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  • 1.
    Bergsten, Ulrika
    et al.
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Spenshult Hosp, Ctr Res & Dev, Oskarstrom, Sweden .
    Fridlund, Bengt
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Arvidsson, Barbro
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    “Delivering knowledge and advice”: Healthcare providers’ experiences of their interaction with patients’ management of rheumatoid arthritis2011In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 6, no 4, article id 8473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rheumatic diseases are often chronic and involve a lifetime of suffering. The focus of rheumatology care is to support patients to manage their lives and master their disease. Healthcare providers and patients have different views on the consequences of living with rheumatic diseases and patients are reporting unmet healthcare needs. There is a need to integrate providers’ perspective to develop the quality of rheumatology care. The aim was to explore healthcare providers’ experiences of their interaction with patients in their management of RA. Interviews with 18 providers from different clinical settings were analysed in accordance with the grounded theory method. A core category; Delivering knowledge and advice was found to be the most important task and involved providing the patient with information about the disease and appropriate forms of treatment. Healthcare providers’ attitudes and patients’ responses influenced the outcome of the delivery of knowledge and advice and three dimensions emerged; completed delivery, adjusted delivery and failed delivery. There were differences in the providers’ experiences in their interaction with patients as well as in reflections on their role as the delivering part. There could be difficulties in the interaction when patients’ expectations and preferences were not taken into account when giving advice. These findings highlight the importance of developing rheumatology care, as no provider or patient benefits if the delivery of knowledge and advice becomes a failed delivery. The healthcare organization must acknowledge the difficulties involved in the interaction with patients in their management of RA and find methods to develop a more person-centred approach to care.

  • 2.
    Brink, Eva
    et al.
    Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, University West, Sweden.
    Dellve, Lotta
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Hallberg, Ulrika
    Nordic School of Public Health, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Abrahamsson, Kajsa Henning
    Department of Periodontology, Institute of Odontology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Klingberg, Gunilla
    National Orofacial Resource Centre for Rare Disorders, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Wentz, Kerstin
    Department of Internal Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Mölndal, Sweden.
    Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through qualitative analysis2006In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, E-ISSN 1748-2623, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 188-192Article, book review (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BOOK REVIEW: Constructing grounded theory. A practical guide through qualitative analysis Kathy Charmaz, 2006, 208 pp. London: Sage. ISBN 2005928035

  • 3.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Being in a safe and thus secure place, the core of the early labour: A secondary analysis in a Swedish context2016In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 11, article id 30230Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Early labour is the very first phase of the labour process and is considered to be a period of time when no professional attendance is needed. However there is a high frequency of women who seek care at the delivery wards during this phase. When a woman is admitted to the delivery ward, one role for midwives is to determine whether the woman is in established labour or not. If the woman is assessed as being in early labour she will probably then be advised to return home. This recommendation is made due to past research that found that the longer a woman is in hospital the higher the risk for complications for her and her child. Women have described how this situation leaves them in a vulnerable situation where their preferences are not always met and where they are not always included in the decision-making process.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to generate a theory based on where a woman chooses to be during the early labour process and to increase our understanding about how experiences can differ from place to place.

    Methods: The method was a secondary analysis with grounded theory. The data used in the analysis was from two qualitative interview studies and 37 transcripts.

    Conclusion: The findings revealed a substantive theory that women needed to be in a safe and thus secure place during early labour. This theory also describes the interplay between how women ascribed their meaning of childbirth as either a natural live event or a medical one, how this influenced where they wanted to be during early labour, and how that chosen place influenced their experiences of labour and birth.

  • 4.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Berg, Marie
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Sparud-Lundin, Carina
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Reprioritizing life: A conceptual model of how women with type 1 diabetes deal with main concerns in early motherhood2017In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 1394147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Becoming a mother is related to increased demands for women with type 1 diabetes mellitus, and more research is needed to identify their needs for support in everyday living. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the main concerns in daily life in early motherhood for women with type 1 diabetes and how they deal with these concerns. Method: A grounded theory study was conducted in which 14 women with type 1 diabetes were interviewed individually 7 to 17 months after childbirth. Results: A conceptual model was identified with the core category “reprioritizing life”, and three related categories: adjusting to motherhood, taking command of the diabetes, and seeking like-minded women. Becoming a mother was a turning point towards a greater awareness and acceptance of prioritizing diabetes management and health, and thus, life. There was a gap in provision of diabetes care after birth and during the time of early motherhood compared with during pregnancy. Conclusions: Healthcare contacts already planned before delivery can promote person-centred care during the whole period from pregnancy to motherhood. Moreover, providing alternative sources for health information and peer support could improve the life situation during early motherhood. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

  • 5.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ethical and methodological issues in qualitative studies involving people with severe and persistent mental illness such as schizophrenia and other psychotic conditions: a critical review2017In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 12, no Sup. 2, article id 1368323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Undertaking research studies in the field of mental health is essential in mental health nursing. Qualitative research methodologies enable human experiences to become visible and recognize the importance of lived experiences. This paper argues that involving people with schizophrenia in research is critical to promote their health and well-being. The quality of qualitative research needs scrutinizing according to methodological issues such as trustworthiness and ethical standards that are a fundamental part of qualitative research and nursing curricula. The aim of this study was to critically review recent qualitative studies involving people with severe and persistent mental illness such as schizophrenia and other psychotic conditions, regarding descriptions of ethical and methodological issues in data collection and analysis. A search for relevant papers was conducted in three electronic databases, in December 2016. Fifteen qualitative interview studies were included and reviewed regarding methodological issues related to ethics, and data collection and analysis. The results revealed insufficient descriptions of methodology regarding ethical considerations and issues related to recruitment and sampling in qualitative interview studies with individuals with severe mental illness, putting trustworthiness at risk despite detailed descriptions of data analysis. Knowledge from the perspective of individuals with their own experience of mental illness is essential. Issues regarding sampling and trustworthiness in qualitative studies involving people with severe mental illness are vital to counteract the stigmatization of mental illness.

  • 6.
    Cuesta, Marta
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Sustainability, Innovation and Management in Building (SIMB). Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Rämgård, Margareta
    Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Intersectional Perspective in Elderly Care2016In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 11, article id 30544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier research has shown that power relationships at workplaces are constructed by power structures. Processes related to power always influence the working conditions for (in this study in elderly care) the working groups involved. Power structures are central for intersectional analysis, in the sense that the intersectional perspective highlights aspects such as gender and ethnicity (subjective dimensions) and interrelates them to processes of power (objective dimension). This qualitative study aims to explore in what way an intersectional perspective could contribute to increased knowledge of power structures in a nursing home where the employees were mostly immigrants from different countries. By using reflexive dialogues related to an intersectional perspective, new knowledge which contributes to the employeés well-being could develop. Narrative analysis was the method used to conduct this study. Through a multi-stage focus group on six occasions over six months, the staff was engaged in intersectional and critical reflections about power relationship with the researchers, by identifying patterns in their professional activities that could be connected to their subjectivities (gender, ethnicity, etc.). The result of this study presents three themes that express the staffs experiences and connect these experiences to structural discrimination. 1. Intersectionality, knowledge and experiences of professionalism, 2. Intersectionality, knowledge and experiences of collaboration, 3. Intersectionality, knowledge and experiences of discrimination. The result demonstrates that an intersectional perspective reinforces the involved abilities, during the conversations, into being clear about, for example, their experiences of discrimination, and consequently developing a better understanding of their professionalism and collaboration. Such deeper reflections became possible through a process of consciousness-raising, strengthening the employee’s self-confidence, in a positive way. © 2016 M. Cuesta.

  • 7.
    Dahlqvist Jönsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. Department of Research, Development and Education (FoUU), Region of Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Nunstedt, Håkan
    Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Johansson Berglund, Inger
    Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Hedman Ahlström, Britt
    Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Hedelin, Birgitta
    Department of Nursing, Gjøvik University College, Gjøvik, Norway.
    Skärsäter, Ingela
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Problematization of perspectives on health promotion and empowerment in mental health nursing – within the research network “MeHNuRse” and the Horatio conference, 20122014In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 22945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental illness is increasing worldwide, while a trend towards an ever more specialized health care takes place. This development creates great demands on nurses to work from a holistic perspective of nursing. The health perspective emphasizes cooperation and communication with those who suffer from long-term mental illness, focusing on their independence and health. From a health perspective, every human being is an actor in his/her own life with an inherent ability to make their own choices. However, persons who suffer from long-term mental illness are at risk of losing power and control over areas of their lives and their health. Mental health nurses are in position to support these persons in promoting health and to regain control over their lives. The emphasis of this paper is thus to discuss mental health nurses responsibility to provide health promoting nursing care, through interpretation of the concepts of empowerment, emancipation, self-efficacy and self-management how can mental health nurses work from a health-promoting perspective in relation to these concepts. The focus of this paper is the challenge of real health promotion in mental health nursing discussed at a workshop at the European Horatio festival in Stockholm 2012 with over 600 participating mental health nurses and researchers from European countries. © 2014 P. D. Jönsson et al.

  • 8.
    Dellve, Lotta
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hallberg, Lillemor R.-M.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    “Making it work in the frontline” explains female home care workers' defining, recognizing, communicating and reporting of occupational disorders2008In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, E-ISSN 1748-2623, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 176-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epidemiological research has so far failed to explain the high incidence of occupational disorders among home care workers (HCWs) and the great differences in organizational incidence rate. A qualitative approach may contribute to a deeper understanding of work group reasoning and handling in a more contextual manner. The aim of this grounded theory study was to gain a deeper understanding of the main concern in the processes of recognizing, communicating and reporting occupational disorders among HCWs. Focus group interviews were conducted with 40 HCWs in 9 focus groups. The selected municipalities represented variations in municipality type and incidence rate of occupational disorders. Making it work in the frontline was identified as the core category explaining that the perceived work situation in home care work was the main concern but interacted with work-group socialising processes as well as with the communicability and derivability of the occupational disorder when defining and reporting occupational disorders. Complex problems could be reformulated and agreed within the workgroup to increase communicability. Described significances for reporting/non-reporting were related to financial compensation, to a part of organizational political game or to an existential uncertainty, i.e. questioning if it belonged to their chosen work and life. Our conclusion is that working situation and work group attitudes have importance for reporting of occupational disorders. To support work-related health for HCWs, integrating communication should be developed about work-related challenges in work situation, as well as about attitudes, culture and efficiency within work-group.

  • 9.
    Einberg, Eva-Lena
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Lidell, Evy
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Clausson, Eva K.
    Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Awareness of demands and unfairness and the importance of connectedness and security: Teenage girls’ lived experiences of their everyday lives2015In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 10, article id 27653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, a number of studies have demonstrated that stress and mental health problems have increased among adolescents and especially among girls, although little is still known concerning what girls experience in their everyday lives. The aim of this study was to describe the phenomenon of teenage girls’ everyday lives, as experienced by the girls themselves. A phenomenological approach of reflective lifeworld research was used, and the findings are based on eight qualitative interviews with girls aged 13–16 years. The essence of teenage girls’ everyday lives as experienced by the girls themselves can be described as consciousness regarding demands and unfairness and regarding the importance of connectedness and security. The girls are aware of the demands of appearance and success, and they are conscious of the gender differences in school and in the media that affect them. The girls are also conscious about the meaning of connectedness with friends and family, as well as the importance of the security of their confidence in friends and feeling safe where they stay. If teenage girls feel connected and secure, protective factors in the form of manageability and meaningfulness can act as a counterweight to the demands and unfairness of everyday life. For professionals who work with teenage girls, the results from this study can be important in their work to support these girls.

  • 10.
    Folke, Solgun
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Paulsson, Gun
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    The subjective meaning of xerostomia: an aggravating misery2009In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 245-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Xerostomia, the subjective sensation of dry mouth, is associated with qualitative and quantitative changes of saliva. Poor health, certain medications and radiation therapy constitute major risk factors. To gain further understanding of this condition the present study explored the main concern of xerostomia expressed by affl icted adults. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 participants and analysed according to the grounded theory method. An aggravating misery was identi-fi ed as the core category, meaning that the main concern of xerostomia is its devastating and debilitating impact on multiple domains of well-being. Professional consultation, search for affi rmation and social withdrawal were strategies of management. The fi ndings reveal that xerostomia is not a trivial condition for those suffering. Oral impairment as well as physical and psychosocial consequences of xerostomia has a negative impact on quality of life. There is an obvious need to enhance professional competence to improve the compassion for and the support of individuals affl icted by xerostomia

  • 11.
    Gilljam, Britt-Mari
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Arvidsson, Susann
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Nygren, Jens
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Promoting participation in healthcare situations for children with JIA: a grounded theory study2016In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 11, article id 30518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children’s right to participate in their own healthcare has increasingly become highlighted in national and international research as well as in government regulations. Nevertheless, children’s participation in healthcare is unsatisfactorily applied in praxis. There is a growing body of research regarding children’s participation, but research from the children’s own perspective is scarce. The aim of this study was thus to explore the experiences and preferences for participation in healthcare situations among children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) as a foundation for creating strategies to promote their participation in pediatric healthcare. Twenty children, aged 8 to 17 years, with JIA were interviewed individually and in focus groups. In order to increase the children’s opportunities to express their own experiences, different interview techniques were used, such as draw-and-tell and role play with dolls. The analysis was conducted with a constructivist grounded theory. The result explores children’s perspective of influencing processes promoting their participation in healthcare situations. The core category that emerged was, “Releasing fear and uncertainty opens up for confidence and participation,” and the categories related to the core category are, “surrounded by a sense of security and comfort,” and “strengthened and supported to become involved.” In conclusion, the knowledge gained in this study offers new insights from the perspective of children themselves, and can constitute a valuable contribution to the understanding of necessary conditions for the development of specific interventions that promote participation among children in healthcare situations.

  • 12.
    Grim, Katarina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Rosenberg, David
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Schön, Ulla-Karin
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Shared decision-making in mental health care – A user perspective on decisional needs in community-based services2016In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 11, article id 30563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Shared decision-making (SDM) is an emergent research topic in the field of mental health care and is considered to be a central component of a recovery-oriented system. Despite the evidence suggesting the benefits of this change in the power relationship between users and practitioners, the method has not been widely implemented in clinical practice.

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate decisional and information needs among users with mental illness as a prerequisite for the development of a decision support tool aimed at supporting SDM in community-based mental health services in Sweden.

    Methods: Three semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with 22 adult users with mental illness. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using a directed content analysis. This method was used to develop an in-depth understanding of the decisional process as well as to validate and conceptually extend Elwyn et al.’s model of SDM.

    Results: The model Elwyn et al. have created for SDM in somatic care fits well for mental health services, both in terms of process and content. However, the results also suggest an extension of the model because decisions related to mental illness are often complex and involve a number of life domains. Issues related to social context and individual recovery point to the need for a preparation phase focused on establishing cooperation and mutual understanding as well as a clear follow-up phase that allows for feedback and adjustments to the decision-making process.

    Conclusions and Implications for Practice: The current study contributes to a deeper understanding of decisional and information needs among users of community-based mental health services that may reduce barriers to participation in decision-making. The results also shed light on attitudinal, relationship-based, and cognitive factors that are important to consider in adapting SDM in the mental health system.

  • 13.
    Hallberg, Lillemor
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Editorial2007In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 194-194Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Hallberg, Lillemor
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Editorial2006In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 2-3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Hallberg, Lillemor
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Some reflections on qualitative research2008In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 66-67Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Hallberg, Lillemor R.-M.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    The “core category” of grounded theory: Making constant comparisons2006In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, E-ISSN 1748-2623, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 141-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Approximately 40 years ago, Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss and their joint research approach, the constant comparative method of grounded theory, were at the forefront of what can be called a qualitative revolution. The publication of their book, The discovery of grounded theory (1967), was a breakthrough because of the systematic procedures for qualitative research that were presented. Prior to this publication, qualitative research methodology was traditionally most often taught orally. Through their book, Glaser and Strauss defended the method of qualitative research and countered the prevailing opinion that quantitative research provided the one and only approach to scientific inquiry. They argued that qualitative research is a field of inquiry in its own right, not merely to be used for pre-studies to “real” statistically based studies. The grounded theory method fits in with life world research, because the emphasis is on individuals as unique living wholes and the researcher focuses on the world as it is experienced by the individual. The researcher does not formulate any hypothesis in advance and tries to approach the research area with as few preconceptions as possible. Preconceptions, taken-for-granted assumptions, and interpretations must be handled by reflexive strategies in line with what Dahlberg (2006) has labelled “bridling”. Grounded theory offers the researcher a set of guidelines for building conceptual frameworks that specify the relationships among categories. The guidelines should be used as flexible tools rather than being seen as rigid rules. Grounded theory is a broad method with distinct procedures that work in practice and that are suitable to pragmatic researchers. The “core category” in grounded theory is, as I see it, the constant comparative method. The grounded theory method has been modified by the era within which it exists and by new ideas encountered in the world of inquiry (Annells, 1997). Varying views of what reality is and how it can be known affect the modes of the grounded theory method.

  • 17.
    Hallberg, Lillemor R.-M.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Bergman, Stefan
    Research and Development Center, Spenshult Hospital, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Minimizing the dysfunctional interplay between activity and recovery: A grounded theory on living with fibromyalgia2011In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 6, no 2, article id 7057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to generate a substantive theory, based on interviews with women with fibromyalgia, explaining how they manage their main concerns in daily life. The study has an inductive approach in line with classic grounded theory (Glaser, 1992). Twenty-three women living in the southwest region of Sweden were interviewed in-depth about their daily living with fibromyalgia and problems related to this. Probing and follow-up questions were asked by the interviewers when relevant. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and consecutively analysed in line with guidelines for grounded theory. The results showed that the main concern for women with fibromyalgia was to reach a balance in daily life. This concern was resolved by them using different strategies aimed at minimizing the dysfunctional interplay between activity and recovery (core category). This imbalance includes that the women are forcing themselves to live a fast-paced life and thereby tax or exceed their physical and psychological abilities and limits. Generally, the fibromyalgia symptoms vary and are most often unpredictable to the women. Pain and fatigue are the most prominent symptoms. However, pain-free periods occur, often related to intense engagement in some activity, relaxation or joy, but mainly the "pain gaps" are unpredictable. To reach a balance in daily life and manage the dysfunctional interplay between activity and recovery the women use several strategies. They are avoiding unnecessary stress, utilizing good days, paying the price for allowing oneself too much activity, planning activities in advance, distracting oneself from the pain, engaging in alleviating physical activities, and ignoring pain sensations. Distracting from the pain seems to be an especially helpful strategy as it may lead to "pain gaps". This strategy, meaning to divert attention from the pain, is possible to learn, or improve, in health promoting courses based on principles of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). We suggest that such courses are offered in primary care for patients with fibromyalgia or other types of longstanding pain. The courses should be led by registered nurses or psychologists, who are experienced in CBT and have extensive knowledge about theories on longstanding pain, stress and coping. Such courses would increase well-being and quality of life in women suffering from fibromyalgia. © 2011 L. R.-M. Hallberg & S. Bergman.

  • 18.
    Hallberg, Lillemor R.-M.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Strandmark, K. Margaretha
    Division of Social Science, Department of Public Health, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Health consequences of workplace bullying: experiences from the perspective of employees in the public service sector2006In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 109-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to explore the perceived health consequences of workplace bullying. Open interviews were conducted with 22 informants; 20 bully victims and two persons working with bullying prevention. Data was assessed and analysed simultaneously in line with grounded theory methodology. A conceptual model was grounded in data, describing experiences of deteriorating psychological and physical health following bullying and efforts of returning to a “normal” life. The core category, “remaining marked for life”, illuminates the manner in which bullying was perceived as a psychic trauma or a traumatic life event causing the bullied person to be marked forever. The model includes five additional categories: “feeling guilt, shame and diminishing self-esteem”, “developing symptoms and reactions”, “getting limited space of action”, “working through the course of events” and “trying to obtain redress”. Bullying included the spreading of rumours and repeated insults aimed at changing the image of the victim and resulting in feelings of guilt, shame and diminishing self-esteem. Physical and psychosomatic symptoms gradually emerge and medical treatment and sick listing follow. The longer the bullying continues, the more limited the possibility to change the situation and the victim has a more limited space of action. Returning to a “normal” life was possible, but presupposed that the victim had worked through of the course of events. The bullied person also tried to obtain redress, such as through monetary compensation or professional confirmation. Despite this, bullying left an internal scar: the bully victim was marked for life.

  • 19.
    Hallberg, Ulrika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Haag, Per
    Nobel Biocare AB, Göteborg, Sweden.
    The subjective meaning of dentition and oral health: Struggling to optimize one's self-esteem2007In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, E-ISSN 1748-2623, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 86-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore what dentition and oral health mean to adult dental care patients' well-being. Qualitative, taped interviews were conducted with 15 participants (over 20 years of age), who were patients at private and public dental health care units in the western part of Sweden. The constant comparative method of grounded theory was used. The interviews were consecutively analyzed in hierarchical coding processes until saturation was achieved. A conceptual model was generated illuminating the meaning of dentition and oral health for the participant's well-being. The core category of the model, struggling to optimize one's self-esteem, was related to four categories, which further described the psychosocial process of increasing one's self-esteem and contributing to well-being. These categories were labelled investing in oneself, being attractive to others, being able to socialize and showing ones social belonging. People who are satisfied with their teeth in terms of function and appearance seem to have developed an optimized self-esteem, which contributes to the well-being in individuals. Consequently, inequalities in oral health according to social belonging may lead to inequalities in self-esteem and well-being.

  • 20.
    Hallberg, Ulrika
    et al.
    Nordic School of Public Health, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Klingberg, Gunilla
    Mun-H-Center, Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Octantology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Reichenberg, Kjell
    Nordic School of Public Health, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Möller, Anders
    Nordic School of Public Health, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Living at the edge of one's capability: Experiences of parents of teenage daughters diagnosed with ADHD2008In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, E-ISSN 1748-2623, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 52-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Living with a child with a disability is often perceived as a permanent stressor to the family and it affects all aspects of family life including the well-being of family members. Since little is known about parenting teenage daughters diagnosed with ADHD, the aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of the main problem involved using a grounded theory approach. Interviews were carried out with 12 parents, 11 mothers and 1 father, of teenage daughters diagnosed with ADHD. The parents' situation was conceptualized as living at the edge of one's capability with the properties having the sole parental responsibility, fighting for professional support, being on duty around the clock and trying to solve family conflicts. Parents described how their health was negatively affected by their life situation.

  • 21.
    Helldén, Josefin
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Geriatric and rehabilitation clinic, Kungälv Hospital, Kungälv, Sweden.
    Bergström, Liza
    Department of Speech and Language Pathology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Staffan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing. Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Experiences of living with persisting post-stroke dysphagia and of dysphagia management – a qualitative study2018In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 13, no sup1, article id 1522194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate people’s experiences of living with dysphagia after stroke, and their experiences of dysphagia management.

    Methods: The study design was qualitative, and an open-ended approach to data collection was used, with follow-up probing questions to gain more information as needed. Personal interviews were conducted with five persons who had persisting moderate to severe dysphagia after stroke, living in the south-west part of Sweden. The data were analysed with qualitative content analysis.

    Results: When analysing the data, the following theme emerged; “Dysphagia impacts life situations negatively and requires individually adapted, long term support from skilled health care professionals”. The theme consists of three categories: “Learning to manage dysphagia and its complications”, “Professional support with dysphagia varies” and “Finding small moments of joy despite large restrictions in life situations”.

    Conclusions: Findings indicated that people with dysphagia experienced a lack of support from health care professionals. Better health care support following discharge from hospital is required to ensure an optimal quality of life. Actions to achieve this may include developing national guidelines for adequate dysphagia follow-up and establishing multidisciplinary dysphagia teams in hospitals and long-term care facilities.

  • 22.
    Helvik, Anne-Sofie
    et al.
    Innlandet Hospital Trust, Division Tynset, Norway & Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway & St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.
    Iversen, Valentina Cabral
    St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway & Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Steiring, Randi
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Hallberg, Lillemor R-M
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Calibrating and adjusting expectations in life: A grounded theory on how elderly persons with somatic health problems maintain control and balance in life and optimize well-being2011In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 6030Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study aims at exploring the main concern for elderly individuals with somatic health problems and what they do to manage this.

    Method: In total, 14 individuals (mean-74.2 years; range-68-86 years) of both gender including hospitalized and outpatient persons participated in the study. Open interviews were conducted and analyzed according to grounded theory, an inductive theory-generating method.

    Results: The main concern for the elderly individuals with somatic health problems was identified as their striving to maintain control and balance in life. The analysis ended up in a substantive theory explaining how elderly individuals with somatic disease were calibrating and adjusting their expectations in life in order to adapt to their reduced energy level, health problems, and aging. By adjusting the expectations to their actual abilities, the elderly can maintain a sense of that they still have the control over their lives and create stability. The ongoing adjustment process is facilitated by different strategies and result despite lower expectations in subjective well-being. The facilitating strategies are utilizing the network of important others, enjoying cultural heritage, being occupied with interests, having a mission to fulfill, improving the situation by limiting boundaries and, finally, creating meaning in everyday life.

    Conclusion: The main concern of the elderly with somatic health problems was to maintain control and balance in life. The emerging theory explains how elderly people with somatic health problems calibrate their expectations of life in order to adjust to reduced energy, health problems, and aging. This process is facilitated by different strategies and result despite lower expectation in subjective well-being. © 2011 A.-S. Helvik et al.

  • 23.
    Holmberg, Christopher
    et al.
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Christel
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Korp, Peter
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Linus
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Andreas
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Chaplin, John E
    Department of Pediatrics, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden & Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berg, Christina
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Empowering aspects for healthy food and physical activity habits: adolescents’ experiences of a school-based intervention in a disadvantaged urban community2018In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 13, no sup1: Equal Health, article id 1487759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:

    This study aimed to describe adolescents’ experiences of participating in a health-promoting school-based intervention regarding food and physical activity, with a focus on empowering aspects. 

    Method:

    The school was located in a urban disadvantaged community in Sweden, characterized by poorer self-reported health and lower life expectancy than the municipality average. Focus group interviews with adolescents (29 girls, 20 boys, 14–15 years) and their teachers (n = 4) were conducted two years after intervention. Data were categorized using qualitative content analysis. 

    Results: 

    A theme was generated, intersecting with all the categories: Gaining control over one’s health: deciding, trying, and practicing together, in new ways, using reflective tools. The adolescents appreciated influencing the components of the intervention and collaborating with peers in active learning activities such as practicing sports and preparing meals. They also reported acquiring new health information, that trying new activities was inspiring, and the use of pedometers and photo-food diaries helped them reflect on their health behaviours. The adolescents’ experiences were also echoed by their teachers. 

    Conclusions: 

    To facilitate empowerment and stimulate learning, health-promotion interventions targeting adolescents could enable active learning activities in groups, by using visualizing tools to facilitate self-reflection, and allowing adolescents to influence intervention activities.

  • 24.
    Håman, Linn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Barker Ruchti, Natalie
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Patriksson, Göran
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Orthorexia nervosa: An integrative literature review of a lifestyle syndrome2015In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 10, article id 26799Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bratman first proposed orthorexia nervosa in the late 1990s, defining it an obsession with eating healthy food to achieve, for instance, improved health. Today, in the Swedish media, excessive exercising plays a central role in relation to orthorexia. A few review articles on orthorexia have been conducted; however, these have not focused on aspects of food and eating, sport, exercise, or a societal perspective. The overall aim of this study was to provide an overview and synthesis of what philosophies of science approaches form the current academic framework of orthorexia. Key questions were: What aspects of food and eating are related to orthorexia? What role do exercise and sports play in relation to orthorexia? In what ways are orthorexia contextualized? Consequently, the concept of healthism was used to discuss and contextualize orthorexia. The method used was an integrative literature review; the material covered 19 empirical and theoretical articles published in peer-reviewed journals. This review demonstrates a multifaceted nature of orthorexia research; this field has been examined from four different philosophies of science approaches (i.e., empirical-atomistic, empirical-atomistic with elements of empirical-holistic, empirical-holistic, and rational-holistic) on individual, social, and societal levels. The majority of the articles followed an empirical-atomistic approach that focused on orthorexia as an individual issue, which was discussed using healthism. Our analysis indicates a need for (a) more empirical-holistic research that applies interpretive qualitative methods and uses a social perspective of health, e.g., healthism and (b) examining the role of sports and exercise in relation to orthorexia that takes the problematizing of “orthorexic behaviours” within the sports context into account.

  • 25.
    Håman, Linn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Prell, Hillevi
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    “If it’s not Iron it’s Iron f*cking biggest Ironman”: personal trainers’s views on health norms, orthorexia and deviant behaviours2017In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 12, no Suppl. 2, article id 1364602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Orthorexia nervosa (ON) describes a pathological obsession with healthy eating to avoid ill health. In the Swedish context, ON is also understood in terms of unhealthy exercise. Fitness gyms are popular health-promoting places, but exercise-related problems, disordered eating and ON-like behaviour are increasing. Personal trainers (PTs) play an important role in detecting unhealthy behaviours. The aim of the present study was to illuminate PTs’ understandings of healthy and unhealthy exercise and eating behaviours in relation to orthorexia nervosa in a fitness gym context. Five focus groups with 14 PTs were conducted. These were analysed using interpretative qualitative content analysis and Becker’s model “Kinds of Deviance.” In contrast to PTs’ health norms (practicing balanced behaviours and contributing to well-being), ON was expressed mainly in terms of exercise behaviour and as being excessive and in total control. The PTs maintain that extreme behaviours are legitimized by an aggressive exercise trend in society and that they fear to falsely accuse clients of being pathological. Certain sport contexts (bodybuilding, fitness competitions and elite sports) and specific groups (fitness professionals) contribute to complicating PTs’ negotiations due to a competition, performance and/or profession norm, making it difficult to determine whether or not to intervene. © 2017 The Author(s)

  • 26.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Dietary Advice on Prescription: A novel approach to dietary counseling2011In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 6, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes a novel approach to giving dietary advice, which is called "Dietary Advice on Prescription" (DAP; Matordning på Recept [MoR] in Swedish). It is the same principle as prescription on medicine and "Physical Activity on Prescription" (PAP; Fysisk aktivitet på Recept [FaR] in Swedish). The main idea is that a written prescription will strengthen the oral advice and emphasize certain aspects of the dietary recommendation. The DAP is on the brink of being tested in a planned study.

  • 27.
    Johansson, Gunvi
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity. Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Östberg, Anna-Lena
    Public Dental Service, Region Västra Götaland, Borås, Sweden.
    Oral health-related quality of life in Swedish young adults2015In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 10, article id 27125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The living conditions of young adults in Sweden have changed during the last decades due to the economic and employment situation in society. Although oral health is mainly considered to be good in this age group, their use of dental care has decreased and their priorities and opportunities regarding oral health are little known. The purpose of this study was to describe the views of Swedish young adults on their oral health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). The design of the study was qualitative, using content analysis. Sixteen young adults, aged 21-29 years, were interviewed. The findings from the interviews were summarized under the theme "Young adults reflected on their OHRQoL in a time perspective" consisting of three categories: "Past experiences, Present situation, and Future prospects." The OHRQoL of young adults is dependent not only on their own experiences of oral health during childhood and their received dental care but also on their present self-perceived oral health, oral health habits, and social life; together with their expectations of future oral health. The findings in this study indicate that the oral health awareness and needs of young adults, as well as their expectations of oral care, merit further follow-up. © 2015 G. Johansson & A.-L. Östberg.

  • 28.
    Johnson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Editorial to the QHW Thematic Cluster “Health, Physical Activity and Lifestyle”2015In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 10, article id 29156Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Jonasson, Mikael
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), The Wigforss Group.
    Introducing work, welfare, and qualitative studies of health2014In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Halmstad University’s profile as the University of Innovation consists of the strong area of Health and Lifestyle. As many European societies are characterized by societal challenges, this strong area will turn out to be an area of research that has strong future relevance. Challenges related to an aging population, increased mental illness among young people, marginalization of disabled people, and the issues related to working life and health will be monitored by researchers within work and welfare with the help of qualitative studies.

  • 30.
    Jonsson, Linus
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Food & Nutr & Sport Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Christel
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Food & Nutr & Sport Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berg, Christina
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Food & Nutr & Sport Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Korp, Peter
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Food & Nutr & Sport Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Univ Gothenburg, Dept Food & Nutr & Sport Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    What undermines healthy habits with regard to physical activity and food?: Voices of adolescents in a disadvantaged community2017In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 12, article id 1333901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to illuminate factors that undermine the healthy habits of adolescents from a multicultural community with low socioeconomic status (S.E.S.) in Sweden with regard to physical activity (P.A.) and food, as stated in their own voices. Adolescents (n = 53, 12–13 y/o) were recruited from one school situated in a multicultural community characterized by low S. E.S. Embracing an interpretive approach, 10 focus-group interviews were conducted to produce data for the study. The focus-group interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in two major themes: (1) the availability of temptations is large, and support from the surroundings is limited; and (2) norms and demands set the agenda. The adolescents’ voices illuminate a profound awareness and the magnitude of tempting screen-based activities as undermining their P.A. and healthy food habits. Moreover, several gender boundaries were highlighted as undermining girls’ P.A. and healthy food habits. The adolescents’ stories illuminated that it is difficult for them, within their environment, to establish healthy habits with regard to P.A. and food. To facilitate the adolescents’ healthy habits, we suggest that support from family, friends, the school, and society at large is essential.

  • 31.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Perspectives on health and well-being in human vulnerability2016In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 11, article id 31477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a guest editor of the special edition of the International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being I would like to present seven designated articles. The current thematic cluster represents qualitative research illustrating the challenges in supporting the central aspects of health and wellbeing for individuals in various situations linked to human vulnerability. This theme cluster will provide the reader with a new and greater understanding of the inner meaning of vulnerability and greater insights into how health and well-being, achieved through different forms of support and care, can enhance empowerment in spite of obstacles such as illness, disease, impairment, old or young age, or gender. Different kinds of qualitative methodologies have been used to elucidate the phenomenon of vulnerability. Data collection procedures vary from qualitative interviews and diaries to focus group interviews. Qualitative content analysis, phenomenographical approach, and grounded theory are used to analyse the data in the different studies. The common denominator for the included articles is the commitment of the authors to impart knowledge in terms of greater understanding of the core aspects of health and well-being among humans in different vulnerable situations. © 2016 H. Jormfeldt.

  • 32.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Perspectives on health and well-being in nursing2014In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 23026Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As a Guest Editor of the International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being’s special edition on perspectives on health and well-being in nursing, it is my wish to present four original articles embracing some essential core aspects of nursing science irrespective of their specialization. They represent different aspects of qualitative research that focus on; the challenge of integrating core concepts of health into mental health nursing praxis, the experiences in psychiatric rehabilitation from the perspective of both patients and their relatives, and the nurses’ experiences of giving support to patients during the transition to hospital-bound hemodialysis. The common basis for the articles is the authors’ ambition to generate nursing knowledge in terms of core elements for the provision of health and well-being among individuals with a need for nursing care.

  • 33.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Supporting positive dimensions of health, challenges in mental health care2011In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 7126-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will explore two contrasting paradigms in mental health care and their relationship to evidence-based practice. The biomedical perspective of pathogenesis and the health perspective of salotogenesis are two major diverse views in mental health care. Positive dimensions of health are traditionally viewed as software not suitable for statistical analysis, while absence of symptoms of disease are regarded as measurable and suitable for statistical analysis and appropriate as a foundation of evidence-based practice. If the main goal of mental health care is to enhance subjectively experienced health among patients, it will not be sufficient to evaluate absence of symptoms of disease as a measure of quality of care. The discussion focuses on the paradox of evidence-based absence of illness and disease versus subjectively experienced health and well-being as criterions of quality of care in mental health care.

  • 34.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Doyle, Louise
    School of Nursing and Midwifery, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Ellilä, Heikki
    University of Applied Science, Turku, Finland.
    Lahti, Mari
    University of Applied Science, Turku, Finland.
    Higgins, Agnes
    School of Nursing and Midwifery, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Keogh, Brian
    School of Nursing and Midwifery, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Meade, Oonagh
    School of Health Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, England.
    Stickley, Theodore
    University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Sitvast, Jan
    University of Applied Sciences, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Skärsäter, Ingela
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Kilkku, Nina
    University of Applied Sciences, Tampere, Finland.
    Master’s level mental health nursing competencies, a prerequisite for equal health among service users in mental health care2018In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 13, no S1, article id 1502013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This discussion paper aims to explore the need of a clarified definition of master’s level mental health nursing competencies in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes in a European context. Mental health service users have, in spite of their right to equal overall health, higher rates of physical illness and are more likely to experience premature death than the general population. Implementation of a holistic concept of health comprising mental, physical and social aspects of health in mental health services has previously proved to be challenging. Methods: Master’s level mental health nursing competencies in recent literature are discussed and illuminated in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes in order to enable the promotion of equal overall health among service users in mental health services. Results: The discussion show contents, values and utility of master’s level mental health nursing competencies in mental health services and contribute to reduced role ambiguity by distinguishing master’s level responsibilities from undergraduate nursing tasks and obligations of other professionals in mental health care. Conclusion: This discussion paper shapes implications for developments in master’s level mental health nursing education curricula. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 35.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Hallén, Malin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), The Wigforss Group.
    Experiences of housing support in everyday life for persons with schizophrenia and the role of the media from a societal perspective2016In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 11, article id 30571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The mental health-care system in Sweden, as in many other counties, has its main focus on the reduction of psychiatric symptoms and the prevention of relapses. People diagnosed with schizophrenia often have significant health issues and experience reduced well-being in everyday life. The social imaginary of mental illness as an imbalance of the brain has implications concerning general attitudes in society. The news media are an important source of information on psychiatric disorders and have an important role in cultivating public perceptions and stigma. News media can contribute to the mental illness stigma and place individuals with mental illnesses at risk of not receiving adequate care and support.

    The aim of this preliminary study was to describe users’ experiences of housing support in everyday life.

    Results: The results revealed three themes of housing support, which were needed, but frequently insufficiently fulfilled in the municipality. The three themes were: ‘‘Support to Practice Healthy Routines in Daily Life,’’ ‘‘Support to Shape Meaningful Contents in Everyday Life,’’ and ‘‘Support to Meet Needs of Integrity and Respect.’’

    Conclusions: The findings support previous studies arguing that current health care and housing support fails to meet basic needs and may lead to significant and unnecessary health risks. Further investigation is needed regarding the links between attitudes to mental illness in society and political and financial principles for health care and housing support for persons with schizophrenia. Further research is needed regarding the role of the media in policymaking concerning health promotion interventions for people diagnosed with schizophrenia. © 2016 H. Jormfeldt & M. Hallén.

  • 36.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Svensson, Bengt
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Lars
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Clients’ experiences of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach: A qualitative study2014In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 22916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach (PR) has been described as neither being a particular technique nor a single intervention but a service model within the mental health system aiming to promote recovery and the achievement of a meaningful life, rather than simply supporting adaptation or survival in the community. A qualitative approach was used to describe clients’ experiences of a BR implementation project in a county in Sweden. The findings from the interviews could be summarized in the theme “The process of rehabilitation” consisting of three categories: Structure, Participation and Relationship. The results suggest that clients do not often realize nor are able to verbalize their goals before they have been given the possibility to reflect their thoughts in collaboration with a trusted person. It is thus important that PR schedules its special structure to secure client participation by giving the clients opportunity to get their thoughts reflected to be able to participate in decision making regarding their own care. © 2014 H. Jormfeldt et al.

  • 37.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), The Wigforss Group.
    Svensson, Bengt
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Lars
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Relatives’ experiences of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach: A qualitative study2014In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 22918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation approach (BPR) is individualized and characterized by being based entirely on the individual´s unique needs and preferences in the areas of working, learning, social contacts, and living environment. Relatives of clients in mental health services influence the client’s possibilities to recovery by their everyday relationship. Nonetheless traditionally relatives have had a subordinated role in the care of their mentally ill family member. The perspective of relatives is an importance aspect in the development of new approaches to psychiatric rehabilitation. Thus the purpose of the present study was to describe and explore relatives’ experiences of the Boston Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach. Ten relatives to clients in mental health services approached with the BPR were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed with a qualitative content analysis method to explore relatives’ experiences of the BPR intervention in a county of Sweden. The findings from the interviews could be summarized in the theme “To meet the clients’ needs” consisting of three categories: “Dependence in staffs’ competence”, “Responsibility of participation and self-determination” and “The necessity of coordination between authorities and care-givers”.  The findings suggest that relatives may contribute with important information about clients’ needs related to outcome of care. Relatives’ perspectives may be of importance in further development of BPR. Further research about relatives’ role in psychiatric rehabilitation is needed as well as studies comparing different kinds of psychiatric rehabilitation from the perspective of relatives.

  • 38.
    Kristén, Lars
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Parker, James
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Ziegert, Kristina
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health promotion and disease prevention.
    Future challenges for intervention research in health and lifestyle research: A systematic meta-literature review2015In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 10, article id 27326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this systematic meta-literature review was to (1) summarize the findings of review studies focusing on health determinants, (2) give an overview of intervention studies that have been used to facilitate health and lifestyle, and (3) provide recommendations for future studies in health promotion. A literature review, using a meta-method, was conducted to identify health and lifestyle research based on research articles related to health changes. The search yielded a total of 561 unique citations and finally 24 citations remained. Of those, 11 studies focused on health determinants, whereas 13 focused on interventions for health promotion. Results from this meta-synthesis led to four recommendations for the design of future intervention studies. (1) To increase the likelihood of capturing different biopsychosocial aspects of health, researchers from different scientific disciplines should collaborate in the design, implementation, and evaluation of the study. (2) It is recommended to use theoretical frameworks that focus on health determinants in longitudinal studies with a repeated measures design. (3) Studies should involve behavioral interventions. (4) Design face-to-face intervention studies where the participant can interact with other persons.

  • 39.
    Källstrand Eriksson, Jeanette
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Hildingh, Cathrine
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Buer, Nina
    School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Thulesius, Hans
    FoU Kronoberg, Växjö, Sweden .
    Seniors' self-preservation by maintaining established self and defying deterioration: A grounded theory2016In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 30265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this classic grounded theory study was to understand how seniors who are living independently resolve issues influenced by visual impairment and high fall risk. We interviewed and observed 13 seniors with visual impairment in their homes. We also interviewed six visual instructors with experience from many hundreds of relevant incidents from the same group of seniors. We found that the seniors are resolving their main concern of “remaining themselves as who they used to be” by self-preservation. Within this category, the strategies maintaining the established self and defying deterioration emerged as the most prominent in our data. The theme maintaining the established self is mostly guided by change inertia and includes living the past (retaining past activities, reminiscing, and keeping the home intact) and facading (hiding impairment, leading to avoidance of becoming a burden and to risk juggling). Defying deterioration is a proactive scheme and involves moving (by exercising, adapting activities, using walking aids, driving), adapting (by finding new ways), and networking by sustaining old support networks or finding new networks. Self-preservation is generic human behavior and modifying this theory to other fields may therefore be worthwhile. In addition, health care providers may have use for the theory in fall preventive planning. © 2016 J. K. Eriksson et al.

  • 40.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    et al.
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Research and Development Centre, Spenshult Hospital, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University.
    Arvidsson, Barbro
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Patients' independence of a nurse for the administration of subcutaneous anti-TNF therapy: a phenomenographic study2010In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 5146-1-5146-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rheumatology nursing supports patients to manage their lives and live as independently as possible without pain, stiffness and functional restrictions. When conventional drugs fail to delay the development of the rheumatic disease, the patient may require biological treatment such as self-administered subcutaneous anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy. It is therefore important that the patient perspective focuses on the life-changing situation caused by the administration of regular subcutaneous injections. The aim of this study was to describe variations in how patients with rheumatic diseases experience their independence of a nurse for administration of subcutaneous anti-TNF therapy. The study had a descriptive, qualitative design with a phenomenographic approach and was carried out by means of 20 interviews. Four ways of understanding the patients' experience of their subcutaneous anti-TNF therapy and independence of a nurse emerged: the struggling patient; the learning patient; the participating patient; the independent patient. Achieving independence of a nurse for subcutaneous anti-TNF injections can be understood by the patients in different ways. In their strive for independence, patients progress by learning about and participating in drug treatment, after which they experience that the injections make them independent.

  • 41.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Perspectives on power relations in human health and well-being2017In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 12, no Suppl. 2, article id 1358581Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Annerstedt, Claes
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dohlsten, John
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    “The individual at the centre” – a grounded theory explaining how sport clubs retain young adults2017In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 1361782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: There is still a lack of knowledge regarding which social processes occur in sport clubs and what factors influence young adults to want to remain in a sport club context. Thus, the purpose of this study was to construct a grounded theory (GT) explaining how sport clubs can retain their young adults.

    Method: The study uses an intersectional approach. In line with constructivist GT methodology, data from 14 focus-group interviews (27 coaches and 28 young adults) were collected and analysed using a constant comparative method.

    Results: The core category, “The individual at the centre of a community”, summarizes a process, whereby the generated GT contains three main categories, namely (1) “Participation and influence”, (2) “Social connectedness” and (3) “Good conditions”.

    Conclusions: The coaches put the individual at the centre of a community and pay attention to the needs and interests of all the young adults, regardless of their background, ambitions, and skills. However, while the idea of a moral imperative to provide for diversity was not directly absent in the discussions with both the coaches and young adults, most of the diversity approaches seemed to be based on ambition and skills, gender, age and sexuality.

  • 43.
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Barker-Ruchti, Natalie
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Balancing performance-based expectations with a holistic perspective on coaching: a qualitative study of Swedish women’s national football team coaches’ practice experiences2017In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 1358580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore how an exclusive sample of women’s national football team coaches described how they implement careful coaching while facing social and organizational pressure to win medals.

    Method: To consider coaches’ negotiations, we drew on Noddings’ concept of caring. Using an interpretive research paradigm, we conducted in-depth interviews with five Swedish women’s national football team coaches. An abductive approach was used to simultaneously process the theoretical framework of “ethics of care” and the empirical data.

    Results: The coaches unanimously adopted a holistic perspective to coaching. The coaching strategies they described included promoting players’ development, well-being, and sustainable elite performance; listening to the players’ voices and engaging in dialogue; and creating a positive environment and promoting fair play.

    Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that the women coaches, despite performance pressure, adopt caring coaching in the form of Noddings’ pedagogical modelling, dialogue, and confirmation strategies, and provide an example of how coaches can adopt caring, holistic, and athlete-centred coaching while working at the highest level of competitive sport and achieving competitive success. 

    © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. 

  • 44.
    Linge, Lotta
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Hospital clowns working in pairs - in synchronized communication with ailing children2008In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 27-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to gain a deeper understanding of the work of some hospital clowns with ailing children. What distinctive features and working methods can be seen in the hospitals clowns' work? The approach taken involved an interview study with 13 hospital clowns, 10 women, and 3 men, between 30 and 60 years of age. The study was qualitative in design and took a hermeneutic approach. The analysis of data included descriptive and theoretical analyses. The descriptive analysis showed that the clowns' strategy of working in pairs enables them to treat the child with empathy and to acknowledge the child in a sensitive manner. The theoretical analysis of hospital clowns' method of working in pairs indicated: (a) a relational pattern, characterized by empathic preparedness: to capture and shelter the current affect climate, to express various child and adult positions, as well as to cognitively process and return, if appropriate, a humoristic message in a "digestible, humoristic form" and (b) a communication pattern, characterized by balanced synchronization of body language and verbal expressions, in terms of pace as well as conformability, which in optimal cases gives rise to an enhanced feeling of presence and mutuality in the communication process between the hospital clowns and the child. The humoristic communication between the hospital clowns and the child worked to create an open space for play-a space in which all affects were allowed. The discussion concerned possible forms of this working method (working in pairs) that function optimally with regard to relational and communication patterns. The discussion also addressed the psychological value of hospital clowns' work with ailing children, as seen from the perspective of the hospital clowns.

  • 45.
    Linge, Lotta
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Joy without demands: Hospital clowns in the world of ailing children2011In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 6, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to achieve, using an affect theory approach (Tomkins, 1962; 1963; 1991), a deeper theoretical understanding of the psychological significance of hospital clowns´work in caring for ailing children viewed from a care-giver perspective. The methodological approach was qualitative and based on 20 interviews with healthcare staff: 3 men and 17 women. The result showed how the staff emphasized a psychological quality of care alongside the physical quality of care. The hospital clowns´"unexpected possibility" provided a safe area for recovery, for both the childrren and the staff. The theoretical interpretation showed the presence of the affects surprise/startle, interest/excitement, and enjoyment/joy, as well as specifically how "joy without demands" often had a lingering effects in the form of vitality. Joy without demands is discussed in relation to psychological theory with emphasis on: a confirmation of the body´s possibilities, a magical attachment, a chance to transcend boundaries, and a non-demanding situation.

  • 46.
    Linge, Lotta
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Joyful and serious intentions in the work of hospital clowns: A meta-analysis based on a 7-year research project conducted in three parts2013In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 8, article id 18907Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present meta-analysis focuses on a 7-year research project entitled "Hospital clowns-in encounters with ailing children" and funded by the Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation. The aim of the meta-analysis, which is based on the project's three studies, was to attempt to achieve a deeper psychological and more nuanced understanding of the unique encounters taking place between the hospital clowns and ailing children in the study. The methodological procedures were qualitative and included 51 interviews with four informant groups: the clowns, staff, children, and their parents. The meta-analysis revealed the unique aspects of hospital clowns' work with respect to: a) a quality of care that transcends boundaries, that is, a magical safe area where demands and adjustment were temporarily set aside and where the lighter side of life took precedence; b) a non-demanding quality of care, where joy could be experienced without requiring something in return, where the child's terms mattered and where the child perspective was clearly in focus; and c) a defusing quality of care, which is expressed as a positive counterweight that was otherwise lacking in medical care, where the hospital clowns used different solutions that bypassed regular hospital routines by temporarily distracting and making things easier for the children, parents, and staff in various care situations. Finally, the aim of the theoretical framework, in its synthesizing form, was to promote further psychological understanding of the area of humor that exists between fantasy and reality-an intermediate or transitional area that the hospital clowns created together with the children. In this transitional area, the hospital clowns' unique contribution can be interpreted, in psychological terms, as being available as a vicarious therapeutic clown figure in a magical world that parallels reality.

  • 47.
    Linge, Lotta
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Magical attachment: Children in magical relations with hospital clowns2012In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 7, p. 1-8, article id 11862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to achieve a theoretical understanding of several different-age children´s experiences of magic relations with hospital clowns in the context of medical care, and to do so using psychological theory and a child perspective. The method used was qualitative and focused on nine children. The results showed that age was important to consider in better understanding how the children experienced the relation with the hospital clowns, how they described the magical aspects of the encounter and how they viewed the importance of clown encounters to their own well-being. The present theoreetical interpretation characterized the encounter with hospital clowns as a magical safe area, an intermediate area between fantasy and reality. The discussion presented a line of reasoning concerning a magical attachment between the child and the hospital clowns, stating that this attachment: a) comprised a temporary relation; b) gave anonymity; c) entailed reversed roles; and d) created an emotional experience of boundary-transcending opportunities.

  • 48.
    Linge, Lotta
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    The function of humor in relation to affects: A longitudinal case study2006In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 167-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to try to understand humor´s function, viewed from a developmental and affect-theoretical perspective, with special emphasis on the shame affect. The methodological approach has entailed a case study, the case of Beatus, which has been a longitudinal attempt based on qualitative interview data collected over a period of 17 years. The findings showed how awareness of humor in relation to the affects´function (appropriateness in time and space) and importance (clarity at the signal level) increased as Beatus grew older. The metaphor "door-opener" is emphasized for humor´s function in relation to all affects, Whereas the metaphor "moderator" refers to humor´s role in balancing the shame affect against the positive affects. The "pendulation function" is stressed. In the theeoretical deicussion, the term "humor-attunement" is coind. This represents a process-related concept, defined as a capacity to share inner affective states, intergrated with a cognitive perception and understanding of humor´s content and form, appropriately timed to the social context. The discussion also advances a line of thought wherein the driving force or motivation is the affect and humor is the consequence, which guides attention in a particular direction. © 2006 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved.

  • 49.
    Malm, Karina
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & Rheumatology, Capio Movement, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS). Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden .
    Arvidsson, Barbro
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Andersson, Maria L E
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Halmstad, Sweden & Primary Health Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    The influence of lifestyle habits on quality of life in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis: A constant balancing between ideality and reality2016In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 11, article id 30534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory, and systemic disease with symptoms that limit activities and affect quality of life. RA is associated with an increased risk of developing comorbidities, some of which are also known to be associated with lifestyle habits such as physical activity, diet, smoking, and alcohol. There has been an augmented focus on the implementation and maintenance of healthy lifestyle habits even for patients with RA in the past decade, but little is known about the link between patients' experiences of lifestyle habits and quality of life. The aim of the study was thus to describe and explore how patients with established RA experience the influence of lifestyle habits on quality of life.

    METHODS: The study had a descriptive and explorative design, based on qualitative content analysis. Strategic sampling was used in order to achieve variations in experiences. Twenty-two patients with RA (14 women and 8 men) from 30 to 84 years old, with a disease duration ranging from 8 to 23 years, were interviewed.

    RESULTS: The analysis of the influence of lifestyle habits on quality of life resulted in the theme balancing between ideality and reality. Three categories emerged about how lifestyle habits influenced quality of life by limitations (including insufficiency and adaptation), self-regulation (including guilt and motivation), and companionship (including belonging and pleasure).

    CONCLUSIONS: Quality of life for patients with established RA was influenced by the balance between ideality and reality in the lifestyle habits: physical activity, diet, smoking, and alcohol. This is important new knowledge for health professionals when discussing lifestyle habits with RA patients.

  • 50.
    Manasatchakun, Pornpun
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna-Västerås, Sweden.
    Chotiga, Pleumjit
    Boromarajonani College of Nursing Chiang Mai, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
    Roxberg, Åsa
    Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna-Västerås, Sweden.
    Asp, Margareta
    Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna-Västerås, Sweden.
    Healthy Ageing in Isan-Thai culture – A phenomenographic study based on older persons' lived experiences2016In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 11, article id 29463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthy ageing is a concept that concerns older persons’ quality of life and is a key factor in promoting wellbeing. The older population in Thailand is growing. Isan (a region of north-eastern Thailand) has been reported as having one of the most rapidly increasing older populations in the country. In order to care for and promote the health of older people, healthcare providers should understand how healthy ageing is perceived by this target group. Although healthy ageing has been studied in different contexts as well as perspectives,no studies have previously focused on older persons’ experiences of healthy ageing from a life world perspective in Isan-Thai. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe older persons’ qualitatively different conceptions of healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture. A phenomenographic approach with an epistemological base in lifeworld theory was used to disclose the various ways to conceptualize healthy ageing. Individual, qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 older people aged 60 and above who live in Isan-Thai. The findings of this study revealed three categories of descriptions: “being independent in dependence”, “being at peace”, and “being a valuable person”. This study also found family members, friends, healthcare providers, and religion important to healthy ageing in the Isan-Thai culture. Understanding how older people conceptualize healthy aging is valuable for healthcare providers. They can apply these findings regarding healthy ageing in their fieldwork when caring for older people. © 2016 P. Manasatchakun et al.

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