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  • 1.
    Asklander, Niklas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Schmidt, Christian
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    ILLUSIONEN OM DET VÄPNADE ANGREPPET2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Defence Commission has proposed that the Swedish Armed Forces once again will be assigned the main task of defending Sweden against an armed attack. Defence against an armed attack has gained more focus since the defence decision 2015 and prior to the upcoming defence decision it is even more emphasized. Are the politics and the Swedish Armed Forces in agreement regarding the meaning and implications of this on basis of contemporary threats?

    The overall aim of the study is to understand the interaction between politics and the Swedish Armed Forces in the designing and shaping of the Swedish Armed Forces. This study has a starting point in the prelude to the planned political defence decision 2020 and aims to understand some of this major context. It is focusing on identifying the coherence between the Defence Committee and the Swedish Armed Forces’ military strategic leadership in terms of the meaning of an armed attack being the primary basis of designing and shaping the Swedish Armed Forces. In addition, important factors that have an impact on the interaction between politics and the Swedish Armed Forces are identified.

    The empiricism is taken from international law, the military strategic doctrine of the Swedish Armed Forces, reports from the Defence Commission and interviews with members of the Defence Committee and the military strategic leadership of the Swedish Armed Forces.

    The results show that there is lack of coherence within the Defence Committee as well as between the Defence Committee and the Swedish Armed Forces regarding the meaning of the proposed main task to the Swedish Armed Forces and how it should relate to other tasks. There is an illusion regarding the definition of an armed attack. In reality it is the government that, under constitutional responsibility, defines an armed attack when there is an act of aggression. In addition, it is identified that it is suitable to mutually improve trust between politics and the Swedish Armed Forces by increasing knowledge of each other's realities.

     

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  • 2.
    Batory, Agnes
    et al.
    Central European University, Budapest, Hungary.
    Svensson, Sara
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Centrum för lärande, kultur och samhälle (CLKS). Central European University, Budapest, Hungary.
    Regulating Collaboration: The Legal Framework of Collaborative Governance in Ten European Countries2020In: International Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 0190-0692, E-ISSN 1532-4265, Vol. 43, no 9, p. 780-789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many scholars have considered when and why collaboration between government agencies and societal actors occurs. This article argues that a simple but largely overlooked answer to these questions is that a formal legal or administrative requirement to do so is in place. Therefore, the objective is to substantiate whether there are legal requirements to collaborate and in what type of source and context this obligation applies in ten European countries. The main finding is that collaboration is underpinned by an extensive range of legal requirements in Europe, although imposing these requirements is generally not the main objective. © 2019 The Author(s).

  • 3.
    Brännström, Leila
    et al.
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gunneflo, Markus
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Noll, Gregor
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Parsa, Amin
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Legal imagination and the US project of globalising the free flow of data2023In: AI & Society: The Journal of Human-Centred Systems and Machine Intelligence, ISSN 0951-5666, E-ISSN 1435-5655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the US pursues the global capture of data (understood as a significant engine of growth) by way of bi- and plurilateral trade agreements. However, the project of securing the global free flow of data has been pursued ever since the dawn of digital telecommunication in the 1960s and the US has made significant legal efforts to institutionalise it. These efforts have two phases: In the first 1970s and 80s “freedom of information” phase, the legal justification (and contestation) of the global free flow of data hinged on imagining data as information, and its exchange as a practice of liberty. The second phase began in the late 1990s and continues today. In this phase, the free flow of data is aligned with a free-trade agenda in the context of first e-commerce and, starting in the 2000s, through attempts at creating a global public domain of personal data for the platform economy. The global free flow of data is an intrinsic aspect of informational capitalism. Assuming a constitutive, but not commanding role for law in informational capitalism, we conclude that the US attempt at ensuring free flow for its informational corporations is neither an entirely contingent nor a necessary outcome. It is a product of legal imagination. © 2023, The Author(s).

  • 4.
    Brännström, Leila
    et al.
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Noll, Gregor
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Parsa, Amin
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Gunneflo, Markus
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Guest Editorial: Tech and the transformation of legal imagination2023In: AI & Society: The Journal of Human-Centred Systems and Machine Intelligence, ISSN 0951-5666, E-ISSN 1435-5655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 5.
    Brännström, Leila
    et al.
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Noll, Gregor
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Parsa, Amin
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Gunneflo, Markus
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Introduction: Tech and the Transformation of Legal Imagination2023In: Law and Critique, ISSN 0957-8536, E-ISSN 1572-8617, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 309-314Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 6.
    Burcar, Veronika
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS), Center for Social Analysis (CESAM), Social Change, Learning and Social Relations (SLSR).
    Betydelsen av etnicitet - unga brottsoffers gestaltningar2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta projekt uppmärksammar brottsoffer och etnicitetsfrågor. I fokus står mellanmänskliga tolkningar av etnicitetens betydelse. Syftet är att analysera etnicitetstillskrivningar hos ungdomar som blivit utsatta för rån eller misshandel av andra ungdomar med "annan etnicitet". Projektet utgår från Malmö där både unga män och kvinnor med såväl "icke-svenskt" som "svenskt" ursprung samtalsintervjuas. Både ungdomar som polisanmält det brott de utsatts för och ungdomar som inte gjort någon polisanmälan ingår i studien. I studien diskuteras "etnisk tillhörighet" utifrån hur identiteter (egna och andras) och kategoriseringar aktualiseras, markeras och formeras. Det paper som kommer att presenteras vid Sociologförbundets årsmöteskonferens fokuserar särskilt på hur några "etniskt svenska" unga män, som blivit utsatta för misshandel eller rån av unga män med annan etnisk bakgrund än "svensk", omtalar och behandlar etnicitet i samtal om våld och offerskap. Ett antal olika berättelser om brottet – där etnicitet i någon mening är centralt – analyseras. I den allmänna diskursen kring ungdomsbrott förknippas inte sällan unga män, främlingar och etniska minoritetsgrupper med kriminalitet och rädsla. Det handlar här om varaktiga stereotyper kring relationen etnicitet/brottslighet. Det tycks därför vara angeläget att studera hur unga "svenska" män som utsatts för brott av andra unga män med "annan etnicitet" faktiskt resonerar kring ungdomsbrott. Begrepp som "etnicitet" och "kriminalitet" är mångfacetterade och i detta projekt läggs vikt vid att studera vilka kategoriseringar, förklaringar och identitetstillskrivningar som återges i relation till dessa.

  • 7.
    Eklund, Magdalena
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Hansson, Lisa
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Det dubbla straffet: Mödrar på anstalt2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we meet women who gradually change our picture of the "double penalty", which complicates our view of a life of abuse and drug dependence, and the life in a women’s prison, but also simplifies the notion of the deep love they have for their children. Since these mothers have worked a lot with themselves and emerging from long periods of drug dependence, we have experienced the force which is released when someone is working with something she is passionate about. To help others and to allow the individual to accept help has guided this story about the human beings ability to get up and move on. The fact that the love seems to work side by side with the indebted problem has aroused our interest and is discussed in the text as a running theme. By allowing the individual emotions to meet sociological theories widens the perspective to an angle involving both macro- and micro-levels of society. This essay tries to explain the relationships as well as the incompatible roles and its impact on mothers in prison. Thomas J. Scheff's theory of social bonds is leading the discussion and is critical to understanding the need for consideration as well as the devastating impact of shame on the individual and society. Human diversity and multiple views of reality will find meaning in a social psychological interpretation and analysis originated from an innovative study.

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  • 8.
    Ekman, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Kange, Moa
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    ”Vi måste säga att det är fara för hennes liv för hon kommer ju aldrig få någon vård”: En kvalitativ studie om anhörigas upplevelser av delaktighet i vården för närstående personer med diagnosen schizofreni eller schizoaffektivt syndrom2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this bachelor’s thesis was to shed light on how relatives experience their role in contact with psychiatry to a relative with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective syndrome. It also examines what experiences relatives have regarding being included in the process around care interventions. We hope that with this study we can contribute to further sociological knowledge in this subject area to raise the situation of relatives. The thesis is based on a qualitative interview study where eight people were interviewed over the phone and over Zoom. Through a number of articles and a historical review of how psychiatric healthcare in Sweden has developed, the reader gets a deeper understanding of how the role of relatives related to psychiatry has developed and how it looks today. The result is presented by three themes: Relatives' contact with care staff, Present and Future and Improvements regarding relatives' participation. For each theme, the interview results are summarized where differences and similarities are presented and compared with each other. The theoretical framework is based on Melvin Seeman's theory of alienation and Birgitta Andershed’s theory on participation and is used in the analysis to answer the questions. The results of the sociological analysis show that the relatives’ participation in the care of the close relative prevents the relatives' experiences of powerlessness, meaninglessness and social isolation in their everyday life and in their relationship to the care. Participation also contributes to relatives feeling better mentally and that relatives can receive care at an earlier stage.

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  • 9.
    Ekström, Linnea
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Kan närbyråkrater implementera samtyckeslagen?: Om närbyråkraters upplevelser om förändringen och förutsättningarna att kunna implementera samtyckeslagen2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Both implementation and sexual crime are two complex fields, and within the Consent Act (samtyckeslagen), the consent part made sexual crimes even more complicated. This examination’s purpose is to investigate and analyze whether street-level bureaucrats, such as investigators, prosecutors, and lawyers experienced a change in their work since the Consent Act came into force and then, based on the personal governing characteristic, investigate what conditions they feel they have, to be able to implement the law. The essay examines this by doing semi-structured conversational interviews with all the professional groups.

    The study shows that the street-level bureaucrats have experienced a change in their work since the Consent Act came into force, where the most significant change is that a greater number of people report the crime and that more cases are assessed where there is a possible crime. Furthermore, there are both opportunities and challenges in all subcategories (knowledge, resource, method, influence, and ability to act) for one of the professional groups, if not several, in implementing the law. Both in the context of their work, such as the fact that the lawyers and the investigator believe that they lack knowledge and that the prosecutor has sufficient knowledge through the work, but also conditions that lie outside of their work, such as what role the plaintiff and suspect may have in the work of street-level bureaucrats.

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  • 10.
    Hellström, Paulina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Wifvesson, Linnea
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Hur effektiv är diskrimineringslagen?: En kvalitativ studie om diskrimineringslagens effekter närdet gäller könsdiskriminering i samband med graviditet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to create knowledge of how the swedish law against genderdiscrimination in relation to employment and pregnancy works and the effects of the law. Thisstudy is directed to them with an interest of sociology and labour law. The issues in focus ishow the European Union-law is used in swedish court, how the Swedish law from 2009 hasaffected the outcome in court compared to the earlier law and how the participants look at theeffect of the law. The methods used for this study is a content analysis of eight cases from court and threeinterviews with the Swedish equality ombudsman, a labour union organization and a employersunion organization.We have found that the European Union-law has an impact on the justice system. We also foundthat the use of legal usage from the European Union court were more common before 2009 andthe change in swedish law. We found that despite the change concerning the economiccompensation in the new law 2009 that were supposed to promote higher compensation therewere not any signs of higher compensation in the cases.

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  • 11.
    Hettne, Jörgen
    et al.
    Institutionen för handelsrätt, Lunds universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Nyberg Alamaa, Linda
    Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, Lunds universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    EU:s statsstödspolitik och det kommunala självstyret2018In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, no 5, p. 85-110Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Hydén, Håkan
    Lunds universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Corona – en rättspolitisk utmaning!2021In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, no 5, p. 315-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corona – a challenge for legal policySociety is challenged by a virus that threatens humanity, calling for intervention in private spheres that belongs to different policy areas. As a result, the regulation becomes like a patchwork quilt without normative consistency. The regulation is ad hoc. Sweden has initially relied on influencing people’s behavior through norm creation and not legislation, partly being forced to since the constitution does not leave room for exemption laws in the same way as other countries. When it comes to formulating policy, the expert authority, Public Health Agency, has a central role. Democracy is replaced by meritocracy. Legality presupposes legitimacy in order to function. This is a balancing act between formal and substantive legal certainty. As a general conclusion, legal regulation is most effective when legality and legitimacy flow together. However, where these meeting points can be found in practice varies with the nature of the problem.

  • 13.
    Hydén, Håkan
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Corona-Socio-Legal Challenge with Sweden as an Example2022In: Novel Research in Sciences, ISSN 2688-836X, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 1-11Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Society is challenged by a virus that threatens humanity, which calls for intervention in private spheres belonging to different policy areas. As a result, the regulation becomes like a patchwork quilt without normative consistency. The regulation is ad hoc. Sweden has initially relied on influencing people’s behavior through norm creation and not legislation, partly being forced to since the constitution does not leave room for exemption laws in the same way as other countries. When it comes to formulating policy, the expert authority, Public Health Agency, has a central role. Democracy is replaced by meritocracy. Legality presupposes legitimacy in order to function. This is a balancing act between formal and substantive legal certainty. As a general conclusion, legal regulation is most effective when legality and legitimacy flow together. However, where these meeting points can be found in practice varies with the nature of the problem.

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  • 14.
    Hydén, Håkan
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Introduction2023In: Combining the Legal and the Social in Sociology of Law: An Homage to Reza Banakar / [ed] Håkan Hydén; Roger Cotterrell; David Nelken; Ulrike Schultz, Oxford: Hart Publishing Ltd, 2023, 1, , p. 25p. 1-21Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our purpose as a homage to Reza Banakar is to invite the reader on a journey across the academic field that is the Sociology of Law (SoL), one which he to a large extent himself has shaped. Like his scholarship, the journey covers a vast terrain. To do justice to his significance for the development of the field, the volume is divided into six separate sections, each with its own individual chapters. This Introduction lays out in brief the purpose and content of each section as well as a summary of the various chapters. The presentation is made in a discursive style but for the benefit of the reader each section also lists the authors and the title of their chapters.

  • 15.
    Hydén, Håkan
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Normativity as the Source of Norms2023In: Combining the Legal and the Social: An Homage to Reza Banakar / [ed] Håkan Hydén; Roger Cotterrell; David Nelken; Ulrike Schultz, Oxford: Bloomsbury Academic, 2023, 1, p. 69-81Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest in norms has been rising in the last twenty-five years in real life as well as in the sciences (Hydén 2011). One question, which never is raised, is: where do norms come from? One reason for this is that the answer is not straightforward. It is hard to find a common denominator. We generally do not think much about norms because most of the time we take them for granted. One possible answer is that we become aware of the norms that guide our behavior primarily in times of sudden or radical change. In these situations, we become conscious about our norms because they are challenged and may need to be revised to deal with the new circumstances. I argue that norms arise out of normativity, something which can be seen as the core of various systems, social, economic, bureaucratic or legal. As actors we participate in these systems and take our leads from what they demand of us. For example, a civil servant becomes a “bureaucrat” because his behaviour is extensively shaped by being an employee of a hierarchical organization. A similar socialization occurs when we participate in the marketplace: its structures encourage us to become optimisers of our own interest.

     This chapter will explore further the relation between norm and normativity. The ambition is to define the concept normativity from a socio-legal point of view and argumentative underpin the claim that normativity constitute the core of norm systems from which norms can be derived. The chapter begins with an overview of the various types of norms that are especially important in shaping our life and who we are. The bulk of the article is devoted to the concept of normativity and how it can be best applied in socio-legal studies.

  • 16.
    Hydén, Håkan
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science. Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Pornography. The Politics of Legal Changes. An Opinion article2023In: Frontiers in Sociology, E-ISSN 2297-7775, Vol. 8, article id 1250012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What are the similarities between pornography and climate change? The answer given by Max Waltman in a book about pornography is that both represent major problems of our times that society must intervene against. Both relate to social dominance and multiply disadvantaged groups that will necessitate political and legal challenges in the future. Waltman claims that in light of the need for efficient and effective policy responses, the insights from a study of legal challenges to pornography might gain. He has conducted such a study providing empirical evidence of legal challenges undertaken in three diverse democracies. His message is that we need to grant real, substantial, and effective legal power to members of those groups most affected if the harms of pornography are to be successfully addressed. The book is unique being a politico-legal study. It is of relevance for lawyers, socio-legal scholars as well as for political scientists.

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  • 17.
    Hydén, Håkan
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Sociology of Law as the Science of Norms2022 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book proposes the study of norms as a method of explaining human choice and behaviour by introducing a new scientific perspective.

    The science of norms may here be broadly understood as a social science which includes elements from both the behavioural and legal sciences. It is given that a science of norms is not normative in the sense of prescribing what is right or wrong in various situations. Compared with legal science, sociology of law has an interest in the operational side of legal rules and regulation. This book develops a synthesizing social science approach to better understand societal development in the wake of the increasingly significant digital technology. The underlying idea is that norms as expectations today are not primarily related to social expectations emanating from human interactions but come from systems that mankind has created for fulfilling its needs. Today the economy, via the market, and technology via digitization, generate stronger and more frequent expectations than the social system.

    By expanding the sociological understanding of norms, the book makes comparisons between different parts of society possible and creates a more holistic understanding of contemporary society. The book will be of interest to academics and researchers in the areas of sociology of law, legal theory, philosophy of law, sociology and social psychology.

    © 2022 Informa UK Limited

  • 18.
    Hydén, Håkan
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science. Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    The Sociology of Law potential: exploring its scientific landscape2023In: Frontiers in Sociology, E-ISSN 2297-7775, Vol. 8, article id 1203799Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Sociology of Law (SoL) is an island of investigation squeezed between two large academic territories: the legal and the social sciences. They represent different knowledge interests based on separate ontologies, which make the epistemologies incommensurable. Law is an open normative science using interpretative, deductive methodology, while sociology has an empirical ontology built on social science methodologies in epistemological respect. The theoretical discourse to try to integrate legal dogmatic and sociology must be regarded as a dead end (Banakar, 2003; Cotterrell, 2006; Nelken, 2009, chs. 10 and 11).). The same can be said about the inside/outside dichotomy in SoL (Banakar, 2002, p. 18). SoL has a territory of its own, which is huge and to a large extent undetected and unknown. The purpose of this article is to investigate this varied landscape that is the home turf of Sociology of Law and explore the Field's contribution to knowledge. What makes it a separate entity? What is its potential?

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  • 19.
    Hydén, Håkan
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Cotterrell, RogerQueen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.Nelken, DavidKing’s College London, London, United Kingdom.Schultz, UlrikeFernUniversität, Hagen, Germany.
    Combining the Legal and the Social in Sociology of Law: An Homage to Reza Banakar2023Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This open access book pays homage to Reza Banakar, who passed away in August 2020, exploring the many different areas of socio-legal research that he worked on and influenced. It begins with a summary of his career and explains how he sparked a debate on the identity and aims of legal sociology.

    The book is then split into 5 sections:

    - Theory, including chapters on normativity and the stepchild controversy;- Methods and interdisciplinarity, illustrating how Banakar encouraged socio-legal scholars to push the boundaries of existing socio-legal knowledge through interdisciplinary imagination and methodological flexibility;- Legal culture, with particular focus on Iran - 2 areas of special interest for Banakar;- Law and science, covering topics such as human rights, the right to life, and the COVID-19 pandemic; and- Applied sociology of law, inspired by Banakar's engagement with empirical research and case studies.

    As well as honouring Reza Banakar's memory and unique thinking, the book aims to advance the sociology of law by demonstrating the interconnectedness of the legal and the social from a broad range of perspectives.

  • 20.
    Irion, Kristina
    et al.
    Institute for Information Law, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Delinavelli, Giacomo
    Institute for Information Law, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Coutinho, Mariana Francese
    Institute for Information Law, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Fathaigh, Ronan Ó
    Institute for Information Law, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Jusić, Tarik
    Center for Social Research Analitika, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina & University of New York in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Klimkiewicz, Beata
    Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland.
    Llorens, Carles
    Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Rozgonyi, Krisztina
    University of Vienna, Wien, Austria.
    Svensson, Sara
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Centrum för lärande, kultur och samhälle (CLKS). Central European University, Vienna, Austria.
    Smokvina, Tanja Kerševan
    University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    van Til, Gijs
    Institute for Information Law, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    The independence of media regulatory authorities in Europe2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This IRIS Special focuses on the independence of regulatory authorities and bodies in the broadcasting and audiovisual media sector in Europe. These entities have proliferated according to the different legal traditions of the respective countries they belong to. They do not, therefore, conform one, single model. Nonetheless, they reflect a common approach of sorts with regard to the institutional set-up of regulatory governance. The independence of these entities is particularly important because it contributes to the broader objective of media independence, which is in itself an essential component of democracy.

    The creation, status and functioning of these regulatory authorities and bodies were shaped pursuant to the constitutional requirements and/or administrative practices of the countries that established them. As a result, each has distinct characteristics and levels of independence that differ according to where they are located. But when is an authority to be considered independent? The measurement of an entity's independence requires careful analysis of the legal texts setting it up, but also of the practices that are rooted in reality and reflect the sensitivities of the societies in question.

    This IRIS Special aims to enlighten the reader on the definition of the independence of a regulatory authority or body, on the criteria used to assess its independence, and on the legal framework embodying this independence at the European level, as well as provide analysis of the status and functioning of regulatory authorities and bodies in a selection of nine European countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Spain, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, and Slovenia. This sample reflects the different levels of independence that can be found across Europe. © European Audiovisual Observatory (Council of Europe), Strasbourg, September 2019

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  • 21.
    Jacobsson, Emma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Andersson Wistad, Ebba
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Digital bevisning: En definition2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The digitalization of society has contributed to a more convenient lifestyle for the Swedishpopulation. Our everyday life includes digital technology that saves information about us and our actions from digital devices. Collected digital information can be admissible as evidence in a legal process. Despite the increase in crimes involving IT, Sweden seems to lack an official description for the concept of digital evidence. The purpose of this report is to propound two definitions: one for the general public and one more suitable for specific technical usage by people in the field.

    This report focuses on three different areas which together contribute to a holistic approach to gaining the basic knowledge and understanding of what digital evidence is. These areas include the value of digital evidence in a court decision, how anti-computer forensics can affect its extraction, and the legitimacy of digital evidence.

    To explore the various areas, employees within the police authority have answered questions based on their professional roles. The participants work as either investigators, preliminary investigation leaders, IT-computer forensic scientists, or prosecutors. The participants' answers have, together with literature, contributed to the definition of the concept of digital evidence and to the creation of a basic understanding of the subject of digital evidence.

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  • 22.
    Karlsson, Ida
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Buller från luftvärmepumpar: Juridiska aspeter och installatörernas roll i att förebygga olägenhet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Heat pumps cause noise, and in urban areas this can lead to complaints from the neighbors. Disturbing noise can affect human health adversely by causing sleep disturbances and difficulties to concentrate. Miljöbalken states that the one who installs a heat pump on his or her land is responsible for the noise that it generates. Naturvårdsverket has issued benchmarks that will serve as guidelines for noise measurements, when a suspicion of risks for human health is. Municipalities may also adopt limits in local regulations. Noise measurements are often done on the property line but a judgment of a precedent case from 2012 concludes that the measurements should be done at the facade and patio.  A survey was mailed to 221 companies that installed heat pumps. The responses showed a divided opinion on the question of how frequently the companies felt that the problems of noise complaints occurred. Most companies often discussed noise reduction measures with their customers in connection to the installation of the heat pump. However, it was far from all, though many, who used the existing regulations and guidelines in their counseling with the customers. Few companies used the benchmarks from Naturvårdsverket. The indistinct way to apply Naturvårdsverkets benchmarks that is shown in the summed cases in this report can make it difficult for the companies to use these in consultation with their customers.

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    Buller från luftvärmepumpar
  • 23.
    Keshavarz, Mahmoud
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Parsa, Amin
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Targeted by Persuasion: Military uniforms and the legal matter of killing in war2019In: Law Text Culture, ISSN 1322-9060, Vol. 23, p. 223-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we argue that the legitimation of killing in war is not simply formed by adherence to certainlegal requirements that exist apart from and prior to war; instead, we suggest, the law of armed conflict initself cannot but operate through admitting certain materials onto the battlefield as distinctively legalmaterials. Using the theory of legal materiality, we show that the military uniform is a legal material thatmakes the legal matter of legitimate targeting intelligible to law. This process happens through the waysin which the uniform shapes the possibility of visual recognition and differentiation in order to makecertain bodies targetable and others not targetable. We refer to this visual recognition and differentiationas a domain of persuasion. We show that the historical, functional and visual attributes of the uniform, asa design artefact, produce a convincing domain of distinction for the attacking agent. Finally, we turn toinsurgency, arguing that the legal matter of targeting is shaped not only by the presence, use andmanipulation of this legal material but also by the absence of it.

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    Keshavarz and Parsa - Targeted by Persuasion_ Military Uniforms and the Legal Matter of Killing
  • 24.
    Labik Amanquandor, Thomas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Svensson, Måns
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Mattsson, Andreas
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    The Role of Social Norms in Reducing Corruption in Education: A Case Study of Schools in Hanoi-Vietnam2022Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research report presents empirical findings from an ethnographic study of the role of informal social norms in reducing corruption in public and private schools in Hanoi. The study begins by building a theoretical framework that inculcates the significance of local informal social norms in analysing/understanding corruption and designing counteraction strategies, especially at the sub-national or local level. After a two-month ethnographic study in Hanoi, a rich stock of ethnographic data was collected through observations and informal interviews. The informal social norm and practices found in various public and private schools in Hanoi included parents’ payment of teachers for extra classes to ensure better school results for their children, showing gratitude and respect to teachers by providing them with gifts on 5-6 occasions per school year, and parents’ contribution of money towards the provision of equipment in school classrooms. Our findings suggest that within the context of the school system, these informal norms persist as pragmatic responses to the weaknesses in the country’s educational system. Consequently, they are not in themselves dysfunctional or corrupt, and are widely accepted as the "normal things to do". Notwithstanding, some of the parents and teachers also admitted that these informal norms and practices sometimes result in unequal and discriminatory treatment of students whose parents cannot afford to conform to them. Consequently, they sometimes become dysfunctional and/or corrupt practices that hinder the quality of education. Hence, from a collective action perspective, we argue that efforts to reduce the levels of corruption resulting from the dysfunctional aspects of these informal norms and practices must acknowledge them as institutionalised social practices that are part and parcel of everyday life. Therefore, anti-corruption interventions must not focus on eradicating/suppressing these informal social norms entirely, as this might threaten social fabrics. Instead, anti-corruption interventions should actively engage teachers, parents and school administrators in reforming the dysfunctional aspects into functional norms and practices in line with educational quality. 

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  • 25.
    Leth-Espensen, Marie
    et al.
    Lund university, Lund, Sweden.
    Svensson, Måns
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Centrum för lärande, kultur och samhälle (CLKS).
    Beyond Law’s Anthropocentrism: A Sociolegal Reflection on Animal Law and the More-Than-Human Turn2021In: Animal Law and Animal Rights / [ed] Mauro Zamboni, Stockholm: Stockholm Institute for Scandinavian Law , 2021, Vol. 67, p. 35-50Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, modern (Western) law’s anthropocentric nature has been increasingly questioned from at least two contemporary scholarly fields: ‘science and technology’ and ‘nature and animal rights’. In this paper, we intend to explore the potential for the discipline of sociology of law to contribute to the ongoing discussion in animal-focused legal scholarship on the need for a more-than-human perspective on law. At first glance, there is no evidence that such a potential exists. However, Irus Braverman, professor of law at the University at Buffalo, argues that there is indeed a need for more-than-human legalities and that socio-legal scholarship could greatly benefit from a serious consideration of non-human. The challenge of such a shift should not be underestimated. Traditionally, the discipline of sociology has been as human-centred as the discipline of law. A commonly used definition of sociology as a scientific discipline is that it represents the study of human behaviour and societies. Thus, taking a turn towards a non-anthropocentric approach to law would be somewhat of a paradigm shift, including for the sociology of law. 

  • 26.
    Lundström, Alice
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Spjuth, Ebba
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Hur har GDPR påverkat mäklaryrket?: En kvalitativ studie om vilken inverkan införandet av GDPR haft på fastighetsmäklares arbete.2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Problemformulering: “Hur har GDPR påverkat mäklaryrket?”

    Syfte: Beskriva och förklara hur en fastighetsmäklares arbete har påverkats efter införandet av GDPR och att redogöra för mäklarnas kunskap om GDPR.

    Metod: I denna studie användes en abduktiv forskningsansats. Vidare har en kvalitativ studie genomförts där vi har intervjuat åtta fastighetsmäklare. Litteraturstudien genomfördes genom att samla in teorier från tidigare forskningsstudier.

    Slutsats: Slutsatsen som kan dras i denna studie är att GDPR inte har påverkat en fastighetsmäklares arbete avsevärt. Vidare upplevs GDPR vara för tolkningsbar för att kunna behandlas likvärdigt. Den påtagliga förändringen som skedde låg hos huvudkontoren. Avvikandet från GDPR är inget som uppmärksammas hos omvärlden och därför har inte mäklarna märkbart behövt anpassa sig efter GDPR för att framstå legitima.

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  • 27.
    Mattsson, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki.
    Svensson, Måns
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Centrum för lärande, kultur och samhälle (CLKS).
    Using Social Norms to Fight Corruption in Local Governments: A Case Study of the School System in Hanoi, Vietnam2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This policy brief looks into the role of social norms to fight corruption in the school system in the Cau Giay district in Hanoi. An ongoing research project has conducted multiple ethnographic field studies in schools and included parents, teachers, and other school personnel in the research data. Their experiences and reflections are the core of this brief. The results show the existence of informal transactions to ensure good care and schools results backed up on social norms such as the celebration of national holidays throughout the school year, but also exist on an everyday basis with the practices of home teaching, and the recruitment of new teachers to schools. By applying a socio-legal anti-corruption perspective to the findings, we suggest a list of actions that could be implemented by local school administrators and headmasters to ensure that no child experiences corruption nor the impact of corruption on his/her schooling.

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  • 28.
    Ottosson, Olivia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Olsson, Frida
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Reglering och miljötillsyn för utsläpp av industriella plastpellets i Sverige2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate how environmental supervision works in the regions that have direct production of plastic pellets, and those that use plastic pellets as input in production in Sweden. The study examines how requirements and environmental supervision can prevent possible emissions of plastic pellets and whether perceptions regarding current environmental supervision in Sweden differ between industries and authorities. The results were collected through two questionnaires, one adapted to industries, one adapted to authorities, and two interviews. The questionnaires had 18 respondents from authorities and 20 respondents from industries. The two interviews included the plastics industry, and the guiding supervisory authority. The quantifiable questions were analysed by t-tests and regression analysis and the qualitative questions were analysed by content analysis. According to the study's respondents, more and similar environmental supervision, good communication and clear regulations can reduce emissions of plastic pellets. It also emerged that a mixture of regulatory supervision and the industries’ voluntary commitments is what both authorities, and industries believe works best to prevent emissions of plastic pellets. More frequent environmental inspection visits were appreciated by industries, while authorities did not have such statistical relations. The study confirms that there are different views on environmental supervision between industries and supervisory authorities, but that the issue is complex and requires further research.

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  • 29. Parsa, Amin
    A name that became a code: On the sociolegal life of compulsory hijab in Iran2022In: Retfærd: Nordisk Juridisk Tidsskrift, ISSN 0105-1121, Vol. 4, p. 85-95Article in journal (Other academic)
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    Parsa–A Name that Became a Code
  • 30.
    Parsa, Amin
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Kolbari: Workers not Smugglers2022In: Seeing Like a Smuggler: Borders from Below / [ed] Mahmoud Keshavarz; Shahram Khosravi, London: Pluto Press, 2022, p. 80-91Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Parsa, Amin
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Vrije University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Logistics of participation international law2019In: Backstage Practices of Transnational Law / [ed] Lianne J.M. Boer; Sofia Stolk, Abingdon: Routledge, 2019, p. 108-124Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores logistics of participation as a backstage practice of international law’s knowledge production. For its purpose logistics of participation refers to material conditions of possibility of part taking. Taking essay as its form this chapter ties together seemingly dispersed threads in order to reveal how and through what practices scholars of the South are overburdened to participate and as the result the western academia retains its hegemonic presence in knowledge production of international law. The main focus of this chapter is the global visa regime as the most materially tangible technology of impeding the participation of scholars of the South in the scholarly events of international law. It will be argued that the visa regime, alongside other factors, determines the composition of international law events, limits diversity of expressions and experiences and subsequently shape international law by delimiting the scoop of the thinkable in this academic discipline.

  • 32.
    Parsa, Amin
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Vrije University, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Military Uniform and Lethal Targeting in International Law on Armed Conflict2019In: Uniform: Clothing and Discipline in the Modern World / [ed] Jane Tynan; Lisa Godson, London: Bloomsbury Visual Arts , 2019, p. 239-254Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Parsa, Amin
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science. Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Targeting in International Law: Counterinsurgency and the Legal Materiality of the Principle of Distinction2023Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is about how distinctions are drawn between civilians and combatants in modern warfare and how the legal principle of distinction depends on the technical means through which combatants make themselves visibly distinguishable from civilians.

    The author demonstrates that technologies of visualisation have always been part of the operation of the principle of distinction, arguing that the military uniform sustained the legal categories of civilian and combatant and actively set the boundaries of permissible and prohibited targeting, and so legal and illegal killing. Drawing upon insights from the theory of legal materiality, visual studies, critical fashion studies, and a dozen of military manuals he shows that far from being passive objects of regulation, these technologies help to draw the boundaries of the legitimate target.

    With its attention to the co-productive relationship between law, technologies of visualisation and legitimation of violence, this book will be relevant to a large community of researchers in international law, international relations, critical military studies, contemporary counterinsurgency operations and the sociology of law. © 2024 Amin Parsa.

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    Parsa–Taregting in International law
  • 34.
    Parsa, Amin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Noll, Gregor
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Brännström, Leila
    Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gunneflo, Markus
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Legal Tech, the Law Firm and the Imagination of the Right Legal Answer2023In: Law and Critique, ISSN 0957-8536, E-ISSN 1572-8617, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 381-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Legal tech is growing, and its growth provokes anxieties about the future of the legal profession as such. In this article, we examine the impact of legal tech on the central role of lawyers at law firms in crafting an imagined ‘right legal answer’ by drawing on Duncan Kennedy’s suggestion that a claim to the rightness of one’s legal propositions is a central characteristic of the legal profession. We first ask how changes in the organisation of legal services affect the ability of lawyers at law firms to produce that ‘right legal answer’. While legal tech only exacerbates already ongoing processes of eradication of routine tasks, we find that it continues to mask the role of ideology in arriving at a right legal answer under a new layer of technological projection. Second, we ask how lawyers’ ability to produce ‘the right legal answer’ is affected by, first, expert systems and, second, a legal tech application named Bryter, representing a no-code system. We find that expert systems do not permit to uphold the unity of the lawyer required for Kennedy’s model of the right legal answer, but that no-code systems as Bryter do so. No-code systems can be reduced to a slogan: Have the lawyer, but evict her ideological temptations more efficiently than before!© 2023, The Author(s).

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  • 35. Parsa, Amin
    et al.
    Selberg, Niklas
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Future directions of sociology of law – Anna Lundberg and Ole Hammerslevin conversation with Amin Parsa and Niklas Selberg2022In: Retfærd: Nordisk Juridisk Tidsskrift, ISSN 0105-1121, no 4, p. 71-84Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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    Parsa and Selberg–Future directions of sociology of law – Anna Lundberg and Ole Hammerslev in conversation with Amin Parsa and Niklas Selberg
  • 36.
    Parsa, Amin
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Snodgrass, Eric
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Legislative arts: interplays of art and law2022In: Journal of Aesthetics & Culture, E-ISSN 2000-4214, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 2034295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation of law and art is conventionally understood through a disciplinary divide that presents art as an instrument of legal practice and scholarship or, alternatively, presents law as potential context for artistic engagement. Moving beyond disciplinary definitions, in this article we explore how art and law, as modes of ordering and action in the world, often overlap in their respective desires to engage existing material orders. Whereas law’s claim of producing order appears self-evident, we try to highlight, through a concept of legislative arts, the often-overlooked similar function of artistic practices. At the heart of what we refer to as legislative arts are practices that aim to challenge law’s claim of authority in ordering social life through tactical combinations of elements of art and law. In examining a set of examples that include the Tamms Year Ten campaign to close a super-max prison in the United States, the work of Forensic Architecture and practices of passport forgery, we aim to highlight the possibility of manifesting social orders beyond an exclusive reliance upon state laws. Pointing to the potentials of such legislative arts practices, this article suggests that the material ordering quality of artistic and legal practices can, and perhaps should, be weaponized for challenging and remaking the world of unjust state laws. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

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    Parsa & Snodgrass–Legislative arts interplays of art and law
  • 37.
    Petäjä, Ulf
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Rätt till rättshjälp? Rättssäkerhet, fundamentala nyttigheter och rättshjälpsreformen 19972023In: Retfærd. Nordisk Juridisk Tidsskrift, ISSN 0105-1121, no 3, p. 55-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article treats the law concerning legal aid adopted 1973 and its 1997 reform. It evaluates them based on Ronald Dworkin’s distinction between fundamental- and secondary utilities and two of Åke Frändberg’s legal security categories – equality before the law and access to justice. The analysis shows that while the 1997 legislation is founded on economic efficiency, the law from 1973 hinges on legal security for all. The result finds that the reform view legal aid as a secondary utility, while the law from 1973 express it as a fundamental utility. Thus, the view of legal aid changed: what was seen as a right, like the right to vote, is perceived in 1997 as the state’s ‘gift’. According to Frändberg’s categories we can conclude that the reform represents a weakening of access to justice and equality before the law. This implies discrimination against certain groups who, due to insufficient resources, will encounter difficulties in asserting their rights.

  • 38.
    Staaf, Annika
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Malmö, Sverige.
    Ouis, Pernilla
    Malmö universitet, Malmö, Sverige.
    Cinthio, Hanna
    Malmö universitet, Malmö, Sverige.
    Heder i kollektivets namn?2022In: Retfærd. Nordisk Juridisk Tidsskrift, ISSN 0105-1121, Vol. 172, no 2, p. 53-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hedersrelaterat våld är ett återkommande tema i den offentliga debatten i Sverige. För rege-ringens del är det framför allt förebyggande arbete, stöd- och skyddsåtgärder till personer som utsätts samt straffrättsliga skärpningar som kommit att diskuteras. Artikelns författare argumenterar för att den kollektivistiska dimension som präglar och särskiljer hedersvåld från annat våld i nära relationer måste bli väsentligen mer uppmärksammad och att professioner vilka kommer i kontakt med personer där sådant våld kan misstänkas behöver öka sin förståelse för ärendets komplexitet så att adekvata skydds- och stödåt-gärder kan sättas in för utsatta. I anslutning till det vill vi även åskådliggöra hur vissa gärningspersoner eller utövare av kollektiva handlingar med hedersmotiv, särskilt yngre pojkar, samtidigt även är offer, med långtgående konsekvenser för flera av dem. En annan fråga artikeln söker besvara är hur gärningsperso-nerna själva diskuterar sina gärningar. Genom intervjuer med personer som dömts för brott som tolkats vara hedersrelaterade och en systematisk genomgång av det material som låg till grund för deras domar har vi sökt att lyfta fram den kollektivistiska prägel dessa brott har. 

  • 39.
    Stenberg, Ellen
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability. Fru.
    Gunnarsson, Linda
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Bankens interna processer: Att följa Finansinspektionens krav och samtidigt upprätthålla en god kundrelation: En kvalitativ studie om bankernas interna processer för att följa Finansinspektionens krav gällande penningtvätt och samtidigt upprätthålla en god kundrelation.2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem formulation: How do banks work with internal processes to complywith the requirements of the Financial Supervisory Authority regardingmoney laundering and at the same time maintain a good customerrelationship?

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explain how banks create internalprocesses to comply with Finansinspektionen's requirements regardingmoney laundering and at the same time maintain a good customerrelationship, so that customers feel trust and loyalty to the bank. This is tocreate a broader and deeper understanding of how banks work with internalprocesses to maintain the relationship with both Finansinspektionen and thebank's customers. Despite the main contradiction between the requirementsof the Finansinspektionen's requirement and the bank's business with theircustomers.

    Method: The study was conducted via a qualitative study at three differentbanks with three respondents at each bank. The study has conducted a totalof nine interviews. The paper has been conducted using an abductive researchapproach to clarify the findings.

    Conclusion: The authors of the study have found that banks' internalprocesses based on the requirements of the Financial Supervisory Authorityand at the same time maintaining a good customer relationship are workedout by having a communication between the departments and out towards the customer. The study has also found a new empirical observation based on theagent theory, that the departments of the bank can be both principal and agentand they should communicate with each other to reduce the principal-agentrelationship. This helps banks to comply with the requirements of theFinancial Supervisory Authority while maintaining a good customerrelationship. The bank has some internal processes that can be influenced andsome internal processes that cannot be influenced. This causes it to bedifficult for the bank to set precise internal processes as the anti-moneylaundering regulatory framework is changing and the bank works withpeople.

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  • 40.
    Stenlund, Lina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Håkansson, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Risk för ungdomskriminalitet?: - en kvalitativ studie av sociala verksamheters förebyggande åtgärder i Laholms kommun.2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstract

    Nationell kriminalstatistik tyder på att ungdomar är den mest brottsaktiva åldersgruppen i samhället. Ett förhållande som främst gäller pojkar och unga män, även om brottsligheten ökar något bland flickor och unga kvinnor. Eftersom ungdomar är samhällets framtid är det viktigt att vetenskapligt utrymme skapas och belyser de förebyggande insatser som kan göras för uppkomsten och fortskridningen av ungdomskriminalitet. Med anledning av detta har vi gjort en studie inriktad på Laholms kommun och vilka samhälleliga risker som kan ligga till grund för kriminalitet bland unga.

    Studien baseras på kvalitativa intervjuer med personer inom olika sociala verksamheter i Laholms kommun som berör ungdomar och kriminalitet på ett eller annat sätt, samt ungdomar i åldrarna 15-20.

    Utifrån analys av sociologiska och kriminologiska teorier av bland annat Zygmunt Bauman, Pierre Bourdieu, Erwing Goffman och Jerzy Sarnecki lyfter vi fram olika eventuella bidragande samhällsrisker i Laholms kommun så som arbetslöshet, konsumtion, fritid och sysselsättning, avsaknaden av grupptillhörighet och avvikelse.

    Nyckelord: Ungdomskriminalitet, Laholms kommun, förebyggande arbete, arbetslöshet, avvikelse

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  • 41.
    Sucur, Maja
    Halmstad University. Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Kriminalvård med inriktning på behandling: Internernas framtidssyn2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie är att undersöka hur intagna ser på framtiden som för närvarande behandlas inom kriminalvården. Undersökningens utgångspunkt är ett kvalitativt tillvägagångssätt med en halvstrukturerad intervjuguide, där urvalet omfattade tre interner och fyra anställda på fängelset. Resultatet visade att internerna har en positiv framtidssyn med planer på att studerar och arbeta efter frigivningen. För närvarande behandlas internerna med 12-­stegsprogrammet. Det fanns en tvådelad åsikt bland internerna om huruvida de saknade det gamla kriminella livet.  Två av internerna saknade det gamla livet, men den tredje gjorde inte det. Det viktigaste stöd har dem funnit hos sina kvinnliga anhöriga så som mödrar, döttrar och partners.

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  • 42.
    Svensson, Måns
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Centrum för lärande, kultur och samhälle (CLKS).
    Björkenfeldt, Oscar
    Lunds universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Åström, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Dahlstrand, Karl
    Lunds universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Näthat och demokratiskt deltagande – en kunskapsöversikt2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rätten att uttrycka åsikter, att kritisera och att ifrågasätta är en del av en levande demokrati. Ett demokratiskt samhälle måste vara öppet för olika röster och ge alla möjlighet att komma till tals. Demokratin är beroende av att människor deltar och engagerar sig i samhällsfrågor. Med rätten till yttrandefrihet kommer också ett ansvar. Var och en bör skydda, värna och bevara yttrandefriheten genom att respektera andra och bidra till en samhällsdebatt fri från hot och hat. Tystas människor tystnar demokratin. Den digitala utvecklingen gör det möjligt för fler att göra sin röst hörd. Det är positivt men för också med sig utmaningar. Att föra fram och sprida hot och hat har blivit enklare. Uttalanden kan få snabb spridning i sociala medier och på så sätt få större genomslagskraft i dag än tidigare. Det kan missbrukas av personer som inte vill bevara det demokratiska samhället. Personer som engagerar sig i samhällsfrågor är särskilt utsatta för hot och hat. Det gäller till exempel förtroendevalda, journalister, konstnärer, opinionsbildare, forskare och representanter för det civila samhället. Utsatthet kan också vara kopplat till exempelvis en persons kön, könsidentitet, hudfärg, sexuella läggning eller ålder. När kvinnor och hbtqi-personer får hot och hat riktat mot sig har det ofta att göra med kön och sexualitet. På uppdrag av Brottsoffermyndigheten har forskare vid Lunds universitet och Högskolan i Halmstad genomfört en enkätundersökning som visade att mer än hälften av de tillfrågade har känt sig kränkta av sådant som andra skriver om dem på nätet. Särskilt utsatta är unga och personer med utländsk bakgrund, och följden blir omfattande nivåer av självcensur bland dessa grupper. Det innebär att de anpassar hur de uttrycker sig för att undvika hot och hat, eller helt avstår från att publicera och delta i samhällsdebatten. Det demokratiska samtalet begränsas och viktiga röster riskerar att tystna. Även denna kunskapsöversikt är ett resultat av samarbetet mellan Brottsoffermyndigheten, Lunds universitet och Högskolan i Halmstad. Den belyser olika frågor om näthat och demokratiskt deltagande, såsom vilka områden som genererar hot och hat, vilka samhälls- och yrkesgrupper som är särskilt utsatta och vilka konsekvenser näthat leder till. Genom att uppmärksamma frågan om hot och hat på internet vill Brottsoffermyndigheten belysa vilka konsekvenser det kan få för vår demokrati. Myndigheten vill också synliggöra de personer som utsätts för näthat och bidra till en levande samhällsdebatt. 

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  • 43.
    Svensson, Måns
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Labik Amanquandor, Thomas
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability.
    Mattsson, Andreas
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Multi-Level Perspectives on Anti-Corruption: A Systematic Literature Review2022Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This systematic literature review investigates the extent to which recent anti-corruption literature goes beyond the established paradigms (i.e., principal-agent perspective, macro-level, structural, and legal centralistic approaches) to focus on society’s informal norms, everyday micro-level power relations and non-monetary currencies (e.g. respect, prestige, social status and trust). By reconceptualising the various meanings and morality of informal, non-legal practices and transactions in the frame of the ’multi-level orders of corruption’ perspective, the paper also assesses the extent to which the current canon focuses on the complex articulation and interdependencies between (1) global, transnational anti-corruption laws, initiatives, discourses, and institutions, (2) national/central level initiatives, policies, and laws, and (3) local, micro-level social norms and practices. Based on one-hundred and three systematically gathered peer-reviewed journal articles published between 2015 and 2020, we found that most studies conducted within this period focus on anti-corruption at the national level and mostly employ analytical and quantitative methods. However, the local level received scant attention, and qualitative methods were employed in a few studies. Also, even though a significant number of studies focus on anti-corruption at multiple levels, these are mostly either the global-national level or national-local level. None of the articles gathered for this review studies anti-corruption in a complete multi-level approach that explores the global-national-local level. Lastly, we found that most of the studies across the levels are shaped by the principal-agent perspective and indicate a predominance of the perspective within anti-corruption policy and practice across the world. Consequently, irrespective of the entity of focus (i.e., country or institution), method (quantitative, qualitative, analytical or experimental) or level of analysis (i.e., global, national, or local or multi-level), most of the studies attribute the ineffectiveness of anti-corruption interventions to the inability of ”principals” to be principled, and hence call for increased sanctioning, supervision, monitoring and political commitment towards combatting corruption. Thus, there is the need for more qualitative anti-corruption studies at the local level and alternative theoretical perspectives that go beyond the aforementioned established paradigms.

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  • 44.
    Waltman, Max
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    "Pleasure" visar en tillrättalagd och falsk bild av porrindustrin: Kulturdebatt, Svenska Dagbladet, 13 januari 2022, sid. 24–252022In: Svenska DagbladetArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45.
    Waltman, Max
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pornography: the politics of legal challenges2021Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book offers a cutting-edge, cross-disciplinary analysis of how the explosive spread of pornography contributes to violence against women, including prostitution, while presenting a political and legal theory on how to stop it effectively. It guides the reader through fifty years of significant empirical research on the harms, including a vast array of different studies illuminating pornography’s powerful impact on men, a majority of whom consume it. A comparative analysis of legal challenges in Canada, Sweden, and the United States demonstrates why civil rights, not criminal laws, can empower those hurt, subordinated, and exploited while efficiently dismantling the sex industry, consistent with free speech guarantees.

  • 46.
    Waltman, Max
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Prohibiting Purchase of Sex in Sweden: Impact, Obstacles, Potential, and Supporting Escape2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the core reasons for the Swedish law from 1999 which criminalizes purchase of sex and decriminalizes the prostituted person, passed as part of an omnibus bill against violence against women and recognizing prostitution as a form of it. Further, it documents the law’s impact by comparing data from several recent Swedish studies with the situation in other relevant countries, concluding the law has significantly reduced the occurrence of prostitution manifolds compared to its neighboring countries. Crucial obstacles to effective implementation are also addressed, particularly in current case law. Some of the critique against the law and disinformation about the law’s effects are also commented. Finally, to realize its full potential to support escape from prostitution more efficiently, it is argued that the civil rights of prostituted persons under current law should be strengthened to get damages paid for directly by the tricks/johns for the harm they have contributed to. An additional consideration is for individual states to extend the use of the Palermo Protocol (international law acknowledging connections between prostitution and sex trafficking) to charge tricks for trafficking when they “receive” persons who are effectively pimped.

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  • 47.
    Waltman, Max
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Prohibiting Sex Purchasing and Ending Trafficking: The Swedish Prostitution Law2011In: Michigan Journal of International Law, ISSN 1052-2867, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 133-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish prostitution law from 1999, now followed by Norway and Iceland, criminalized the purchaser and decriminalized the prostituted person. This is analyzed as a cogent state response under international trafficking law, particularly to the obligations set forth in the United Nation’s Trafficking Protocol from 2000. The Protocol states that a person is regarded a trafficking victim when, e.g., someone abuses her “position of vulnerability” in order to exploit her. International jurisprudence and social evidence strongly suggest that prostitution, as practiced in the world, usually satisfies this definition. Further, the Protocol urges states to reduce the demand for prostitution and to protect and assist victims, for instance by adopting laws deterring purchasers of sex, and by supporting those exploited in prostitution. Policy makers, such as the U.S. Department of State, are criticized for taking an inadequate position in face of the growing evidence from the Swedish law's impact.The article shows that Sweden has significantly reduced the occurrence of trafficking in Sweden compared to neighboring countries. It also scrutinizes some misinformation of the law's impact, showing for instance that claims alleging a more dangerous situation for those still in prostitution after 1999 were unfounded. In addition, the article addresses remaining obstacles to the law's effective implementation, arguing that in order to realize the law's full potential to support escape from trafficking, the civil rights of prostituted persons under current law should be strengthened to enable them to claim damages directly from the purchasers for the harm to which they have contributed, and for the violation of the prostituted persons' equality and dignity - a position now recognized by the government to some extent by clarifying amendments made in 2011.

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  • 48.
    Waltman, Max
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rethinking democracy: legal challenges to pornography and sex inequality in Canada and the United States2010In: Political research quarterly, ISSN 1065-9129, E-ISSN 1938-274X, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 218-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why are democracies unresponsive to well-documented injuries in the production and by the consumption of pornography? Legal challenges to pornography in Canada and the United States in which sexual subordination, not moral notions of "obscenity," were the driving rationale, show democracies inadequately recognizing gender-specific harms. Changes in Canadian obscenity doctrines to account for harm and inequality, in contrast with the U.S. reign of "free speech," did not deliver a corresponding change on the ground. Developments in democratic theory, international law, and the particular U.S.–Canadian legal trajectory, and consideration of the void of institutions articulating the interests of those victimized in and by pornography, suggest the need to adopt empowering civil remedies.

  • 49.
    Waltman, Max
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    "Så kan vi åtala Onlyfans för koppleri"2023In: Parabol, E-ISSN 2004-7355, no 4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I USA har överlevare lämnat in stämningar mot Pornhub. Den svenska sexköpslagen erbjuder en unik möjlighet att kunna åtala också Onlyfans ägare för koppleri, eftersom uppsåt inte behöver bevisas. Även prenumeranterna kan åtalas för sexköp. Max Waltman förklarar hur lagen kan användas.

  • 50.
    Waltman, Max
    Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    The Ideological Obstacle: Charging Pornographers for Sexual Exploitation2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prostitution is a social practice where money is paid for sex. Social science research and other evidence suggest that the sex in pornography is generally supplied by persons who share similar unequal, exploitative, and coercive life circumstances as those who are prostituted generally share. Given that these conditions are similar, there appears to be little reason why the pornography industry should not be subjected to the same legal scrutiny as prostitution per se, as it could have extremely important implications for the population who are exploited in the sex industry. Thus, this paper inquires into the legal, political, and ideological obstacles to address the harmful exploitation of persons in the pornography industry by applying prostitution laws against pimps and other third parties to its production, finding that the obstacles to application are not legal but ideological and political. The paper takes a political science approach to constitutional issues, laws, legislative and judicial politics, drawing from political theory by authors such as Kimberle Crenshaw (intersectionality), Iris Marion Young (groups and inequality), Jane Mansbridge (representation), Ian Shapiro (constitutional politics), Laurel Weldon and Mala Htun (social movements and inequality). Sweden is selected as a case study, having been the first jurisdiction (1999) in the world that identified prostitution as a form of sex inequality related to gender-based violence, with pimps and johns as central in the cycle of exploitation and abuse - a legal approach more consistent with empirical evidence than conventional approaches viewing prostitution per se as either a moral crime of indecency, or a non-exploitative and tolerable work. Some comparative discussions are entertained throughout, with references to Canada, the United States, and international law.

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