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  • 1.
    Peters, Wibke
    et al.
    Wildlife Biology Program, Department of Ecosystem and Conservation Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT, United States & Bavarian State Institute of Forestry (LWF), Freising, Germany.
    Hebblewhite, Mark
    Wildlife Biology Program, Department of Ecosystem and Conservation Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT, United States.
    Mysterud, Atle
    Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis, Department Biosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Eacker, Daniel
    Wildlife Biology Program, Department of Ecosystem and Conservation Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT, United States.
    Hewison, A. J. Mark
    CEFS, University de Toulouse, INRA, Castanet Tolosan, France.
    Linnell, John D. C.
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), Trondheim, Norway.
    Focardi, Stefano
    stituto dei Sistemi Complessi, CNR, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.
    Urbano, Ferdinando
    Eurodeer Project, freelance consultan.
    De Groeve, Johannes
    Department of Geography, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium.
    Gehr, Benedikt
    Department of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Heurich, Marco
    Department of Conservation and Research, Bavarian Forest National Park, Grafenau, Germany.
    Jarnemo, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Kjellander, Petter
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Science (SLU), Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Kröschel, Max
    Chair of Wildlife Ecology and Management, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany & Forest Research Institute of Baden-Wuerttemberg, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.
    Morellet, Nicolas
    CEFS, University de Toulouse, INRA, Castanet Tolosan, France.
    Pedrotti, Luca
    Parco Nationale dello Stelvio, Glorenza (BZ), Italy.
    Reinecke, Horst
    Department of Wildlife Sciences & Institute for Wildlife biology of Göttingen and Dresden, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.
    Sandfort, Robin
    Institute of Wildlife Biology and Game Management, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Sönnichsen, Leif
    Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Białowieża, Poland & Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (IZW), Berlin, Germany.
    Sunde, Peter
    Deptartment of Bioscience – Wildlife Ecology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Cagnacci, Francesca
    Biodiversity and Molecular Ecology Department, Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, San Michele all'Adige (TN), Italy & Organismic and Evolutionary Department, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, United States.
    Large herbivore migration plasticity along environmental gradients in Europe: life-history traits modulate forage effects2018In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 128, no 3, p. 416-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most common framework under which ungulate migration is studied predicts that it is driven by spatio–temporal variation in plant phenology, yet other hypotheses may explain differences within and between species. To disentangle more complex patterns than those based on single species/ single populations, we quantified migration variability using two sympatric ungulate species differing in their foraging strategy, mating system and physiological constraints due to body size. We related observed variation to a set of hypotheses. We used GPS-collar data from 537 individuals in 10 roe Capreolus capreolus and 12 red deer Cervus elaphus populations spanning environmental gradients across Europe to assess variation in migration propensity, distance and timing. Using time-to-event models, we explored how the probability of migration varied in relation to sex, landscape (e.g. topography, forest cover) and temporally-varying environmental factors (e.g. plant green-up, snow cover). Migration propensity varied across study areas. Red deer were, on average, three times more migratory than roe deer (56% versus 18%). This relationship was mainly driven by red deer males which were twice as migratory as females (82% versus 38%). The probability of roe deer migration was similar between sexes. Roe deer (both sexes) migrated earliest in spring. While territorial male roe deer migrated last in autumn, male and female red deer migrated around the same time in autumn, likely due to their polygynous mating system. Plant productivity determined the onset of spring migration in both species, but if plant productivity on winter ranges was sufficiently high, roe deer were less likely to leave. In autumn, migration coincided with reduced plant productivity for both species. This relationship was stronger for red deer. Our results confirm that ungulate migration is influenced by plant phenology, but in a novel way, that these effects appear to be modulated by species-specific traits, especially mating strategies. © 2018 The Authors. Oikos © 2018 Nordic Society Oikos

  • 2.
    Suhling, Frank
    et al.
    Dept. of Environ. System Analysis, Institut für Geoökologie, TU Braunschweig, Langer Kamp 19c, DE-38102 Braunschweig, Germany.
    Sahlén, Göran
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Kasperski, Judith
    Dept. of Environ. System Analysis, Institut für Geoökologie, TU Braunschweig, Langer Kamp 19c, DE-38102 Braunschweig, Germany.
    Gaedecke, Dunja
    Dept. of Environ. System Analysis, Institut für Geoökologie, TU Braunschweig, Langer Kamp 19c, DE-38102 Braunschweig, Germany.
    Behavioural and life history traits in temporary and perennial waters: comparisons among three pairs of sibling dragonfly species2005In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 108, no 3, p. 609-617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying and examining traits that influence the distribution of species is crucial to the understanding of community structure. Theory predicts that traits should differ between species that live in temporary and permanent waters because of differing major environmental variables; viz drying out and predator presence, respectively. Species, however, will also be influenced by their evolutionary history, i.e. by the traits of their common ancestors. We studied differences in life history and behaviour traits in a series of laboratory experiments using pairs of dragonfly species out of three genera of Namibian Libellulidae (Odonata) with one species from each type of habitat. As predicted, growth rates were significantly higher in the temporary water species compared to the permanent water species. Activity and foraging, in contrast, differed between the genera, but did not differ between the habitat types. Hence, our study implies that the behavioural traits are influenced by phylogenetic inertia rather than by the habitat variables, while growth rate is adapted to the habitat. We argue that in all three genera one species has diverged recently from a sister species that lives in the original habitat of the genus, which may be temporary waters in Crocothemis Brauer and in Orthetrum Newman, and permanent waters in Trithemis Brauer. The behavioural traits may therefore be less well adapted. Rapid growth may be the more relevant trait because it is crucial to survival in temporary waters.

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