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  • 1.
    Holmqvist, Gärd
    et al.
    Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden & Skaraborg Institute for Research and Development, Skövde, Sweden.
    Lundqvist-Persson, Cristina
    Skaraborg Institute for Research and Development, Skövde, Sweden & Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Is there evidence for the use of art therapy in treatment of psychosomatic disorders, eating disorders and crisis?: A comparative study of two different systems for evaluation2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 47-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As with any type of treatment the requirement for evidence based practice (EBP) has also affected art therapy (AT) when used as an intervention. This review evaluates the available evidence for using AT for psychosomatic disorders, eating disorders and crisis. The search in Cochrane, Best Practice, AMED, CINAHL, PION, PsycINFO and PubMed from 1987 until now resulted in a huge number of articles but only 32 articles met our criteria for evaluations. The articles were assessed with two evaluation systems, the GRADE system used by the Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment (SBU) and the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF/Task Force). When comparing the results we found that the GRADE evaluation system rejected the quality in 84% of the 32 studies and the USPSTF/Task Force 41% of these studies. An evidence base for AT was found only according to the criteria of USPSTF/Task Force. Hence, the evidence concept is not explicit, which means that effective treatments run a risk of not being implemented in health care. We suggest a broader view of what constitutes evidence in order to make it possible to include different types of research designs and methods. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  • 2.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Martin Ginis, Kathleen A.
    Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Canada.
    Moving towards a favorable image: The self-presentational benefits of exercise and physical activity2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 209-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the exercise stereotype phenomenon and the moderating effects of exerciser impression motivation and construction on this stereotype in a sample of 176 female and 96 male Swedish university students. The participants read a description of one of the following female targets: a typical exerciser, an active living target, an excessive exerciser, a non-exerciser, or a control target, and then rated these targets on 12 personality (e.g., lazy–hard worker, dependent–independent) and 8 physical (e.g., scrawny–muscular, sick–healthy) dimensions. They also completed the Self Presentation in Exercise Questionnaire, measuring motivation to self-present as an exerciser and the propensity to construct the image of an exerciser. MANCOVAs revealed a significant main effect for both personality and physical attributes (p < 0.05). In general, the typical exerciser and active living targets received the most favorable ratings, especially on the physical attributes, whereas the excessive exerciser obtained the least positive ratings. Exerciser impression motivation moderated the exercise status/rating relationship for the physical attributes only. Differences between Swedish and North American students’ impressions of exercisers and non-exercisers are discussed.

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