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  • 1.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Weman Josefsson, Karin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Jonsson, Linus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ntoumanis, Nikos
    Curtin University, Bentley, Western Australia, Australia.
    Patrick, Heather
    Envolve PeopleCare, Farmington, USA.
    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie
    Curtin University, Bentley, Western Australia, Australia.
    Markland, David
    Bangor University, Bangor, United Kingdom.
    Teixeira, Pedro
    Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Stirring the motivational soup: within-person latent profiles of motivation in exercise2017In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 14, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The purpose of the present study was to use a person-oriented analytical approach to identify latent motivational profiles, based on the different behavioural regulations for exercise, and to examine differences in satisfaction of basic psychological needs (competence, autonomy and relatedness) and exercise behaviour across these motivational profiles.

    Methods

    Two samples, consisting of 1084 and 511 adults respectively, completed exercise-related measures of behavioural regulation and psychological need satisfaction as well as exercise behaviour. Latent profile analyses were used to identify motivational profiles.

    Results

    Six profiles, representing different combinations of regulations for exercise, were found to best represent data in both samples. Some profiles were found in both samples (e.g., low motivation profile, self-determined motivation profile and self-determined with high introjected regulation profile), whereas others were unique to each sample. In line with the Self-Determination Theory, individuals belonging to more self-determined profiles demonstrated higher scores on need satisfaction.

    Conclusions

    The results support the notions of motivation being a multidimensional construct and that people have different, sometimes competing, reasons for engaging in exercise. The benefits of using person-oriented analyses to examine within-person interactions of motivation and different regulations are discussed.

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  • 2.
    Parker, James
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Svetoft, Ingrid
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL).
    Andersen, Mark
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Schough, Camilla
    Eleiko Sports AB, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Erik
    Eleiko Sports AB, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Viberg, Erik
    Swedish Adrenaline, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bärwald, Anton
    Swedish Adrenaline, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Warpman, Sofia
    Halmstad Municipality, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Is self-determined motivation associated with the effects of an intervention aimed to increase physical activity and exercise levels? An 80-day follow-up2019In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: State-of-the-art technologies, for instance smart watches and smartphones, have the potential to positively influence physical activity and exercise in sedentary populations. Psychological factors, such as self-determined (SD) motivation, might influence the impact state-of-the-art technologies have on level of physical activity and exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate if self-determined motivation influences an intervention on both physical activity (PA) and exercise in a sedentary population.

    Methods: 16 participants (men = 5, women = 11) with a self-reported low level of PA over the last year and predominantly sedentary jobs volunteered to participate in the study. PA data (steps and exercise time) were collected over an 80-day period using a wrist-worn accelerometer (Apple-watch and iPhone). Motivation was measured with the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2. At the start of the study, each participant completed the questionnaire and received their Apple-watches. Data analysis: All PA and exercise data were recorded through the Apple-watch and via Health App. Data for PA (steps) and exercise time were then extracted and aggregated to daily totals. Statistical analysis: Group means and standard deviations were calculated. A linear regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between exercise time, PA, and SD, the R2 value effect size (ES) was used to estimate the magnitude of the differences. All data analyses were performed in MatLab (software, R2016b).

    Results/findings: SD motivation (3.9±0.9) had a medium (R2 = 0.09) but not statistically significant (p = .26) effect on the amount of moderate to high-intensity exercise time (33.3±39.6 minutes) during the 80-day period. There was no statistically significant effect (R2 = 0.003, p = .84) of SD on PA (12953±7717 steps).

    Conclusions: Given the small sample size, achieving a medium effect size has meaningful significance despite not achieving statistical significance. This result suggests that self-determined motivation effects the amount of daily exercise but not PA in a sedentary population. Combining technology and other strategies (e.g., motivational interviewing, coaching) to promote behavior change is promising, and these interventions should include theoretically derived behaviour change techniques and take level of SD motivation into account.

  • 3.
    Weman-Josefsson, Karin Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Need satisfaction, motivational regulations and exercise: moderation and mediation effects2015In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 1-11, article id 67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Based on the Self-determination theory process model, this study aimed to explore relationships between the latent constructs of psychological need satisfaction, autonomous motivation and exercise behaviour; the mediational role of autonomous motivation in the association of psychological need satisfaction with exercise behaviour; as well as gender and age differences in the aforementioned associations.

    Methods: Adult active members of an Internet-based exercise program (n = 1,091) between 18 and 78 years of age completed a test battery on motivational aspects based on Self-determination theory. The Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale and the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 were used to measure need satisfaction and type of motivation and the Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire to measure self-reported exercise.

    Results: Need satisfaction predicted autonomous motivation, which in turn predicted exercise, especially for women. Autonomous motivation was found to mediate the association between need satisfaction and exercise. Age and gender moderated several of the paths in the model linking need satisfaction with motivation and exercise.

    Conclusions: The results demonstrated gender and age differences in the proposed sequential mechanisms between autonomous motivation and exercise in the process model. This study thus highlights a potential value in considering moderating factors and the need to further examine the underlying mechanisms between needs, autonomous motivation, and exercise behaviour. 

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