acreo AB.
    Almqvist, S.
    Acreo AB.
    Smuk, S.
    IRnova.
    Petrini, E.
    Acreo AB.
    Andersson, J. Y.
    Acreo AB.
    Bias and temperature dependence of the escape processes in quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetectors2008In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 93, no 10, p. 103501-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetectors (DWELL IPs) has been studied by means of interband and intersubband photocurrent measurements as well as dark current measurements. Using interband photocurrent measurements, substantial escape of electrons from lower lying states in the DWELL structure at large biases was revealed. Furthermore, a significant variation in the escape probability from energy states in the DWELL structure with applied bias was observed. These facts can explain the strong temperature and bias dependence of both photocurrent and dark currents in DWELL IPs.

  • 4.
    Höglund, Linda
    et al.
    Acreo AB.
    Holtz, Per Olof
    Linköping University.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Applied Mathematics and Physics (CAMP).
    Asplund, C.
    IRnova.
    Wang, Q.
    Acreo AB.
    Malm, H.
    IRnova.
    Almqvist, S.
    Acreo AB.
    Petrini, E.
    Acreo AB.
    Andersson, J. Y.
    Acreo AB.
    Bias mediated tuning of the detection wavelength in asymmetrical quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetectors2008In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 93, no 20, p. 203512-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bias-mediated tuning of the detection wavelength within the infrared wavelength region is demonstrated for quantum dots-in-a-well and dots-on-a-well infrared photodetectors. By positioning the InAs quantum dot layer asymmetrically in an 8 nm wide In0.15Ga0.85As/GaAs quantum well, a shift in the peak detection wavelength from 8.4 to 10.3 μm was observed when reversing the polarity of the applied bias. For a dots-on-a-well structure, the peak detection wavelength was tuned from 5.4 to 8 μm with small changes in the applied bias. These tuning properties could be essential for applications such as modulators and dual-color infrared detection.

  • 5.
    Höglund, Linda
    et al.
    Acreo AB.
    Holtz, Per Olof
    Linköping University.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Applied Mathematics and Physics (CAMP).
    Asplund, C.
    IRnova.
    Wang, Q.
    Acreo AB.
    Malm, H.
    IRnova.
    Almqvist, S.
    Acreo AB.
    Petrini, E.
    Acreo AB.
    Andersson, J. Y.
    Acreo AB.
    Optical pumping as artificial doping in quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetectors2009In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 94, no 5, p. 053503-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resonant optical pumping across the band gap was used as artificial doping in InAs/In0.15Ga0.85As/GaAs quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetectors. A selective increase in the electron population in the different quantum dot energy levels enabled the low temperature photocurrent peaks observed at 120 and 148 meV to be identified as intersubband transitions emanating from the quantum dot ground state and the quantum dot excited state, respectively. The response was increased by a factor of 10 through efficient filling of the quantum dot energy levels by simultaneous optical pumping into the ground states and the excited states of the quantum dots.

  • 6.
    Liu, Ruisheng
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Applied Mathematics and Physics (CAMP).
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Applied Mathematics and Physics (CAMP).
    Michalak, L.
    Kalmar University.
    Canali, C. M.
    Kalmar University.
    Suyatin, D.
    Lund University.
    Samuelson, L.
    Lund University.
    Large magnetoresistance in Co/Ni/Co ferromagnetic single electron transistors2007In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 90, no 12, p. 123111-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors report on magnetotransport investigations of nanoscaled ferromagnetic Co/Ni/Co single electron transistors. As a result of reduced size, the devices exhibit single electron transistor characteristics at 4.2 K. Magnetotransport measurements carried out at 1.8 K reveal tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) traces with negative coercive fields, which the authors interpret in terms of a switching mechanism driven by the shape anisotropy of the central wirelike Ni island. A large TMR of about 18% is observed within a finite source-drain bias regime. The TMR decreases rapidly with increasing bias, which the authors tentatively attribute to excitation of magnons in the central island.

  • 7.
    Liu, Ruisheng S.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Applied Mathematics and Physics (CAMP).
    Canali, C. M.
    Kalmar University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Samuelson, L.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Applied Mathematics and Physics (CAMP).
    Magnetoresistance studies on CoAl OX Au and CoAl OX NiAu tunnel structures2008In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 93, no 20, p. 203107-203107-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on magnetoresistance (MR) studies on CoAl OX Au and CoAl OX NiAu magnetic tunnel junctions. In spite of the fact that the difference between the two samples is merely a 3 nm thick Ni layer, there is a sharp contrast in MR behavior indicating that the electronic structure at the interface between the ferromagnetic electrodes and the insulating barrier dominates the MR signal. The former sample exhibits a clear tunneling anisotropic MR (TAMR), with the characteristic correlation between resistance and current direction, in contrast to the latter sample which displays a conventional tunneling MR (TMR) dominated by the relative orientation between the magnetization directions of the two electrodes. In addition, the TAMR has a much stronger temperature dependence than the TMR, indicating a much faster drop-off of the tunneling density of states anisotropy than the tunneling electron spin polarization with increasing temperature. Finally, we propose a possible simple way to distinguish TAMR from normal TMR by measuring the resistance of the device at different angles of the external magnetic field. 2008 American Institute of Physics.

  • 8.
    Paschoal Jr., Waldomiro
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), MPE-lab. Solid State Physics/The Nanometer Structure Consortium, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Kumar, Sandeep
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), MPE-lab. Solid State Physics/The Nanometer Structure Consortium, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Daniel
    Solid State Physics/The Nanometer Structure Consortium, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Johannes, Andreas
    Institute for Solid State Physics, Jena University, Jena, Germany.
    Jain, Vishal
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), MPE-lab. Solid State Physics/The Nanometer Structure Consortium, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Canali, Carlo M.
    Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Linneaus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Pertsova, Anna
    Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Linneaus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Ronning, Carsten
    Institute for Solid State Physics, Jena University, Jena, Germany.
    Dick, Kimberly A.
    Solid State Physics/The Nanometer Structure Consortium, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Samuelson, Lars
    Solid State Physics/The Nanometer Structure Consortium, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), MPE-lab.
    Magnetoresistance in Mn ion-implanted GaAs:Zn nanowires2014In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 104, no 15, article id 153112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated the magnetoresistance (MR) in a series of Zn doped (p-type) GaAs nanowires implanted with different Mn concentrations. The nanowires with the lowest Mn concentration (~0.0001%) exhibit a low resistance of a few kΩ at 300K and a 4% positive MR at 1.6K, which can be well described by invoking a spin-split subband model. In contrast, nanowires with the highest Mn concentration (4%) display a large resistance of several MΩ at 300K and a large negative MR of 85% at 1.6K. The large negative MR is interpreted in terms of spin-dependent hopping in a complex magnetic nanowire landscape of magnetic polarons, separated by intermediate regions of Mn impurity spins. Sweeping the magnetic field back and forth for the 4% sample reveals a hysteresis that indicates the presence of a weak ferromagnetic phase. We propose co-doping with Zn to be a promising way to reach the goal of realizing ferromagnetic Ga1-xMnxAs nanowires for future nanospintronics. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  • 9.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Bååth, Lars B.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Fotonik och mikrovågsteknik.
    Carlsson, N.
    Division of Solid State Physics, Lund University, Sweden.
    Seifert, W.
    Division of Solid State Physics, Lund University, Sweden.
    Samuelson, L.
    Division of Solid State Physics, Lund University, Sweden.
    Case study of an InAs quantum dot memory: Optical storing and deletion of charge2001In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 79, no 1, p. 78-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied self-assembled InAs quantum dots embedded in an InP matrix using photocapacitance and photocurrent spectroscopy. These dots are potentially promising for memories due to the large confinement energy for holes. In this work we have realized simple quantum dot memory by placing the dots in the space–charge region of a Schottky junction. Our measurements reveal that a maximum of about one hole can be stored per dot. We also find that illumination for an extended period deletes the stored charge. We show that these limitations do not reflect the intrinsic properties of the dots, but rather the sample structure in combination with deep traps present in the sample.

  • 10.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Landin, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Liu, R. S.
    Division of Solid State Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Seifert, Werner
    Division of Solid State Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Pistol, Mats Erik
    Division of Solid State Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Samuelson, Lars
    Division of Solid State Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Photoexcitation of excitons in self-assembled quantum dots2004In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 85, no 21, p. 5046-5048Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using an approach of combining Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with resonant illumination from a secondary external light source, we have measured the photocurrent (PC) for multiple layers of self-assembled InAs dots embedded in a matrix of InP. Without external illumination, we observe photoexcitation of electrons from bound states in the dots to the InP barrier. By additional illumination from the external light source, a strong broadening of the PC signal is observed. We interpret this broadening in terms of photoexcitation of electrons in the presence of additional holes in the dots created by the external light source. We extract the spectral distribution of the photoexcitation process at 6 and 77 K, respectively, and show by comparison with theoretical calculations that it is consistent with an exciton binding energy of 20 meV.

  • 11.
    Pham, Thien Viet
    et al.
    Energy Research Institute at NTU (ERIatN), Singapore, Singapore.
    Rao, Manohar
    Energy Research Institute at NTU (ERIatN), Singapore, Singapore.
    Andreasson, Björn Pererik
    Energy Research Institute at NTU (ERIatN), Singapore, Singapore.
    Peng, Yuan
    School of Material Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.
    Wang, Junling
    School of Material Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.
    Jinesh, K. B.
    Energy Research Institute at NTU (ERIatN), Singapore, Singapore.
    Photocarrier generation in CuxO thin films deposited by radio frequency sputtering2013In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 102, no 3, p. Article number: 032101-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper oxides (CuxO) thin films were deposited using radio frequency (RF) sputtering on glass substrates. By tuning the argon (Ar) partial pressure during deposition, cuprous oxide (Cu2O), cupric oxide (CuO), or their mixed phase could be achieved. Drastic variations in the Hall mobility, hole density, and resistivity of the samples were observed due to the presence of different phases in the films. Kelvin probe studies indicate that the photo-generated carriers have lower recombination rate in pure Cu 2O phase. This was further validated by transient absorption measurements, where the estimated carrier lifetime for Cu2O was much larger that other phases. © 2013 American Institute of Physics.

  • 12.
    Shang, X.-J.
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    He, J.-F.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Li, M.-F.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Zhan, F.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Ni, H.-Q.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Niu, Z.-C.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), MPE-lab.
    Fu, Ying
    Division of Theoretical Chemistry and Biology, School of Biotechnology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Quantum-dot-induced optical transition enhancement in InAs quantum-dot-embedded p-i-n GaAs solar cells2011In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 99, no 11, p. 113514-113514-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photocurrents (PCs) of three p–i–n GaAs solar cells, sample A with InAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in the depletion region, B with QDs in the n region, and C without QDs, were studied experimentally and theoretically. Above GaAs bandgap, the PC of A is increased, while B is decreased with respect to C, since in A, the QD-induced reflection of hole wave function increases its overlap with electron wave function so that the optical transition rate is enhanced, while carrier mobility in B is reduced due to QD-induced potential variations. Moreover, A and B have increased PCs in the sub-GaAs-bandgap range due to QD optical absorptions.

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