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  • 1.
    Cabanettes, Frederic
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Halmstad Univ, Sch Business & Engn, SE-30118 Halmstad, Sweden..
    Rosén, Bengt Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Topography changes observation during running-in of rolling contacts2014In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 315, no 1-2, p. 78-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry and the design of engines are strongly ruled by performance and legislation demands. In the valve train, besides the main function (transformation of rotation to translation movements) to fulfill, new requirements in environmental demands and performance in terms of wear are leading to more and more detailed studies of the cams and rollers. Wear reduction studies for prolonging lifetime of these components require decreasing the scale of observation down to roughness. Among the different wear stages of a component, the running-in is a crucial period which will greatly influence the lifetime and performance of components. The aim of this paper is to analyze the topography variations observed during the running-in of a camshaft on a valve train rig test. A truck engine's camshaft is run under realistic conditions and 3D surfaces are measured before and after the test by using relocation techniques. By measuring the very same surfaces before and after the experiment, a deep analysis of the running-in effects on surfaces can be performed. 3D surface roughness parameters are used in parallel with new proposed methods of analysis. As a result, the mechanisms involved during running-in are emphasized and can be used for further simulations and optimization of the cam roller contact. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Cabanettes, Frédéric
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Claret-Tournier, Julien
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK).
    Mohlin, Johan
    Finnveden Powertrain.
    Nilsson, P.-H.
    Volvo Technology Corporation.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Xiao, L.
    Volvo Powertrain Corporation.
    The evolution of surface topography of injection cams2009In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 266, no 5-6, p. 570-573Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Anderberg, Cecilia
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Ohlsson, Robert
    Volvo Powertrain Corp., Volvo Group, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Rosén, Bengt - Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Characterisation of worn cylinder liner surfaces by segmentation of honing and wear scratches2011In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 271, p. 548-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of the honing scratches/grooves in cylinder liner surfaces is intended and desired as they improve the lubrication and retain the debris reducing the piston assembly/liner friction and consequently improve the fuel economy and longevity of the internal combustion (IC) engines. Axial scratches caused by the abrasive wear between the tribological partners and/or entrained wear particles are undesired since they are correlated with increased oil consumption and noxious emissions of the IC engines. Due to the imperfection of the manufacturing process, the honing grooves, especially the deep ones, are smeared and interrupted by folds. A portion of the folds would eventually detach during the running process and act as abrasive particles increasing the wear in the cylinder. To closely examine the influence of all these features on the liner's function, it emerges a need to objectively quantify the axial wear scratches, plateau honing grooves, deep honing grooves and their interrupts. The existing techniques fail to segment a groove containing interrupts as they usually appear as summits at several locations in the course of the groove. Combining the profile and image analyses, the deep grooves and their interrupts were successfully identified and quantified in earlier works of the authors. In this paper those algorithms are extended, so that the deep honing grooves, plateau honing grooves and axial scratches crossing different depth levels are sequentially segmented in three levels/steps in an immersing way. A number of parameters derived from this method were utilised to compare 3D interference measurements from the top dead centre, middle and bottom region of a liner run in a truck engine test whereas the three regions represent different wear regimes due to the different running conditions. The results show that: (i) the axial scratches are densest in the top dead centre and about the same size as the plateau grooves in all three regions, while in the bottom region there are only few scratches; (ii) the presence of plateau grooves in the top region clearly decreases, (iii) the deep groove interrupt and coverage are lowest in the top region, and (iv) the groove height and distance between grooves spread mostly.

  • 4.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Anderberg, Cecilia
    Volvo Car Corporation, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Ohlsson, Robert
    Volvo Power Train Corp., Volvo Group, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Thomas, Tom
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Quantification of the cold worked material inside the deep honing grooves on cylinder liner surfaces and its effect on wear2009In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 267, no 12, p. 2235-2242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased presence of cold work material on cylinder liners due to the introduction of the diamond honing is undesirable as it seals the oil-bearing honing grooves. The most of it is a smeared metal inside the deep honing grooves (blechmantel) that may break and act as abrasive wear particles increasing the bore wear. An attempt has been made to estimate the extent of removal of blechmantel for different wear regimes present at the middle and top region (near the top dead centre) of the liner surface using the least worn bottom region as a reference for comparison. A number of truck grey iron cylinder liners were axially sectioned after varying periods of engine running under similar conditions of load, engine speed and lubrication. 3D surface measurements were taken at the three regions and a range of standard parameters was extracted. Combining the profile and image analysis, an algorithm was developed to identify and quantify the blechmantel. The algorithm has successfully identified/quantified the blechmantel and can be used for automatic surface quality and process control. It was found that the amount of the blechmantel in the middle section was approximately the same (though slightly lower) as that in the bottom section, while there was a considerable dislocation and removal of blechmantel in the top section and thereby it represents one of the possible causes for wear. Axial wear scratches of different size and distribution were observed not only through the whole stroke area, but also in the bottom region. All engines and liners performed well throughout the tests, and the observed quantities of blechmantel and axial scratches are acceptable for the time being.

  • 5.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Bååth, Lars
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Fotonik och mikrovågsteknik. Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Rosén, Stefan
    Toponova AB.
    Ohlsson, Robert
    Volvo Powertrain.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Interference Measurements of Deposits on Cylinder Liner Surfaces2011In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 270, no 3-4, p. 247-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The accumulation of deposits in the honing grooves of the cylinder liner surfaces of internal combustion engines is undesirable as they seal the grooves (reducing their oil retention capability) and increase engine's oil consumption. As part of a long-term programme of truck engine development, after different running times and under similar conditions of load, engine speed and lubrication, a number of grey iron cylinder liners were axially sectioned, measured, inspected and a presence of deposits was discovered. These deposits were characterised in order to gain knowledge about their origin and quantities. The X-ray energy dispersive analysis revealed elements stemming from the oil/fuel (C, O and S), from the detergent (Ca and Mg), from the anti-wear additive (Zn and P), and from some contaminants (K and Si). Higher concentration of S and Ca were mostly found in the honing grooves covered with deposits suggesting a domination of the detergent additive. Deposit thickness measurements obtained by a white light interferometer revealed patchy deposit topographies concentrated at the top region reducing towards the bottom of the liner which was also confirmed by scanning electron microscope measurements. Despite the limitations of the interferometer, it has been shown that the interference measurements are sufficiently reliable for a quick and objective quantification of the overall deposit accumulation.

  • 6.
    Johansson, S.
    et al.
    Volvo Technology AB, Chalmers Science Park, Gothenburg.
    Frennfelt, C.
    Volvo Technology AB, Chalmers Science Park, Gothenburg.
    Killinger, A.
    Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Fertigungstechnologie keramischer Bauteile (IFKB), Stuttgart.
    Nilsson, P.H.
    Volvo Technology AB, Chalmers Science Park, Gothenburg.
    Ohlsson, R.
    Volvo Powertrain AB, Gothenburg.
    Rosén, Bengt - Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Frictional evaluation of thermally sprayed coatings applied on the cylinder liner of a heavy duty diesel engine: pilot tribometer analysis and full scale engine test2011In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 273, no 1, p. 82-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The piston system accounts for roughly half of the mechanical friction of an internal combustion engine, thus it is important to optimize. Different thermally sprayed cylinder liners were investigated in order to optimize the frictional impact of the contact between cylinder liner and piston ring/piston. A novel tribometer test setup was used to scan through different materials at different running conditions. Based on these results a full-scale single cylinder test was performed to validate the results from the rig. A comparison of the results between the tribometer and the engine shows the importance of the ratio between viscous and mechanical friction losses.

  • 7.
    Johansson, Staffan
    et al.
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Nilsson, Per
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Ohlsson, Robert
    Volvo Powertrain AB.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Experimental friction evaluation of cylinder liner/piston ring contact2011In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 271, no 3-4, p. 625-633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fuel consumption is an extremely important parameter for the automotive industry today. Anticipated emission legislative demands in combination with a rising oil price are true motivators. In engines the piston system is the largest source of frictional losses, accounting for about 50% of the total frictional losses, thus it is important to optimize. Apart from frictional losses the piston system is a large consumer of lubricating oil, a considerable contributor to the total amount of particulate emissions (PM). New materials, coatings and high-tech machining processes that previously were considered to be too expensive and therefore only used in complex applications are today becoming more affordable. It is important to develop reliable test methods to study these new concepts. The reciprocating tribometer at Volvo Technology has been updated to better evaluate the frictional difference between material combinations/surfaces; it is possible to evaluate a number of operational parameters in each experiment. The components that were studied were a piston ring running against a cylinder liner. Friction, wear and change in surface morphology were studied in the experiments. It is shown that for the introduced DoE based tribometer test the interaction of dynamic viscosity, velocity and contact pressure can be studied within one experiment. The results show differences in friction which could be explained as the surface creating beneficial contact conditions for oil film build-up. It is also apparent that surface roughness is important regardless of material properties. To better understand the correlations between friction and surface roughness a future study should include a study of similar materials with different roughness values.

  • 8.
    Rosén, Bengt Göran
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Garnier, Jérôme
    Laboratoire de Tribologie et Dynamique des Systèmes, UMR CNRS 5513, Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Saint Etienne, 58 rue Jean Parot, 42000 St Etienne, France.
    Uncertainties and optimized sampling in surface roughness characterization2011In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 271, no 3-4, p. 610-615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Usage of 3D roughness parameters measurements requires knowledge of uncertainty causes in order to design proper measurement procedures. Even on apparently homogeneous machined surfaces, large local variations in 3D roughness parameters have previously been reported. This paper introduces and tests a concept for optimized sampling based on local-, and global topography analysis, using measurements of the Sa parameter on a large machined component as a practical example. It is shown that more than 40 measurements of Sa may be needed to attain a stable value, but that choice of an appropriate sampling strategy may reduce this requirement considerably. The results point to a possible route to minimize required measurements and contribute to the development of the "best-practice" when using 3D surface structure metrology.

  • 9.
    Rosén, Bengt Göran
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Wennerberg, Ann
    Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Surgical Science, SE-413 90 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Rosén, Stefan
    Toponova AB, TeknoCenter 1, Pilefeltsgatan 73, SE-302 50 Halmstad, Sweden.
    Topographical characterisation of artificial femoral heads: a Benchmarking study2004In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 257, no 12, p. 1275-1280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main functional demands on artificial joints are that they last more than 20 years. This means optimising the friction coefficient to minimise forces transmitted to the surrounding bone and the wear of the contacting surfaces. Surface roughness has an important influence on friction and wear. Traditionally, the 2D Ra-parameter has been the preferred way to characterise the joint's topography. Today ongoing development of 3D techniques are available for the research, and the aim of the present paper is to highlight the importance and possibilities using high-resolution 3D atomic force microscope ( AFM) and the optical phase-shifting interferometer for texture characterisation of eight commercially available femoral heads. The results show a significant variation of topography and surface-lay for the different femoral heads in the study. The variation and difference between heads were further underlined by the use of different characterisation techniques and measuring strategy. Results highlight the importance of the selection of measurement strategy, parameters, instrumentation, and scale of measurement in order properly to characterise the femoral heads in this study.

  • 10.
    Thomas, T. R.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK).
    Kenneth J. Stout 1941-2006: a memorial2009In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 266, no 5-6, p. 490-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kenneth J. Stout was an important figure in the development of surface metrology, and in particular of roughness measurement and characterisation, during the last decades of the twentieth century. He made substantial contributions to the statistical characterisation of rough surfaces and the application of this work to tribological measurements. Later he was instrumental in developing and popularising practical techniques for three-dimensional description of surface roughness, including the well known "Birmingham 14" set of roughness parameters. Finally he was one of the first to promote the application of wavelet transforms to surface metrology. This memorial discusses his personal contribution to the subject and attempts to set it in the context of historical developments in the field. It includes what is hoped to be a definitive bibliography of his journal publications and those of his co-workers.

  • 11.
    Thomas, Tom R.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Rosén, Bengt - Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Zahouani, Hassan
    Laboratoire de Tribologie et Dynamique des Systèmes, ENIS, St. Etienne, France.
    Blunt, Liam
    Centre for Precision Technologies, Huddersfield University, Huddersfield, UK.
    El Mansori, Mohamed
    Laboratoire de Mécanique et de Procédés de Fabrication, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, Châlons en Champagne, France.
    Traceology, quantifying finishing machining and function: A tool and wear mark characterisation study2011In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 271, no 3-4, p. 553-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traceology is defined as the study of wear marks and its history in criminology and archaeology is briefly described. It is proposed that the concept of traceology can be extended to machined surfaces, particularly those produced by abrasive techniques. A taxonomy of wear marks is outlined which would encompass both pits and scratches. Taxonomic implementations such as the morphology rose and the morphological tree are introduced. The general principles of traceology are illustrated by case studies from criminology, archaeology and abrasive machining processes.

  • 12.
    Wiklund, Daniel
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK).
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK).
    Gunnarsson, Lars
    KIMAB, Corrosion and Metals Research Institute AB, S-114 28 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frictional mechanisms in mixed lubricated regime in steel sheet metal forming2008In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 264, no 5-6, p. 474-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The friction is of critical importance to sheet metal forming operations. It affects the flow of material in the tool and thereby the scrap rate and final quality of products. In the experimental work the frictional response was measured in a bending under tension (BUT) test under mixed lubricated conditions. The study includes stainless steel, but previous research on carbon steels, coated and uncoated, are discussed also. The experimental results could be explained by the theory of pad bearings. The frictional response showed a correlation to the surface topography, e.g. the amplitude parameter (Sq) and texture aspect ratio parameter (Str). When predicting the frictional response of surfaces with multi-component distributions, the standard deviation of the distribution above the mean line could be used.

  • 13.
    Wiklund, Daniel
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Wihlborg, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Evaluation of surface topography parameters for friction prediction in stamping2004In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 257, no 12, p. 1296-1300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The continued globalisation of the automotive industry, leading to increasing demands for competitiveness and escalating legislative requirements, is the main driving force of research activities of steel sheet surfaces. Recent studies on the stamping process have been carried out among others within AUTOsurf, a project funded by the European Community, and by Wihlborg and Crafoord. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the viability of the proposed parameters for friction prediction. Seventeen different surface topographies were investigated. The sheet materials were either, hot-dip galvanised, electrogalvanised or galvannealed, and electron beam or electric discharged textures. The frictional response was measured in a bending under tension (BUT) test under mixed lubricated conditions. This BUT test simulates the conditions of the die radius in a stamping tool. The laboratory test differs from the experimental work performed in AUTOsurf which simulated the conditions of the holding-down plate. In spite of the differences in test equipments in AUTOsurf, e.g. the rotational friction tester (RTF), on a comparison the correlation of frictional response was significant. But neither of the proposed parameters could predict the frictional response with sufficient accuracy in this study. In addition, the friction model in AUTOsurf describes peak lubrication as a dragging phenomenon on sliding surfaces. The movement eased friction in inverse proportion to the average peak area. However, the trend in this study showed the opposite, movement eased friction proportionally to the average peak area. The result indicates a switch of dominant friction mechanism when the sliding velocity is increased, i.e. from a dragging phenomenon at low velocities to micro-hydrodynamic wedge effects at high velocities.

  • 14.
    Xiao, Li
    et al.
    Department of Production Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Amini, Naser
    Volvo Car Corporation, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Surface lay effect on rough friction in roller contact2004In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 257, no 12, p. 1301-1307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface lay describes the direction of the predominant surface pattern. A properly designed surface texture configuration has been recognised as a vital issue affecting lubrication and sliding in machinery applications in the literature. Gaining understanding of this tribological phenomenon is no doubt beneficial in facilitating the production of more efficient machine parts and thus reduces production cost. This paper describes an experimental method to investigate the effect of surface lay on lubricated rolling/sliding of ground roller surfaces. By using the rough friction test rig, different surface lay contacts can be simulated and the friction can be measured. Friction behaviour was interpreted in terms of Stribeck curves (friction coefficient as the function of Hersey parameter [ηv/p]). Results show that an optimal contact lay angle that provides a minimum friction value is achievable through rig testing. The relative sliding speed direction has a symmetrical effect on friction at the same lay orientation; for sliding speed angles less than about 80, the larger the angle, the lower the friction, and vice versa. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Xiao, Li
    et al.
    Department of Production Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Amini, Naser
    Volvo Car Corporation, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Per H.
    Volvo Technological Development, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A study on the effect of surface topography on rough friction in roller contact2003In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 254, no 11, p. 1162-1169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The friction behaviour of gear teeth in the context of tribology can have a strong effect on housing vibration, noise and efficiency. One of the parameters that greatly influences the friction under certain running conditions is surface roughness. In this work, rough friction was studied in lubricated sliding of roller surfaces, which were manufactured to simulate the real gear surfaces. By examining 3D surface topography of two mating bodies, both surface roughness and its effect on friction behaviour can be studied. In a previous study, a rough-friction test rig has been designed, constructed and initially verified. The types of surfaces involved in this study are ground, shot-peened, phosphated and electrochemically deburred. These rollers were subjected to the same friction testing procedures. Roller surfaces were then examined, and correlation between the topography and the frictional behaviour was analysed. Friction behaviour was interpreted in terms of Stribeck curves (friction coefficient as the function of Hersey parameter (ην/p)). The results showed that electrochemically deburred and certain phosphated surfaces provide lower friction coefficient values which are competitive to fine-ground surfaces in lubricated rolling/sliding contact. © 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 16.
    Zahouani, Hassan
    et al.
    Laboratoire de Tribologie et de Dynamique des Systèmes, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Ecully, FRANCE; Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs, Saint-Etienne, France.
    Rosén, Bengt-Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    Thomas, Tom R.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Functional Surfaces.
    10th International Conference on Metrology & Properties of Engineering Surfaces: Guest editorial2008In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 264, no 5-6, p. 381-381Article in journal (Refereed)
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